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MALIMBUS 


Journal  of  the  West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Revue  de  la  Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


VOLUME  21  Number  1 
ISSN  0331-3689 


March  1999 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


Council: 

President:  Dr  Gérard  J.  Morel 

Vice-president:  Prof.  C.  Hilary  Fry 

Treasurer  and  Membership  Secretary:  Robert  E.  Sharland 

Member  of  Council:  Dr  Max  Germain 

Secretary  to  Council:  Dr  Roger  Wilkinson 

Managing  Editor:  Dr  Alan  Tye 

Editorial  Board:  Dr  R.A.  Cheke,  A. A.  Green,  Dr  L.G.  Grimes,  Prof  C.H.  Fry,  Dr  M. 
Louette,  Dr  R.  Wilkinson 

Malimbus  distribution:  G.D.  Field 

Correspondence  should  be  addressed  as  follows: 

— to  the  Managing  Editor  (Dr  A.  Tye,  CDRS,  Casilla  17-01-3891,  Quito,  Ecuador) 
regarding  contributions  to  Malimbus,  including  incidental  photographs  or  drawings; 

— to  the  Treasurer  (1  Fisher’s  Heron,  East  Mills,  Fordingbridge,  Hampshire,  SP6 
2 JR,  U.K.)  regarding  subscriptions,  financial  matters  and  back  numbers; 

— to  the  Secretary  (Zoological  Gardens,  Chester  CH2  ILH,  U.K.)  regarding 
applications  for  W.A.O.S.  Research  Grants; 

— to  the  President  (1  Route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Bréville-les-Monts,  France;  e-mail 
gmorel@mail.cpod.fr)  regarding  policy  matters. 

The  Society  grew  out  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists’  Society,  which  was  founded  in 
1964.  Its  object  is  to  promote  scientific  interest  in  the  birds  of  West  Africa  and  to 
further  the  region’s  ornithology,  mainly  by  means  of  its  journal  Malimbus  (formerly 
the  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists  ’ Society). 

Applications  for  membership  are  welcomed.  Annual  membership  subscriptions  are 
£10  for  Ordinary  Members  (individuals)  and  £25  for  Corporate  Members  (libraries 
and  other  organisations).  Payments  may  be  made  in  £ Sterling  to  the  Treasurer,  or  in 
French  Francs  to  the  President.  Ordinary  Members  receive  Malimbus  by  surface  mail 
and  Corporate  Members  by  air  mail,  free  of  charge.  Extra  charges  are  required  for 
airmail  dispatch  to  Ordinary  Members  (enquire  of  the  Treasurer  for  rates). 

Back  Numbers:  Vols  11-14  (1975-78)  of  the  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornitholo- 
gists ’ Society  (the  same  format  as  Malimbus)  are  available  at  £2  per  issue  (£4  per  vol- 
ume) or  £15  a set.  Malimbus  Vols  1-9  are  available  at  £3  per  issue  (£6  per  volume) 
and  Vol.  10  onwards  at  £5  per  issue  (£10  per  volume).  A full  set  of  Malimbus  Vols 
1-20  may  be  purchased  at  the  reduced  price  of  £150.  Postage  and  packing  are  free. 
Please  enclose  payment  with  your  order,  which  should  be  addressed  to  the  Treasurer. 

W.A.O.S.  Research  Grants:  guidelines  for  applications  may  be  found  in  Vol.  15(2) 
of  Malimbus  and  can  be  obtained  from  the  Secretary  to  Council  (address  above). 


1999 


1 


Additions  and  corrections  to  the  avifauna  of 
Central  African  Republic 

by  R.J.  Dowsett‘,  Patrice  Christy^  & Max  Germain^ 

‘12  rue  des  Lavandes,  34190  Ganges,  France  (email:  dowsett@aol.com) 

P.2240,  Libreville,  Gabon 
H4  rue  Cluseret,  92150  Suresnes,  France 

Received  26  March  1997 
Revised  18  January  1999 

Summary 

A further  44  species  are  added  to  the  list  of  birds  of  Central  African  Republic 
presented  by  Dowsett  (1993,  Afrotropical  avifaunas:  annotated  country 
checklists.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  5:  1-322),  as  a result  of  recent  exploration  of 
the  Ngotto  area  in  the  south.  Explanation  is  given  for  the  deletion  of  54 
species  formerly  reported  from  the  country.  The  number  of  species  known 
from  the  country  now  stands  at  698. 

Résumé 

Sont  ajoutées  44  espèces  à la  liste  des  oiseaux  de  la  République 
Centrafricaine  présentée  par  Dowsett  (1993,  Afrotropical  avifaunas:  annota- 
ted country  checklists.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  5:  1-322),  à la  suite  d’observations 
faites  principalement  dans  la  région  de  Ngotto,  dans  le  sud.  Explication  est 
donné,  de  la  radiation  de  54  espèces  antérieurement  signalés  de  ce  pays.  Le 
nombre  d’espèces  actuellement  connues  de  R.C.A.  s’établit  à 698. 


Introduction 

Recent  fieldwork  in  southern  Central  African  Republic  by  PC,  F.  Dowsett-Lemaire 
(FDL)  and  RJD  has  added  a further  41  species  to  the  list  of  the  country’s  avifauna  (as 
documented  by  Dowsett  1993:  168-175).  It  is  also  necessary  to  elucidate  the  status  of 
some  species  listed  for  C.A.R.  in  the  key  checklist  of  Carroll  (1988),  and  even  to 
reject  some,  as  we  had  already  anticipated  (Dowsett  1993).  Further  examination  of 
the  literature  shows  there  to  be  a few  claimed  records  of  species  overlooked  by  these 
authors,  some  of  which  we  believe  are  acceptable. 

Carroll  (1988)  presented  an  annotated  checklist  of  the  birds  of  C.A.R.,  resulting 
in  a large  part  from  his  own  research  there,  but  including  also  observations  of  MG 


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RJ.  Dowsett  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


(especially  in  the  Lobaye  region).  Unfortunately  some  of  MG’s  observations  were 
misrepresented  and,  as  discussed  by  Germain  (1992),  a significant  number  had  to  be 
deleted  from  the  Lobaye  area  list,  as  he  had  no  firm  record  of  them  there  (merely 
listing  them  as  hypothetical).  Dowsett  (1993)  has  indicated  for  which  species  these 
were  the  only  claimed  observations  in  C.A.R.  and  which,  therefore,  needed  to  be 
deleted  from  the  country’s  avifauna.  Our  recent  investigations  in  the  Lobaye  region 
mean  that  a number  of  these  species  can  now  be  reinstated. 

There  are  also  a number  of  species  in  Carroll’s  list  whose  occurrence  in  the 
country  was  based  on  unproven  if  not  improbable  observations  from  areas  other  than 
the  Lobaye.  We  present  here  our  reasons  for  rejecting  or  withholding  acceptance  of 
these  species.  Our  comments  are  made  in  the  light  of  MG’s  considerable  experience 
of  the  Lobaye  avifauna,  and  of  recent  exploration  of  the  Ngotto  area  of  the  Lobaye, 
notably  by  PC.  The  taxonomic  treatment  is  that  of  Dowsett  & Forbes-Watson  (1993). 

We  also  discuss  a few  doubtful  records  based  on  sources  other  than  Carroll 
(1988). 


Additions  to  the  Central  African  Republic  avifauna 

Additions  from  the  Ngotto  area  (3°50'N,  17°20'E)  result  from  a day’s  visit  by  RJD  in 
Mar  1994,  and  a total  of  two  months  spent  in  that  area  in  Jun-Jul  1994  and  Feb-Mar 
1995  by  PC.  Most  of  these  species  were  to  be  expected;  those  marked  with  a ' had  in 
fact  been  listed  by  Carroll  (1988)  but  rejected  by  Germain  (1992)  through  lack  of 
evidence  at  that  time.  Fourteen  of  these  (marked  ^)  were  also  found  in  the  Dzanga- 
Ndoki  area  (c.  2°13'N,  16°12'E),  on  the  border  with  Congo-Brazzaville,  by  FDL  in 
Apr  1996.  In  addition  to  the  following,  some  species  new  to  Dowsett’s  (1993)  list 
were  detailed  by  Bretagnolle  (1993)  and  Germain  & Cornet  (1994). 

Accipitridae 

Aquila  pomarina  Lesser  Spotted  Eagle.  While  at  Bomassa  (2°12'N,  16°12'E),  on  the 
Congo-Brazzaville/C.A.R.  border,  FDL  saw  two  singles  fly  northwards  on  16  and  17 
Apr  1996  (Dowsett-Lemaire  1997b);  the  distinctive  shape  and  lack  of  any  obvious 
underwing  pattern  were  well  seen. 

Falconidae 

Falco  subbuteo  European  Hobby.  Blancou  (1938)  collected  a specimen  at  Ndélé,  29 
Apr  1934:  a record  overlooked  by  Carroll  (1988)  and  Dowsett  (1993). 

Rallidae 

Rallus  caerulescens  African  Water  Rail.  Although  Dowsett  (1993)  doubted  a record 
from  Manovo  (Carroll  1988),  J.L.  Tello  (pers.  comm.)  has  subsequently  confirmed 
the  existence  of  the  species  there. 

Otididae 

Ardeotis  arabs  Arabian  Bustard.  Rejected  by  Dowsett  (1993)  as  firm  evidence  was 
lacking,  although  its  occurrence  had  been  suggested  by  Serle  & Morel  (1977)  and 


1999 


Birds  of  Central  African  Republic 


3 


Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  (1970-3).  However,  PC  has  since  found  it  in  Bamingui 
National  Park:  one  bird  seen  several  times  at  Sangba  airstrip  (7°35'N,  20°15'E),  Apr 
1998.  J.L.  Tello  reports  that  it  breeds  in  the  area. 

Burhinidae 

Burhinus  oedicnemus  Stone  Curlew.  PC  identified  one  that  had  been  hit  by  a car  at 
night  near  Grima  (4°0rN,  17°04'E),  26  Feb  1995.  This  is  considerably  further  south 
than  any  other  report  from  central  Africa. 

Columbidae 

Columba  delegorguei  Bronze-naped  Pigeon.  Ngotto,  in  undisturbed  forest  and 
exploited  areas,  Jun  1994  (PC). 

Cuculidae 

Cercococcyx  olivinus  Olive  Long-tailed  Cuckool  Ngotto,  in  gallery  and  closed  forest, 
Feb-Mar  1995  (PC). 

Strigidae 

Otus  icterorhynchus  Sandy  Scops  Owl.  Heard  (a  series  of  descending  whistles)  at  Bo- 
massa  (Congo-Brazzaville/C.A.R.)  by  FDL,  17  Apr  1996  (Dowsett-Lemaire  1997b). 
Bubo  leucostictus  Akun  Eagle  OwP.  Detected  in  forest  near  Mbaere  river,  Ngotto,  Jul 
1994,  by  its  call,  with  which  the  observer  is  very  familiar  (PC). 

Glaucidium  tephronotum  Red-chested  Owlet.  Heard  calling  in  exploited  forest, 
Ngotto,  Jun  1994  (up  to  4 singers  at  same  station);  once  in  closed  forest,  dry  season. 
Mar  1995  (PC). 

G.  sjostedti  Sjostedt’s  Barred  Owlet.  Seen  and  heard  in  closed  forest,  Ngotto  area,  Jun 
1994,  Feb  1995  (PC). 

G.  capense  Barred  Owlet.  Seen  and  heard  often  in  degraded  forest  and  edge,  Ngotto, 
Jun  1994  (PC). 

Apodidae 

Apus  pallidus  Pallid  Swift.  A small  group  (fewer  than  10)  was  observed  in  good 
conditions  by  PC,  23  Feb  1995,  hunting  over  savanna  near  the  Lobaye  river,  Ngotto 
(together  with  House  Martins  Delichon  urbicd). 

Trogonidae 

Apaloderma  aequatoriale  Bare-cheeked  Trogon*  ^ Frequent  in  Ngotto  area,  especially 
in  swampy  forest,  near  Batouri  and  Limbalakata,  Jun-Jul  1994,  Mar  1995;  also  in 
exploited  forest,  Jun-Jul  (PC). 

Meropidae 

Merops  apiaster  European  Bee-eater.  Ngotto  (PC). 

Phoeniculidae 

Phoeniculus  castaneiceps  Forest  Wood  Hoopoe*.  One  pair,  forest  edge, 
Gbenguendara,  Ngotto  area,  Mar  1 995  (PC). 

Hirundinidae 

Pseudochelidon  eurystomina  River  Martin.  3 or  4 seen  at  Ngotto  20  Mar  1994  (RJD). 
This  migrant  was  already  known  from  as  far  up  the  Ubangui  River  as  Bétou,  Congo- 
Brazzaville  (3°05'N,  18°32'E)  (Chapin  1953). 


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RJ.  Dowsett  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Pycnonotidae 

Andropadus  ansorgei  Ansorge’s  GreenbuF.  Seen  and  heard  in  undisturbed  forest,  and 
edge  near  Bambio,  Ngotto  (PC). 

Calyptocichla  serina  Golden  GreenbuP  I Seen  in  exploited  forest  and  edge,  Ngotto 
area,  Jun  1994  (PC). 

Baeopogon  damans  Sjostedt’s  Honeyguide  GreenbuF.  C.  10  observations  in 
undisturbed  and  exploited  forest,  Ngotto  (PC). 

Criniger  chloronotus  Eastern  Bearded  GreenbuF.  Frequent  in  understorey  of 
undisturbed  forest,  Ngotto  (PC). 

Turdidae 

Neocossyphus  rufus  Red-tailed  Ant  Thrush*.  Quantrill  (1995)  reported  this  species 
from  the  Bayanga  area  (2°54'N,  16°15'E);  it  was  found  common  at  Ngotto  (PC). 
Erythropygia  hartlaubi  Brown-backed  Scrub  Robin*.  Frequent  in  forest  edge  at 
Bambio  (3°56'N,  17°00'E)  and  closed  savanna  near  Mbaere  River,  Ngotto  (PC). 

Sylviidae 

Eremomela  badiceps  Rufous-crowned  Eremomela.  Seen  in  canopy  of  degraded 
forest,  gallery,  and  forest  edge  near  Bambio,  Ngotto  (PC). 

Sylvietta  denti  Lemon-bellied  Crombec*  ^ Seen  well,  forest  canopy,  Ngotto,  singing 
Jun-Jul  (RJD,PC). 

Cisticola  eximius  Black-backed  Cloud  Cisticola  Several  singing  at  Gordil  airstrip 
(9°44'N,  21°35'E),  Jul  1998;  common  in  floodplains  of  Manovo-Gounda-St  Floris 
N.P.  at  Gounda  (9°25'N,  20°57'E);  mostly  in  grassland  without  trees  or  shrubs  (PC). 
Mapped  by  Hall  & Moreau  (1970)  on  Oubangui  River  at  c.  20°E,  but  this  is  the  local- 
ity Bosodula  (Schouteden  1955)  in  Congo-Kinshasa.  Possibly  occurs  on  the  C.A.R. 
side  of  the  river;  recently  found  in  N Congo-Brazzaville  (Dowsett-Lemaire  1997a). 
Apalis  jacksoni  Black-throated  Apalis.  Ngotto:  seen  and  heard  in  emergents  in 
exploited  forest,  Jun  1994  (PC). 

A.  nigriceps  Black-capped  Apalis.  Dowsett  (1993)  questioned  the  occurrence  of  this 
species  in  C.A.R.,  having  found  no  record  to  support  the  comment  by  White  (1962) 
of  “Nola-Mbaiki”  {i.e.  between  Nola  and  Mbaiki).  But  PC  has  confirmed  its  presence 
in  the  same  area,  in  emergents  at  Ngotto,  Jun  1994. 

A.  rufogularis  Buff-throated  Apalis^.  Frequent  at  edge  of  clearing,  Gbenguendara, 
Ngotto,  Mar  1995;  nominate  race,  with  male  blackish  on  face  and  chest  (RJD,  PC). 

Muscicapidae 

Ficedula  albicollis  Collared  Flycatcher.  Dowsett  (1993)  questioned  this  species, 
mentioned  by  Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  (1973),  in  view  of  possible  confusion  with 
the  recently  separated  Half-collared  Flycatcher  F.  semitorquata.  However,  MG 
subsequently  examined  the  specimen  collected  by  Dybowski  and  confirmed  it  as  F. 
albicollis  (Germain  & Cornet  1994). 

Muscicapa  epulata  Little  Grey  Flycatcher*.  Ngotto  (PC). 

Platysteiridae 

Batis  poensis  Fernando  Po  Batis,  Three  observations,  Ngotto:  forest  edge  at 


1999 


Birds  of  Central  African  Republic 


5 


Gbenguendara,  Mar  1995;  gallery  between  Ngotto  and  Lobaye  River,  Jun  1994;  in  a 
mixed  party  in  exploited  forest,  Jun  1994  (PC). 

Dyaphorophyia  tonsa  White-spotted  Wattle-eye’^  One  seen  in  a mixed  party  in 
undisturbed  forest,  Ngotto,  Jul  1994  (PC). 

Nectariniidae 

Nectarinia  batesi  Bates’s  Sunbird.  Two  observations  by  forest  roads,  Ngotto,  Jun 
1994  (PC). 

N.  reichenbachii  Reichenbach’s  Sunbird.  Ngotto:  locally  common  in  riverine  forest 
of  Mbaere  River  and  clumps  of  trees  in  swampy  savannas  at  Gbenguendara  (PC). 

N.  minulla  Tiny  Sunbirdl  Ngotto:  swampy  forest  by  Mbaere  River,  especially  at 
Anthocleista,  Feb  1995  (PC). 

N.  bifasciata  Purple-banded  Sunbird.  Common  in  savanna  around  Ngotto  and  to  the 
Lobaye  River,  including  singing  males,  a female  with  young,  Feb-Mar  1995  (PC). 

N.  johannae  Johanna’s  Sunbird^  Uncommon  in  clearings  near  Mbaere  River,  Jun 
1994,  Feb  1995;  gallery  forest  between  Ngotto  and  Lobaye  River,  Feb  1995  (PC). 
Anthreptes  fraseri  Fraser’s  Sunbird^  Uncommon  in  all  forest  types,  Ngotto;  red  tufts 
of  males  seen  well,  as  was  the  olive  head  (separating  it  from  A.  f axillaris)  (RJD, 
PC). 

Ploceidae 

Ploceus  albinucha  Maxwell’s  Black  Weaver^  Seen  in  exploited  and  undisturbed 
forest  (once  in  mixed  party),  Ngotto,  Jun  1994,  Mar  1995  (PC). 

P.  preussi  Preuss’s  Golden-backed  Weaver.  Found  not  uncommon  by  FDL  in  the 
Bomassa  area,  Apr  1996  (Dowsett-Lemaire  1997b). 

Malimbus  coronatus  Red-crowned  Malimbe'  I Frequent  in  Ngotto  area  in  degraded 
forest  where  seen  nesting  over  old  forest  roads,  Jun  1994  (PC). 

Brachycope  anomala  Bob-tailed  Weaver.  Jehl  (1976)  reports  this  species  from 
Bangui,  an  extension  northwards  of  its  known  range.  This  record  was  overlooked  by 
Carroll  (1988)  and  Dowsett  (1993). 

Estrildidae 

Spermophaga  haematina  Bluebill.  Listed  by  Carroll  (1988),  but  transferred  to  Red- 
headed Bluebill  S.  ruficapilla  by  Dowsett  (1993),  who  believed  there  to  have  been  a 
misidentification,  based  on  the  occurrence  of  this  species  in  the  south-east  of  the 
country  (Friedmann  1978).  However,  Germain  & Cornet  (1994)  confirmed  that  the 
species  present  in  southwestern  C.A.R.  is  indeed  S.  haematina,  and  PC  found  it 
common  in  Ngotto. 

Deletions  from  the  Central  African  Republic  avifauna 

There  are  some  40  species  listed  from  C.A.R.  by  Carroll  (1988),  and  not  discussed  by 
Germain  & Cornet  (1994),  whose  occurrence  is  either  highly  improbable  or  of  such 
rarity,  or  which  present  identification  problems,  that  without  further  details  they 


6 


RJ.  Dowsett  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


cannot  be  accepted  for  the  country.  These  are  listed  with  the  part  of  the  country  from 
which  Carroll  (1988)  reported  each,  as  follows:  Region  1 Manovo-Gounda-Saint 
Floris  National  Park  (i.e.  northern  C.A.R.);  Region  2 Lobaye  Préfecture  (southern 
C.A.R.);  Region  4 Bamingui  area  (northern  C.A.R.);  Region  5 Haute  Sangha 
Préfecture  (south-western  C.A.R.);  Region  6 Bamingui-Bangoran  National  Park 
(northern  C.A.R.).  Some  of  these  species  we  consider  possible  but  in  need  of  proof 
(P),  while  others  are  so  unlikely  as  to  be  almost  certainly  wrong  (X).Our  comments 
on  distribution  in  other  African  countries  are  based  in  large  part  on  the  annotated 
tables  of  Dowsett  (1993). 

We  also  include  below  a few  doubtful  records  based  on  sources  other  than  Carroll 
(1988). 

Phalacrocoracidae 

Phalacrocorax  carbo  White-breasted  Cormorant.  Region  1 ; P.  No  more  than  a very 
scarce  non-breeding  visitor  to  neighbouring  countries,  and  often  confused  with  P. 
africanus  when  not  in  nuptial  dress. 

Anatidae 

Thalassornis  leuconotus  White-backed  Duck.  P.  Two  reportedly  collected  at  Botambi 
on  26  Nov  1970  (Moindrot),  but  the  specimens  could  not  be  found  by  MG  in  1977. 
Anas  sparsa  African  Black  Duck.  A possible  sight  record  (Blancou  1938)  cannot  be 
accepted,  but  ought  to  be  kept  in  mind. 

Accipitridae 

Neophron  percnopterus  Egyptian  Vulture.  Region  1;  P.  Known  to  the  north  of 
C.A.R.,  in  neighbouring  Chad  and  Sudan.  Although  it  may  well  occur  in  C.A.R.,  and 
is  thus  mapped  by  Brown  et  al.  (1982),  confirmation  would  be  desirable.  Often 
confused  with  Palm-nut  Vulture  Gypohierox  angolensis,  as  admitted  by  Blancou 
(1938-39)  in  C.A.R.. 

Gyps  fulvus  Griffon  Vulture.  Region  4;  X.  Palaearctic  migrant  with  very  few  records 
in  NE  Africa,  south  to  about  13°N  in  Sudan  (Nikolaus  1987)  and  perhaps  the  Lake 
Chad  area  (Salvan  1968).  Any  record  as  far  south  as  C.A.R.  would  need  careful 
documentation. 

Circaetus  gallicus  Short-toed  Eagle.  Region  4.  This  species,  C.  pectoralis  and  C. 
beaudouini  (all  reported  by  Carroll  1988),  are  very  closely  related  or  even  considered 
conspecific,  e.g.  by  Dowsett  & Forbes-Watson  (1993).  Dowsett  (1993:  168)  admits 
this  species  to  the  C.A.R.  list  merely  as  an  intra-African  migrant,  on  the  basis  of 
Carroll’s' report  of  C.  (g.)  beaudouini.  C.  g.  gallicus  might  occur  as  a migrant  from 
the  Palaearctic,  but  would  be  very  difficult  to  separate  in  the  field  from  beaudouini. 
C.  (g.)  pectoralis  (reported  from  Region  1)  is  absent  from  W Africa,  and  although 
known  from  Sudan  (Nikolaus  1987),  it  is  essentially  a bird  of  S and  E Africa,  north  to 
S Congo-Brazzaville  (Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  1991),  and  unlikely  in  N C.A.R. 
Accipiter  minullus  Little  Sparrowhawk.  Region  1;  X.  Unknown  from  W and  west- 
central  Africa,  probably  confused  with  the  allopatric  sibling  A.  erythropus  . Carroll 
(1988)  was  wrong  to  list  both. 


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7 


Buteo  rufinus  Long-legged  Buzzard.  Region  1;  X.  This  palaearctic  migrant  avoids  the 
forest  zone  of  central  Africa;  occurrence  in  C.A.R.  not  impossible,  but  often  confused 
with  other  species  (Dowsett  & Kemp  1988). 

Aquila  verreauxii  Black  Eagle.  Region  1;  P.This  species  of  extensive  rocky  hills  is 
known  from  very  few  parts  of  the  Sahel  in  NE  Africa.  It  is  known  not  far  from  the 
C.A.R.  border  in  W Sudan  (Nikolaus  1987),  and  has  been  mapped  from  C.A.R.  by 
Brown  et  al.  (1982),  but  its  occurrence  in  northern  C.A.R.  would  represent  an  range 
extension,  and  we  believe  it  should  be  documented  in  detail. 

Hieraaetus  ayresii  Ayres’s  Hawk  Eagle.  Region  2;  P.  A few  records  from 
neighbouring  countries,  but  although  mapped  throughout  C.À.R.  by  Brown  et  al. 
(1982),  the  only  published  records  are  by  Carroll  (1988),  and  we  believe  details  are 
desirable.  It  has,  however,  recently  been  found  in  nearby  SE  Cameroon  and  N Congo 
(Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  1998). 

Falconidae 

Polihierax  semitorquatus  Pygmy  Falcon.  Region  1;  X.  Known  in  NE  Africa  from 
Sudan  and  Ethiopia,  but  not  Chad.  The  nearest  record  to  C.A.R.  is  in  the  extreme 
south  of  Sudan  at  about  4°N,  30°E  (Dowsett  in  Snow  1978;  Nikolaus  1987),  in  the 
Juba  region  at  Missa,  Hannar  Koke  (specimen  in  National  Museum,  Nairobi, 
examined  by  RJD).  Any  observations  from  C.A.R.  would  require  proof. 

Phasianidae 

FrancoUnus  streptophorus  Ring-necked  Francolin.  Region  1;  X.  Known  only  from 
Cameroon  (Louette  1981)  and  E Africa,  no  nearer  to  C.A.R.  than  W Uganda  (Britton 
1980).  Full  details  should  be  published  of  any  C.A.R.  record. 

Turnicidae 

Ortyxelos  meiffrenii  Quail-plover.  Region  1 ; P.  The  nearest  known  populations  are  in 
the  Sahel  zone  in  N Cameroon  and  Chad  (Snow  1978;  Urban  et  al.  1986).  Its 
occurrence  in  C.A.R.  is  at  first  glance  unlikely,  even  though  reported  from  this 
country  by  Serle  & Morel  (1977),  presumably  following  Mackworth-Praed  & Grant 
(1970),  whom  we  suspect  of  having  confused  localities.  We  have  traced  no  published 
specimen  data. 

Rallidae 

Canirallus  oculeus  Grey-throated  Rail.  Region  1;  P.  Listed  from  Manovo  by  Carroll 
(1988)  but  improbable  so  far  north.  May  occur  in  the  southern  forests. 

Sarothrura  iugens  Long-toed  Flufftail.  P.  Although  not  detailed  in  the  text  by  Keith 
et  al.  (1970),  a locality  is  clearly  shown  on  their  map  for  this  species,  which  seems  to 
be  within  C.A.R.,  in  the  Bouar-Bozoum  area.  But  there  is  no  record  in  the  text  that 
cannot  be  accounted  for  as  extralimital  to  C.A.R.  Without  details  of  the  locality, 
which  may  be  that  mapped  as  being  in  neighbouring  Congo-Brazzaville  by  Snow 
(1978)  and  Urban  et  al.  (1986),  we  cannot  accept  S.  iugens  for  the  country. 

Gruidae 

Anthropoïdes  virgo  Demoiselle  Crane.  Bouet  (1955)  mentions  it  (noted  by  Blancou) 
from  C.A.R.;  while  not  impossible,  we  believe  this  requires  confirmation. 


8 


RJ.  Dowsett  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Otididae 

Eupodotis  ruficrista  Red-crested  Korhaan.  X.  Reported  from  C.A.R.  by  Serle  & 
Morel  (1977)  but  we  are  unaware  of  firm  evidence;  perhaps  based  on  Mackworth- 
Praed  & Grant  (1970-3). 

Burhinidae 

Burhinus  vermiculatus  Water  Dikkop.  Region  1;  X.  Carroll  (1988)  reported  it  from 
Manovo,  but  PC  has  searched  there  in  vain  and  believes  the  record  a misidentification 
of  B.  senegalensis. 

Scolopacidae 

Limosa  lapponica  Bar-tailed  Godwit.  Region  1;  P.  Rare  inland  in  Africa  on  passage 
(Dowsett  1980),  and  full  details  of  the  C.A.R.  observation  are  needed. 

Tringa  erythropus  Spotted  Redshank.  Region  1;  P.  Listed  by  both  Carroll  (1988)  and 
Green  & Carroll  (1991).  There  are  few  good  records  of  this  Palaearctic  migrant  in 
central  Africa  and,  as  it  has  at  times  been  confused  with  other  species,  details  of  any 
C.A.R.  observations  are  desirable.  A.A.  Green  (pers.  comm.),  who  found  Common 
Redshank  Tringa  totanus  to  be  uncommon  to  frequent  on  sandbars  in  the  Sangha 
River  in  the  dry  season,  but  never  saw  Spotted  Redshank,  concurs  with  this  deletion. 

T.  solitaria  Solitary  Sandpiper.  Region  5;  X.  Only  one  acceptable  Afrotropical 
record:  one  seen  and  photographed  in  Zambia  (Aspinwall  et  al.  1995).  One  specimen 
was  claimed  (from  Cabinda),  by  Bocage  (1881);  but  it  is  not  mentioned  by  Pinto 
(1983),  and  the  specimen  would  presumably  have  perished  in  the  Museu  Bocage  fire 
of  1975.  One  tentative  sight  record  from  South  Africa  (Kieser  1980)  was  not  accepted 
by  Hockey  et  al.  (1986),  but  was  unfortunately  included  without  comment  by 
Hayman  et  al.  (1986).  Without  full  details  of  the  C.A.R.  record  (which  was  not 
mentioned  by  Carroll  1982)  we  do  not  believe  it  should  be  accepted. 

Calidris  canutus  Knot.  Region  1;  X.  Dowsett  (1980)  found  no  acceptable  inland 
record,  though  there  has  subsequently  been  one  from  Zambia  (Dowsett  et  al.  in 
press).  Full  documentation  is  required  for  records  from  C.A.R. 

Sternidae 

Sterna  albifrons  guineae  Little  Tern.  Bouet  (1955)  mentions  it  (noted  by  Dybowski) 
from  C.A.R.;  while  not  impossible,  we  believe  this  requires  confirmation. 

Columbidae 

Streptopelia  capicola  Cape  Turtle  Dove.  Region  1;  X.  This  southern  and  eastern 
species  is  known  no  nearer  to  C.A.R.  than  E Sudan  (Nikolaus  1987)  and  S Congo- 
Brazzaville  (Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  1991),  and  was  presumably  misidentified 
by  Carroll  (1988). 

Strigidae 

Jubula  lettii  Maned  Owl.  Reported  from  Ngotto  (Christy  1995),  based  on  call,  but  in 
view  of  confusion  over  the  voice  of  this  species,  best  considered  unproven. 

Apodidae 

Apus  batesi  Bates’s  Swift.  Region  1;  P.  Claimed  by  Carroll  (1988)  to  be  present  in 
Manovo.  Unlikely  so  far  north  but  may  occur  in  southern  forest  area. 


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Birds  of  Central  African  Republic 


9 


Alcedinidae 

Alcedo  semitorquata  Half-collared  Kingfisher.  Region  5;  X.  A bird  of  E and  S Africa, 
unknown  from  countries  bordering  C.A.R.  in  west-central  Africa.  The  transposition 
of  captions  on  the  map  presented  by  Snow  (1978)  might  have  given  the  impression 
that  it  is  this  species  rather  than  A.  quadribrachys  which  occurs  in  C.A.R. 

Meropidae 

Merops  oreobates  Cinnamon-breasted  Bee-eater.  Regions  2,  6;  X.  A highland  species 
of  E Africa  (Fry  1984).  It  seems  certain  that  C.A.R.  reports  result  from  confusion 
with  some  other  species,  such  as  M variegatus.  A. A.  Green  (pers.  comm.)  found  the 
latter  species  in  savanna  patches  surrounded  by  forest  of  Bayanga  (Dzanga-Sangha) 
but  never  saw  M.  oreobates  , nor  did  he  at  Bamingui-Bangoran  National  Park,  in 
north-central  C.A.R.,  where  M hirundineus  occurs  and  looks  somewhat  similar. 

M malimbicus  Rosy  Bee-eater.  Region  2;  P.  Germain  (1992)  has  rejected  this  species 
from  the  Lobaye  list.  It  was  also  reported  from  the  Oubangui  (Thibaut,  in  Bouet 
1961);  its  status  remains  to  be  confirmed. 

Bucerotidae 

Tockus  alboterminatus  Crowned  Hornbill.  Region  1;  X.  Unknown  from  this  part  of 
west-central  Africa  (see  Fry  et  al.  1988,  Kemp  1995),  and  likely  confused  (probably 
with  T.  fasciatus  ). 

Lybiidae 

Gymnobucco  peli  Bristle-nosed  Barbet.  Region  2;  X.  Although  listed  from  the 
Lobaye  by  Carroll  (1988)  and  not  rejected  by  Germain  (1992),  our  further  research) 
in  the  area  suggests  it  is  unlikely  to  occur  there. 

Picidae 

Campethera  maculosa  Golden-backed  Woodpecker.  Region  5;  X.  Absent  east  of 
Ghana;  its  claimed  occurrence  in  C.A.R.  must  represent  a misidentification,  probably 
of  C.  cailliautii,  which  A.A.  Green  (pers.  comm.)  found  both  at  the  Bayanga  area,  in 
the  rainforest  of  the  south-west,  and  the  Bamingui  area,  in  Guinea  savanna  of  the 
north-central  C.A.R..  Carroll  (1982)  does  not  list  C.  maculosa.  Although  Carroll 
(1988)  lists  both  C cailliautii  and  C.  permista  from  C.A.R.,  the  two  are  allopatric 
(probably  conspecific). 

Aiaudidae 

Mirafra  cantillans  Singing  Bush-Lark.  Region  1;  P.  Reported  from  Manovo  by 
Carroll  (1988)  but  not  found  during  recent  visits  by  PC. 

M.  africana  Rufous-naped  Lark.  Region  2;  X.  The  nearest  populations  of  this  species 
are  in  highland  N Cameroon  and  adjacent  Nigeria  (Louette  1981,  Ash  et  al.  1989), 
reappearing  in  central  Congo-Brazzaville  (Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  1989)  and 
adjacent  Gabon  (Dowsett  1993).  The  superficially  similar  Red-winged  Bush  Lark  M 
hypermetra  occurs  in  W Sudan  (Nikolaus  1987).  The  occurrence  of  either  in  southern 
C.A.R.  seems  unlikely. 

Hirundinidae 

Psalidoprocne  obscura  Fanti  Saw-wing.  Region  1;  X.  Not  known  east  of  Mt  Came- 


10 


RJ.  Dowsett  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


roon  (Louette  1981);  its  claimed  occurrence  in  C.A.R.  is  most  likely  the  result  of 
misidentification.  Unfortunately  Carroll’s  record  was  accepted  by  Keith  et  al.  (1992). 

Motacillidae 

Anthus  richardi  Richard’s  Pipit.  Region  1;  X.  Practically  unknown  from  west-central 
Africa,  but  occurs  in  highland  populations  in  Cameroon  and  adjacent  Nigeria 
(Louette  1981,  RJD  & FDL)  and  central  Congo-Brazzaville  (Dowsett  & Dowsett- 
Lemaire  1989).  It  is  reported  as  a migrant  in  Chad  and  Sudan  (Salvan  1968,  Nikolaus 
1987).  Not  always  easy  to  identify,  and  details  needed  to  prove  occurrence  in  C.A.R. . 
Campephagidae 

Campephaga  flava  Black  Cuckoo-shrike.  Region  1;  P.  This  migrant  is  almost 
unknown  from  W and  west-central  Africa,  where  it  is  replaced  by  Red-shouldered 
Cuckoo-shrike  C.  phoenicea,  with  which  there  may  have  been  confusion.  But  known 
from  Sudan  not  far  from  the  C.A.R.  border  (Nikolaus  1987). 

Coracina  caesia  Grey  Cuckoo-shrike.  Region  1;  X.  A highland  species,  unexpected 
in  C.A.R..  Probably  a misidentification,  and  it  is  unfortunate  that  Keith  et  al.  (1992) 
accepted  it  (as  vagrant).  Full  details  should  be  published. 

Turdidae 

Turdus  philomelos  Song  Thrush.  Region  1 ; X.  Palaearctic  species  known  south  of  the 
Sahara  only  by  a very  few  records  in  extreme  W and  NE  Africa.  Possible  vagrants  to 
C.A.R.  would  need  to  be  documented. 

Cercotrichas  podobe  Black  Scrub  Robin.  Region  4;  P.  Given  the  distribution  of  this 
Sahel  species  in  W Sudan  (Nikolaus  1987),  its  presence  in  C.A.R.  would  not  be 
impossible.  But  it  represents  a significant  extension  southwards,  and  ought  to  be 
documented. 

Myrmecocichla  tholloni  Congo  Moor  Chat.  Region  1;  X.  Although  this  record  was 
accepted  by  Dowsett  (1993),  we  now  believe  that  the  occurrence  of  this  species  in 
northern  C.A.R.  is  highly  unlikely. 

Sylviidae 

Acrocephalus  gracilirostris  Lesser  Swamp  Warbler.  Region  1;  P.  Except  for  a 
population  at  Lake  Chad  (Dowsett  & Moore  1997),  absent  from  W and  west-central 
Africa.  C.A.R.  reports  probably  result  from  confusion  with  the  widespread  Greater 
Swamp  Warbler  J.  rufescens,  known  from  specimens  and  birds  captured  by  MG. 

Timaiiidae 

Turdoides  tenebrosus  Dusky  Babbler.  Region  1 ; P.  Known  from  a very  limited  area 
of  E Africa,  but  occurs  in  Sudan  on  the  border  with  eastern  C.A.R.  (Nikolaus  1987). 
Its  occurrence  elsewhere  in  C.A.R.  needs  confirmation. 

Oriolidae 

Oriolus  larvatus  Eastern  Black-headed  Oriole.  Regions  2,  5;  X.  Claims  for  this 
southern  species  from  the  Lobaye  and  Sangha  area  (Carroll  1988)  are  probably  the 
result  of  misidentifications. 

Laniidae 

Lanius  excubitor  Great  Grey  Shrike.  Region  1;  X.  Known  from  neighbouring 


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Birds  of  Central  African  Republic 


11 


Cameroon,  Chad  and  Sudan,  but  can  be  confused  with  other  grey  shrikes,  particularly 
Grey-backed  Fiscal  L.  excubit  or  aides,  which  occurs  in  NE  C.A.R.  Bretagnolle 
(1993),  so  details  would  be  required. 

Malaconotidae 

Dryoscopus  angolensis  Pink-footed  Puffback.  Region  1;  X.  Almost  entirely  a 
highland  species,  in  west-central  Africa  from  Cameroon  (Louette  1981),  mainland 
Equatorial  Guinea  (Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  in  prep.)  and  S Congo-Brazzaville 
(Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  1989).  Although  reported  from  “Ostliches  Kamerun” 
(Reichenow  191 1),  its  presence  in  C.A.R.  would  need  documentation. 

Sturnidae 

Creatophora  cinerea  Wattled  Starling.  P.  Reported  from  eastern  C.A.R.  by 
Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  (1973),  and  from  C.A.R.  by  Serle  & Morel  (1977),  but  we 
are  unaware  of  firm  evidence. 

Buphagus  erythrorhynchus  Red-billed  Oxpecker.  Region  2;  X.  Absent  from  W and 
west-central  Africa  (unlike  Yellow-billed  B.  africanus)\  its  occurrence  in  southern 
C.A.R.  appears  unlikely. 

Passeridae 

Petronia  pyrgita  Yellow-spotted  Petronia  Region  1;  X.  Known  no  nearer  than  E 
Chad  and  E Sudan  (Salvan  1969,  Nikolaus  1987),  and  unrecorded  from  Cameroon; 
presence  in  C.A.R.  would  need  confirmation. 

Ploceidae 

Bubalornis  albirostris  White-billed  Buffalo  Weaver.  P.  Although  Dowsett  (1993) 
reported  this  as  resident,  based  on  Carroll  (1988),  the  supporting  reference  is  in  fact 
Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  (1973).  We  have  not  traced  the  original  evidence  for  this 
reference,  so  believe  its  occurrence  remains  to  be  confirmed. 

Ploceus  insignis  Brown-capped  Weaver.  Region  2;  X.  Germain  (1992)  rejected  this 
species  from  the  Lobaye.  It  was  also  reported  from  Bangui  (Jehl  1976),  but  we 
believe  this  was  probably  based  on  a misidentification  (perhaps  of  P.  preussi). 

P.  intermedius  Lesser  Masked  Weaver.  Region  1;  X.  This  southern  species  was  listed 
by  Carroll  (1988)  from  Manovo,  probably  in  error. 

Quelea  cardinalis  Cardinal  Quelea.  Region  2;  X.  Absent  from  W and  west-central 
Africa.  Records  in  C.A.R.  probably  result  from  confusion  with  Red-headed  Quelea  Q. 
erythrops,  which  is  not  uncommon. 

Estrildidae 

Estrilda  atricapilla  Black-headed  Waxbill.  Region  5;  P.  Listed  by  both  Carroll  (1988) 
and  Green  & Carroll  (1991),  but  easily  confused  with  the  widespread  Black-crowned 
Waxbill  E.  nonnula.  Germain  & Cornet  (1994)  examined  many  of  the  latter  in  the 
Bangui  area,  but  found  no  E.  atricapilla.  According  to  A. A.  Green  (pers.  comm.),  the 
record  of  E.  atricapilla  from  Bayanga,  in  south-western  C.A.R.,  may  be  based  on 
such  confusion.  However,  E.  atricapilla  is  present  locally  in  neighbouring  parts  of 
west-central  Africa,  as  near  as  Nouabalé-Ndoki  in  northern  Congo  and  the  Lobéké  in 
SE  Cameroon  (Dowsett-Lemaire  1997a,  Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  1997). 


12 


RJ.  Dowsett  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Vidua  paradisaea  Long-tailed  Paradise  Widow.  Regions  1,  4-6;  P.  Carroll  (1988) 
reported  just  one  species  of  paradise  widow  from  C.A.R.  (both  northern  and  southern 
areas),  which  he  called  V.  orientalis,  as  did  Bretagnolle  (1993)  who  worked  in  the 
north-east  of  the  country.  Payne  (1985)  had  shown  that  orientalis  is  a subspecies  of  V. 
paradisaea  , while  the  form  known  from  C.A.R.  is  now  considered  a separate  species, 
V.  interjecta.  Most  or  all  of  Carroll’s  records  presumably  refer  to  interjecta,  as  could 
Bretagnolle’s  (as  it  ranges  into  Sudan).  However,  Blancou  (1938-9),  a careful 
observer,  believed  he  could  distinguish  two  forms  in  C.A.R.  and  further  investigation 
may  well  show  that  V.  paradisaea  also  occurs. 


Conclusions 

The  corrections  necessary  to  Carroll’s  (1988)  list  show  that  the  avifauna  of  C.A.R. 
has  not  been  well  documented.  No  fewer  than  56  species  reported  in  the  literature  for 
C.A.R.  were  overlooked  by  Carroll  (1988),  many  of  which  appear  to  be  acceptable. 
These  have  been  detailed  above  or  by  Dowsett  (1993).  Some  difficulties  are  caused 
by  the  various  names  (such  as  French  Equatorial  Africa,  Oubangui-Chari,  eastern 
Cameroons  etc.)  used  to  describe  the  region  of  which  present-day  C.A.R.  is  part. 

The  number  of  species  now  known  with  certainty  from  C.A.R.is  698.  We  believe 
we  have  now  clarified  most  of  the  problems  with  previous  records,  but  most  parts  of 
the  country  are  still  poorly  explored  and  documented.  This  is  well  shown  by  the 
additions  to  the  C.A.R.  list  documented  here  from  just  one  small  part  of  the  country, 
and  by  RJD’s  finding  a dozen  species  unrecorded  from  the  Bamingui-Bangoran 
national  park  during  less  than  24  hours  spent  in  the  neighbouring  Sangba  hunting 
area  (Dowsett  1997).  We  urge  those  who  have  observations  adding  to,  amending  or 
correcting  our  own  to  document  them  thoroughly  in  print. 


Acknowledgments 

Visits  to  Ngotto  by  PC  and  RJD  were  sponsored  by  the  European  Union-funded 
Ecofac  project.  We  thank  Dr.  R.W.  Carroll  for  commenting  on  some  points,  Dr  F. 
Dowsett-Lemaire  and  Dr.  A.Tye  for  critical  reading,  A. A.  Green  for  his  valuable 
comments  and  communications,  J.L.  Tello  for  his  unpublished  observations,  and 
Mme  F.  Pelletier,  J.-P.  Bricard  and  O.  Langrand  for  help  on  the  internet. 


References 

Ash,  J.S.,  Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.  & Dowsett,  R.J.  (1989)  New  ornithological 
distribution  records  from  eastern  Nigeria.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  1:  13-27. 


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Birds  of  Central  African  Republic 


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Aspinwall,  D.,  Moulton,  J.P.  & Stjernstedt,  R.  (1995)  Record  of  Solitary 
Sandpiper  in  Zambia.  Bull.  Afr.  Bird  Club  2:  106-107. 

Blancou,  L.  (1938-9)  Contribution  à l’étude  des  oiseaux  de  l’Oubangui-Chari 
occidental  (Bassin  supérieur  de  l’Ouham).  Oiseau  Rev.  fr.  Orn.  8:  405-430,  642- 
649;  9:  58-88,  255-277,  410-485. 

Bocage,  J.V.B.  du  (1881)  Ornithologie  d’Angola.  Part  2.  Lisbon. 

BOUET,  G.  (1955-61)  Oiseaux  de  l'Afrique  Tropicale,  vols  1,  2.  ORSTOM,  Paris. 

Bretagnolle,  F.  (1993)  An  annotated  checklist  of  birds  of  north-eastern  Central 
African  Republic.  Malimbus  15:  6-16. 

Britton,  P.L.  (ed.).  (1980)  Birds  of  East  Africa.  East  African  Natural  History 
Society,  Nairobi. 

Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 
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16 


Malimbus  21 


The  Birds  of  the  Waza-Logone  Area, 

Far  North  Province,  Cameroon 

by  Paul  Scholte'  ^ Selvino  de  Kort*  ^ & Merlijn  van  Weerd^ 

‘Centre  of  Environmental  Science,  P.O.  Box  9518,  2300  RA  Leiden,  The  Netherlands 
^Waza-Logone  project,  P.O.  Box  284  Maroua,  Cameroon 
institute  of  Evolutionary  and  Ecological  Sciences, 

P.O.  Box  9516,  2300  RA  Leiden,  The  Netherlands 

Received  28  May  1997 
Revised  30  December  1998 

Summary 

Based  on  extensive  observations  from  1992  to  1998  and  complemented  by  an 
extended  literature  review  of  observations  since  1958,  a list  of  379  bird 
species  is  presented  for  the  sahelo-sudanian  Waza-Logone  area  in  N 
Cameroon.  This  number  includes  26  species  that  have  not  been  seen  since 
1980.  Eleven  species  are  new  for  Cameroon,  26  are  new  for  Far  North 
Province  and  new  distributional  information  is  provided  for  another  12.  The 
variety  of  habitats  and  year-round  water  availability  make  the  area  attractive 
to  resident  as  well  as  migratory  birds,  but  floodplain  degradation,  due  to 
upstream  dam  construction,  has  reduced  waterfowl  diversity.  Recently,  efforts 
are  being  made  to  rehabilitate  the  hydrological  regime  of  the  area.  The  list 
presented  below  forms  a base-line  for  future  bird  population  monitoring. 

Résumé 

Les  auteurs  donnent  une  liste  de  379  oiseaux  pour  la  région  sahélo- 
soudanienne  de  Waza-Logone  au  nord  Cameroun;  elle  repose  sur  des 
observations  approfondies  de  1992  à 1998  complétées  par  une  revue 
bibliographique  importante  des  observations  depuis  1958.  Ce  nombre 
comprend  26  espèces  qui  n’ont  pas  été  vues  depuis  1980.  Onze  espèces  sont 
nouvelles  pour  le  Cameroun,  26  pour  la  Province  de  l’extrême  nord  et  de 
nouvelles  données  sur  la  répartition  sont  fournies  pour  12  autres  espèces.  La 
diversité  des  habitats  et  la  présence  d’eau  toute  Tannée  rendent  la  région 
attirante  aussi  bien  pour  les  oiseaux  résidents  que  pour  les  migrateurs;  mais  la 
dégradation  de  la  plaine  inondable,  causée  par  une  digue  en  amont,  a diminué 
la  diversité  des  oiseaux  d’eau.  Des  efforts  ont  récemment  été  faits  pour 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


17 


restaurer  le  régime  hydrique  de  la  région.  La  liste  présentée  ci-après  constitue 
une  base  de  départ  pour  suivre  révolution  des  populations  d’oiseaux  . 


Introduction 

The  Waza-Logone  area  covers  approximately  8000  km^  in  the  Far  North  Province  of 
Cameroon  (Fig.  1).  This  region  is  characterised  by  floodplains  of  the  Logone  river, 
which  are  used  intensively  for  fishing  and  dry  season  grazing  (Scholte  et  al.  1996b). 
The  area  includes  two  national  parks,  Waza  and  Kalamaloué,  which  contain  a diverse 
large  mammal  population.  Since  1979,  the  natural  hydrological  regime  of  the  Logone 
floodplain  has  been  affected  by  the  construction  of  a dam  near  Maga  and  an 
embankment  along  the  Logone  river,  as  part  of  the  irrigated  rice  scheme  SEMRY  IL 
These  structures,  combined  with  lower  than  average  rainfall  in  recent  years,  have 
reduced  both  the  depth  and  extent  of  flooding,  leading  to  serious  ecological 
degradation  of  the  floodplain  (Scholte  et  al.  1996a,  b). 

The  Waza-Logone  project  started  in  1992,  with  the  objective  of  restoring  the 
zone’s  biological  diversity  while  sustaining  development  for  its  inhabitants 
(ÏUCN/CML  1994).  Due  to  the  limited  success  of  rice  cultivation,  water  has  become 
available  from  Lake  Maga  and,  to  a lesser  extent,  directly  from  the  Logone  river. 
However,  the  necessary  infrastructural  changes  are  radical  and  expensive  (lUCN 
1996).  With  the  agreement  of  local  communities,  a pilot  release  was  performed,  to 
evaluate  the  impact  of  re-flooding  on  the  ecosystem  and  the  human  population.  The 
former  water-course,  the  “Petit  Goroma”,  blocked  by  the  embankment  along  the 
Logone  river  near  Tikélé  (see  Fig.  1),  was  re-opened  in  May  1994.  The  importance  of 
the  area  for  wildlife  was  one  of  the  major  arguments  for  the  formulation  of  the  Waza- 
Logone  project.  Various  studies  are  under  way  to  monitor  the  impact  of  re-flooding 
on  large  mammals  and  birds.  Based  on  preliminary  results,  more  large  scale  re- 
flooding measures  have  been  planned  (lUCN  1996,  Scholte  et  al.  1996a,  b). 

Waza  National  Park  has  attracted  ornithologists  for  decades.  Several  provisional 
check-lists  were  produced  in  the  1970s  (Fry  1970,  Pettet  1976,  Vaepraet  1977),  with 
subsequent  more  specific  raptor  and  waterfowl  surveys  (Thioilay  1978,  Roux  & Jarry 
1984,  1986,  1987).  More  recent  Waza-Logone  project  studies  include  Wetten  & 
Spierenburg  (1993),  Kort  & van  Weerd  (1995),  Scholte  et  al  (1995,  in  press,  1996c) 
and  Kadiri  et  al  (1997).  The  present  paper  compiles  this  information  into  an 
overview  of  the  avifauna  of  the  Waza-Logone  area. 


The  Study  Area 

The  Waza~Logone  area  receives  a mean  annual  rainfall  of  c.  750  mm  in  the  south  and 
c.  550  mm  in  the  north,  although  there  are  between-year  fluctuations  of  up  to  100%. 


18 


P.  Scholte  eî  al. 


Malimbus  21 


NDJAMENA 


KalaKâ^ 

Nation^ 

Park 


Water  œurses 


Paved  road 


Kousseri 


Minor  roads 


CHAO 


'éMMf/M 


y/y  ' 'Xyyyyy 


-f  ^ J!  .f  .,t  .r  jt 


W//MW//, 

W/y/M-fy 


Mazla 


Fadaré 


Lak$M0 


MARQUA 


Figure  1.  The  study  area 


1999 


Birds  of  N Cameroon 


19 


There  is  also  some  evidence  of  a decline  over  the  past  20  years.  The  rainy  season  is 
from  June  to  September.  In  parts  of  the  area,  the  Logone  river  and  its  branches  flood 
during  August  to  November.  During  the  dry  season,  temperatures  rise  as  high  as  45°C 
during  April  and  May.  At  this  time,  the  only  remaining  water  sources  are  a number  of 
waterholes  in  Waza  NP  and  pools  associated  with  the  perennial  water  courses. 

The  area  falls  in  the  transition  zone  between  Sudan  and  sahel  savannas.  The 
sandier  soils  in  and  south  of  Waza  NP  support  a wooded  Sclerocarya  birrea  and 
Anogeissus  ieiocarpus  savanna.  On  the  northern  floodplain,  sandy  soils  are  vegetated 
with  scattered  Hyphaene  thebaica  and  Borassus  aegyptiaca  palms.  Most  of  the  area  is 
dominated  by  heavy  cracking  clayey  soils,  which  are,  or  used  to  be,  subject  to 
flooding.  Vegetation  types  differ  in  relation  to  the  depth  of  present  and  past  flooding. 
In  general,  the  clayey  soils  above  the  flood  line  in  the  western  part  of  Waza  NP,  in  the 
southern  floodplain,  and  in  large  tracts  of  the  northern  floodplain,  are  dominated  by 
Acacia  seyal  shrublands.  The  areas  formerly  flooded,  which  used  to  be  productive 
perennial  grasslands,  are  now  covered  by  annual  grasses,  especially  Sorghum 
arundinaceum,  a large  reed-like  grass  which  has  invaded  the  area.  In  the  eastern  and 
northern  parts,  vast  tracts  are  still  subject  to  annual  flooding.  Perennial  grasses  such 
as  Echinochioa  pyramidalis,  Oryza  longistaminata  and,  on  the  slightly  elevated  parts, 
Vetiveria  nigritana  and  Hyparrhenia  rufa  dominate.  The  rather  monotonous 
grasslands  are  broken  by  dwelling  mounds,  often  inhabited  by  fishing  communities, 
and  wooded  levees  associated  with  the  rivers.  Each  year,  immediately  after  the  area 
dries  up  at  the  end  of  December,  most  parts  are  burned,  leaving  a bare  landscape. 
Only  some  local  humid  spots  remain  with  vivid  green  vegetation  and  concentrations 
of  fishermen,  livestock  and  birdlife. 

For  this  study  we  have  distinguished  seven  habitats,  based  on  criteria  such  as 
physiography  and  land  use. 

Lake  Maga  and  adjoining  rice  schemes 

Located  in  the  extreme  south  east  of  the  study  area,  Lake  Maga  is  the  only  open 
water,  with  a surface  area  of  about  400  kml  On  the  south  it  is  fringed  by  a 5-km  wide 
floodplain  dominated  by  Oryza  longistaminata.  On  the  north,  about  5000  ha  of  rice 
are  cultivated  bi-annually,  supporting  a concentrated  human  population. 

Southern  Floodplain 

The  largest  part  of  the  degraded  floodplain  is  situated  immediately  north  of  the  Maga 
rice  scheme  and  up  to  the  line  passing  along  the  northern  edge  of  Waza  NP  in  the 
west  and  to  Ivye  in  the  east  (confluence  of  Logomatya  with  Logone  river).  This  unit 
is  dominated  by  Sorghum  arundinaceum  and  other  annual  grasses.  Due  to  re- 
flooding, parts  of  this  area  are  returning  to  productive  perennial  grassland.  The  areas 
between  the  perennial  water-courses  are  still  well  flooded.  The  western  part  of  the 
area  is  dominated  by  Acacia  seyal  shrubland.  Included  are  the  Logomatya  and 
associated  pools,  a branch  of  the  Logone  river  containing  water  in  the  dry  season 
from  drainage  of  the  rice  schemes.  It  is  fringed  by  dense  Vossia  cuspidata  and 
Echinochioa  stagnina  grassland. 


20 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Southern  sandy  plain 

In  southern  Waza  NP  and  south  of  it,  the  wooded  savanna  of  Sclerocarya  birrea  and 
Anogeissus  leiocarpus  trees  and  of  Hyperthelia  dissoluta  and  other  Andropogon-XWiQ 
perennial  grasses,  is  almost  intact.  Further  south,  sorghum  cultivation  is  practised  and 
grazing  by  livestock  is  more  intensive.  Large  parts  of  the  area  have  been  transformed 
into  Guieria  senegalensis  shrubland,  with  scattered  Balanites  aegyptiaca  trees  and  a 
ground  cover  of  annual  grasses  like  Schoenefeldia  gracilis. 

Waza  NP 

Waza  NP  covers  170,000  ha  encompassing  various  physiographical  units.  In  the  east 
there  are  both  degraded  and  still-inundated  parts  of  the  floodplain.  In  the  south  and 
south-west,  the  park  is  covered  by  the  southern  sandy  plain.  The  centre  and  north- 
west are  covered  by  Acacia  seyal  shrubland.  Almost  no  human  exploitation  occurs. 

Logone 

This  unit  encompasses  the  Logone  and  Loromé  Mazra  rivers.  It  comprises  extensive 
river  beds,  with  sand  bars  from  December  to  May  and  Vetiveria  nigritana  grassland 
in  the  higher  reaches. 

Northern  Floodplain 

The  area  north  of  the  line  running  from  the  north  edge  of  Waza  NP  in  the  west  to  Ivye 
in  the  east  (confluence  of  Logomatya  and  Logone),  and  northward  to  Kalamaloue  NP. 
The  area  is  very  diverse  with  extensive  Acacia  seyal  shrublands  in  west  and  centre 
and  well  inundated  floodplains  in  the  east,  as  well  as  higher  sandier  parts  with 
Hyphaene  and  Borassus  palms. 

Kalamaloué  NP 

Despite  its  limited  size  of  only  4500  ha,  this  national  park  is  extremely  varied.  It  lies 
partly  in  the  floodplain  of  the  Chari  river  and  is  crossed  by  several  river  branches  and 
associated  levees.  In  the  lower  parts,  a dense  Mimosa  pigra  scrub  dominates,  while 
locally  Echinochloa  stagnina  forms  productive  grasslands.  Tamarindus  indiens  and 
Celtis  africana  form  woodland  forests  on  the  levees.  Most  of  the  higher  areas,  outside 
the  floodplains,  are  covered  by  open  Balanites  aegyptiaca  woodland  and  annual 
grassland.  The  southern  part  of  the  park  is  dominated  by  Acacia  nilotica  woodland. 


Ornithological  studies  in  the  Waza-Logone  area 

Bates  (1927)  was  the  first  ornithologist  to  record  his  observations  when  he  visited  the 
Waza-Logone  area  on  his  trip  to  Lake  Chad.  None  of  his  observations  has  been 
included  in  the  present  list,  due  mainly  to  lack  of  accuracy  on  locations.  Dragesco 
(1960,  1961),  reported  some  species  {e.g.  Rynchops  flavirostris)  in  1958,  which  have 
not  been  seen  since.  In  the  late  1960s  and  early  70s,  coinciding  with  the  creation  of 
Waza  NP  and  the  construction  of  a lodge,  the  Waza-Logone  area  was  more 
frequently  visited  by  ornithologists  (Fry  1970,  Broadbent  1971,  Greling  1972a,  b, 
Mundy  1972,  Holmes  1972,  1974,  Pettet  1976,  Kavanagh  1977).  Most  of  these  visits 


1999 


Birds  of  N Cameroon 


21 


were  limited  to  the  more  accessible  western  part  and  lasted  only  a few  days.  Only 
Greling  (1972a)  carried  out  a longer  study  of  the  birds  of  the  Acacia  seyal  shrubland 
in  Waza  NP  (Feb  1966  to  Apr  1967),  and  of  the  birds  of  the  wooded  savanna  of  the 
southern  part  of  Waza  NP  (Dec  1966  to  Jul  1967).  In  these  two  habitats,  he  recorded 
61  and  100  species  respectively.  Apart  from  a useful  species  list  for  these  two 
habitats,  he  only  mentioned  the  bird  biomass  per  ha  throughout  the  year,  making  it 
difficult  to  use  his  study  for  a comparison  with  present  abundance  information. 

Vanpraet  (1977)  presented  a checklist  of  149  species  for  Waza  NP,  observed  in 
the  period  1973-1977,  just  before  the  construction  of  the  Maga  dam  and  thus  before 
the  degradation  process  started.  His  list  is  difficult  to  interpret,  in  part  because  of  the 
nomenclature  he  used.  Moreover,  many  species  groups  such  as  sunbirds,  wheatears, 
flycatchers  and  most  warblers  are  missing. 

Thiollay  (1978)  reported  his  extensive  raptor  observations  of  1973  and  1975,  and 
quantified  presence  as  numbers  per  km  travelled.  Louette  (1981)  compiled  various 
sources  of  information  for  the  whole  of  Cameroon.  He  visited  Waza  NP  in  Dec  1974 
and  Jan  1976  and  documented  the  following  collections  from  the  Waza  Logone  area, 
to  which  we  refer  when  they  provide  new  information:  W.  Verheyen  and  F.  De  Vree 
(Nov  1970  to  Jan  1971),  F.Puylaert  and  P.Elsen  (Jul-Sep  1971),  F.  De  Vree,  J. 
Hulselmans  and  E.  Geraert  (Sep-Oct  1972).  Louette  & Prévost  (1987)  also  reported 
on  birds  collected  by  Prévost  during  March  in  1973  or  1974,  near  Andirni,  on  the 
extreme  southern  point  of  Waza  NP.  In  a study  of  warthog  Phacochoerus  aethiopicus 
ecology,  Alio  (1994)  listed  93  bird  species  observed  in  Kalamaloué  NP.  He  did  not 
specify  the  year  of  observations,  but  it  was  most  probably  1981. 

Aerial  waterfowl  counts  were  conducted  by  Roux  & Jarry  (1984,  1986,  1987),  on 
Lake  Maga  and  other  parts  of  N Cameroon.  Unfortunately  no  distinction  was  made 
between  the  Waza-Logone  area  and  the  area  north  of  Kalamaloué  NP  up  to  Lake 
Chad.  OAG  Münster  (1991)  organised  a bird  expedition  to  the  Far  North  Province,  to 
count  waders,  with  special  reference  to  Philomachus  pugnax.  Their  check-list 
includes  some  interesting  observations,  but  also  some  doubtful  ones.  Robertson 
(1993)  visited  Waza  NP  and  the  northern  floodplain  in  Feb-Mar  1992.  Finally,  Beirs 
(1997)  reported  a spectacular  observation  when  he  visited  WazaNP  in  Feb  1993. 


Methods 

Our  own  observations  cover  the  period  from  1992  onwards.  During  his  study  on 
Numida  meleagris,  P.  Edelaar  covered  mainly  the  western  side  of  Waza  NP  from  Nov 
1992  to  Apr  1993.  He  was  followed  by  A.  Schaftenaar,  who  stayed  from  Feb  to  Jun 
1993.  In  the  northern  floodplain,  observations  were  made  by  P.  Spierenburg  during  a 
vegetation  study  in  Mar-Apr  1992.  He  and  Edelaar  contributed  to  the  Jan  1993 
waterfowl  census.  Most  of  the  data  from  the  southern  floodplain  were  collected  by  S. 
de  Kort  and  M.  van  Weerd,  who  studied  the  impact  of  (re-)flooding  on  birds  from 


22 


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Malimbus  21 


May  to  Dec  1994  and  returned  for  the  mid-winter  count  of  Feb  1995,  as  well  as  for 
other  studies  throughout  most  of  1998.  P.  Scholte  visited  Kalamaloue  NP  monthly 
from  Dec  1991  to  May  1993.  He  covered  the  entire  area,  often  only  in  passing,  in  Jan 
and  Apr  1992,  Feb  1993  and  from  May  1993  to  Nov  1997.  He  contributed,  together 
with  E.  Battokok  and  R.  Azombo  of  the  Wildlife  School  in  Garoua,  to  all  four 
waterfowl  censi.  In  the  1996  and  1997  census  Bobo  Kadiri  and  Philippe  Kirda,  both 
of  the  Waza-Logone  project,  participated  as  well. 

With  the  exception  of  the  collections  made  by  Louette  and  his  colleagues 
(Louette  1981,  Louette  & Prévost  1987),  all  observations  have  been  based  on  sight  or 
sound.  Observations  were  often  by  car  in  the  dry  season  and  by  motorized  boats  and 
local  canoes  or  on  foot  in  the  rainy/flooding  season.  The  study  by  Kort  & van  Weerd 
(1995),  the  four  Jan/Feb  waterfowl  censi  (Wetten  & Spierenburg  1993,  Scholte  et  al. 
1995,  Scholte  et  al.  1996a,  Kadiri  et  al.  1997)  and  the  current  study  on  Black 
Crowned  Cranes  by  Scholte  and  colleagues,  have  been  the  only  longer  lasting  studies 
which  were  specifically  designed  to  observe  and  quantify  the  bird  fauna.  In  this  paper 
we  will  present  only  qualitative  data.  A paper  is  in  preparation  on  the  international 
importance  of  the  area  for  waterfowl  in  which  quantitative  data  will  be  presented. 

Published  observations  have  been  noted  separately,  where  they  have  not  been 
confirmed  by  us  recently.  We  only  include  observations  which  give  specific  reference 
to  the  area  concerned.  A description  such  as  “occurs  in  the  inundation  area”  (see 
Louette  1981)  was  not  sufficient  for  inclusion  in  this  list.  However  such  birds  have 
been  included  in  Appendix  1,  as  have  records  which  appeared  somewhat  questionable 
after  comparing  with  other  observations  and  the  literature.  Records  of  species  having 
distributions  otherwise  only  known  far  from  the  study  area,  and  where  closely  similar 
and  common  species  were  not  recorded,  have  been  rejected,  as  were  most  unlikely 
species  which  were  not  noted  as  being  of  special  interest  (Appendix  2). 

The  taxonomy  and  sequence  of  species  up  to  Grey-headed  Batis  follows  The 
Birds  of  Africa  (Brown  et  al.  1982,  Urban  et  al.  1986,  1997,  Fry  et  al.  1988,  Keith  et 
al.  1992).  For  the  remainder  of  the  passerines,  taxonomy  and  sequence  follow  Louette 
(1981),  with  English  names  based  on  Serle  & Morel  (1977).  Subspecies  are  only 
mentioned  if  more  than  one  has  been  observed,  and  clearly  identified. 

Results 

A total  of  379  species  has  been  observed  in  the  Waza-Logone  area  (Lists  1 and  2). 
Twenty-six  species  seen  only  before  1980,  the  year  after  the  construction  of  the  Maga 
dam  and  embankments,  can  be  found  in  List  II.  Another  five  species  have  not  been 
observed  with  certainty  (Appendix  1).  Ten  species  mentioned  in  the  literature  have 
been  rejected  (Appendix  2).  If  we  consider  Circaetus  gallicus  beaudouni,  Aquila 
rapax  belisarius  and  Falco  peregrinus  pelegrinoides  as  full  species,  as  at  present 
proposed  (see  also  Clark  1992),  the  total  number  of  species  observed  in  the  Waza- 
Logone  area  would  be  382.  This  list  is  still  far  from  complete.  Several  species  have 


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23 


frequently  been  reported  from  neighbouring  areas  and  will  doubtlessly  be  found  in 
the  area  in  future.  Species  listed  in  Appendix  1 are  also  likely  to  be  included  in  future. 

For  each  species  the  status,  abundance  and  locality  of  observations  are  given.  The 
period  of  presence  of  migrants,  and  breeding  periods,  are  given  only  when  sufficient 
records  are  available.  Previous  information  is  given  in  brackets  at  the  end  of  an 
account,  if  our  observations  differ  from  these. 

For  species  recorded  less  than  five  times,  no  indication  of  status  is  given.  For  all 
other  species  the  following  categories  are  used:  Res:  resident  whole  year;  Res?: 
probably  resident;  AM:  intra- African  migrant;  PM:  Palaeartic  migrant.  When  Res?  is 
used,  it  means  that  there  is  no  local  evidence  in  support,  but  experience  and 
knowledge  about  the  status  of  the  species  in  surrounding  regions  would  suggest  it  to 
be  resident.  When  a species  is  quoted  as  “probably  resident”,  we  did  not  observe 
breeding,  but  it  is  known  that  it  breeds  in  comparable  neighbouring  regions  and  it  was 
observed  throughout  the  year. 

Localities  are  abbreviated  as  follows:  Maga:  Lake  Maga  and  adjoining  rice 
scheme;  SF:  southern  floodplain;  NF:  northern  floodplain;  SNF:  southern  and 
northern  floodplain;  SP:  southern  sandy  plain,  south  of  Waza  NP;  WNP:  Waza 
National  Park;  Logone:  Logone  and  Loromé  Mazra  rivers;  KNP:  Kalamaloué 
National  Park. 

For  all  species  an  assesment  of  abundance  has  been  made,  following  the  system 
used  in  The  Birds  of  Africa  (Brown  et  ai.  1982):  VA  (Very  Abundant)  >100  may  Le 
seen  or  heard  in  suitable  habitat  per  day;  A (Abundant)  1 l^lOO  may  be  seen  or  heard 
in  suitable  habitat  per  day;  C (Common)  I^IO  may  be  seen  or  heard  in  suitable 
habitat  per  day;  F (Frequent)  often  seen  but  not  every  day;  U (Uncommon)  several 
records  per  year;  R (Rare)  one  record  per  several  years.  The  estimation  applies  to  all 
the  area  units  indicated,  unless  there  is  a large  difference  in  abundance  between  the 
various  parts  of  the  area. 

Observers  other  than  the  authors  are  only  mentioned  for  striking  observations:  PE 
Pirn  Edelaar;  AS  Aat  Schaftenaar;  PS:  Peter  Spierenburg.  L refers  to  Louette  (1981). 
All  other  literature  sources  are  quoted  completely. 

New  observations  are  indicated  before  the  species’  name  in  superscript  as  follows 
(mainly  based  on  L):  ' species  not  documented  before  for  Cameroon;  ^ species  not 
documented  before  in  Far  North  Province,  Cameroon;  ^ species  recorded  once  before 
in  (Far)  North  Cameroon  or  important  range  extension. 


List  1.  Birds  observed  in  the  Waza— Logone  area  from  1980  onwards 
Struthionidae 

Struthio  cameius  Ostrich.  Res.  C:  WNP;  U:  SP,  SF  (up  to  30  km  from  edge  of  WNP). 
Hen  with  three  chicks,  WNP,  15  Jun  1994;  hen  with  one  chick  a few  days  old,  WNP, 
30  Mar  1996;  two  females  and  one  male  with  three  chicks,  WNP,  14  Apr  1996,  one 


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female  with  five  chicks  and  one  male  plus  one  female  with  five  chicks  (size  of 
guineafowl),  WNP,  25  Apr  1997.  We  estimate  the  numbers  of  this  last  remaining 
“viable”  population  in  Cameroon  at  no  more  than  100. 

Podicipedidae 

Tachybaptus  ruficollis  Little  Grebe.  Four,  WNP,  11-28  Jun  1993  (AS).  One  adult  in 
breeding  plumage,  SF,  Jun  1994.  [Two  collected  by  L.] 

Phalacrocoracidae 

Phalacrocorax  africanus  Reed  Cormorant.  Res.  A:  Maga,  floodplains,  WNP,  Logone, 
KNP.  Large  groups  of  adults  and  juveniles  along  the  Logone,  Dec.  Breeding  Andirni 
colony  {sQQArdea  melanocephala),  Aug  1997. 

Anhingidae 

^Anhinga  melanogaster  Darter.  One  observation,  S edge  of  Waza-Logone  area,  5 Jul 
93  (AS).  [One  record  (Vielliard  1971).] 

Pelecanidae 

Pelecanus  onocrotalus  White  Pelican.  Res?  & PM.  VA;  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP, 
Dec-Feb;  F,  Mar-Nov.  No  recent  breeding  evidence  in  Mandara  Mts  (Dragesco 
1960,  Mahé  1988,  Scholte  unpubl.)  and  it  seems  doubtful  whether  Mandara  pelicans 
ever  visited  our  study  area,  as  they  more  likely  depended  on  the  nearby  Nigerian 
Yedseram  rivers  system,  as  indicated  by  villagers  interviewed  in  the  Mandara  Mts.  In 
the  1980s  Mandara  pelican  numbers  were  limited  to  an  estimated  30  pairs  (Mahé 
1988),  compared  to  the  hundreds  observed  in  our  study  area. 

P.  rufescens  Pink-backed  Pelican.  Res?  or  migrant.  F:  Maga,  SNF,  Logone,  KNP. 
Young  about  to  leave  colony  in  WNP,  30  Mar  96  (Fig.  2).  [Contrary  to  L,  not 
observed  during  rainy  season,  and  characteristically  present  in  dry  season.] 


Figure  2.  Pink-backed  Pelican,  breeding  in  Waza  NP,  March  1996 


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25 


Ardeidae 

^Botaurus  stellaris  Eurasian  Bittern.  PM.  Six  records  in  SF,  perhaps  sometimes  same 
individual:  30-31  Oct  1994,  14  Nov  1994,  10  Oct  1995,  21-27  Oct  1997.  [One 
previous  Waza  record  (Wetten  & Spierenburg  1993).  Only  one  other  Cameroon 
record  (L).] 

Ixobrychus  m.  minutus  Little  Bittern.  {I.m.  payesii  not  recorded).  PM.  F:  SF,  Aug- 
Dec.  [Earlier  than  mentioned  by  L.] 

1.  sturmii  Dwarf  Bittern.  Four  records  SF:  16  Sep  1994,  18,  28,  30  Oct  1994.  [First 
Cameroon  records  outside  Jan-Jun  (L),  during  which  period  we  did  not  see  it.] 
Nycticorax  nycîicorax  Black-crowned  Night  Heron.  PM.  A:  SNP,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct- 
Jun.  In  May  and  Jun  only  juveniles. 

Ardeola  ralloides  Squacco  Heron.  Res,  PM.  VA:  Jul-Nov;  A:  rest  of  year,  Maga, 
SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  Several  in  breeding  plumage,  Oct. 

Bubulcus  ibis  Cattle  Egret.  Res.  VA:  entire  area.  Breeding  Jun-Aug.  At  least  5 
colonies  in  the  area. 

Butorides  striatus  Green  Heron.  Res.  F:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  Two 
newly  fledged  young  18  Oct  1994.  [Contrary  to  L,  present  throughout  the  year.] 
Egretta  ardesiaca  Black  Heron.  Res?  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Aug-Feb.  [Far 
more  common  than  concluded  by  L.] 

E.  garzetta  Little  Egret.  Res?  & PM.  A:  entire  area, 

E.  intermedia  Intermediate  Egret.  Res.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  Breeding 
Andirni  colony,  Aug  1997  (cf  Ardea  melanocephala). 

E.  alba  Great  Egret.  Res?  & PM.  A:  Nov;  C:  rest  of  year.  Maga,  SNF,  Logone,  WNP, 
KNP. 

Ardea  purpurea  Purple  Heron.  PM.  A:  Sep-Oct,  C:  rest  of  year.  Maga,  SNF,  WNP, 
KNP. 

A.  cinerea  Grey  Heron.  Res?  & PM.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 

A.  melanocephala  Black-headed  Heron.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Colony  of  c.  2000  pairs 
near  Andirni  (Fig.  3;  see  Scholte  et  al  in  press).  Smaller  colony  in  WNP.  Breeding 
Jun-Sep. 

A.  goliath  Goliath  Heron.  Five  records.  10  May  1992  (KNP),  16  Jan  1993  (Maga)  24 
Aug,  10  Sep  and  2 Nov  1994  (SF).  [All  year  round;  cf.  L.] 

Scopidae 

Scopus  umbretta  Hamerkop.  Res.  U:  Maga,  WNP;  C:  KNP.  Breeding  in  KNP  in 
Tamarindus  woodland,  16  Feb  1992.  Copulating  KNP,  11  Apr  1993  [See  also 
Vanpraet  (1977).  Now  less  common  than  mentioned  by  L and  no  longer  in  large 
concentrations  as  described  by  Dragesco  (1961).] 

Ciconiidae 

Mycteria  ibis  Yellow-billed  Stork.  Res.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  Flocks 
up  to  60.  Breeding  Feb-Apr  (floodplain,  WNP),  nest  building  and  mating  10  Oct 
1995.  [Observed  throughout  year,  contra  L.] 


26 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Figure  3.  Black-headed  Heron  colony,  Andirni,  August  1997 


Anastomus  lamelligerus  African  Open-bill  Stork.  AM,  C:  Nov-Mar,  A:  Apr-Jun. 
Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone.  Normally  not  present  during  inundation  period  {pace  L), 
however  nine  observed  on  1 Sep  1996  as  well  as  several  Oct  1997. 

Ciconia  abdimii  Abdim’s  Stork.  AM.  F:  entire  area,  Mar-Jun  and  Sep-Nov.  Flocks 
up  to  500  birds.  No  breeding  observed. 

C.  episcopus  Woolly-necked  Stork.  Res?  C:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  Flocks  up  to 
60. 

C.  ciconia  White  Stork.  PM.  F;  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP,  Nov-Mar.  Flocks 
up  to  1000.  Three  immature  birds  near  Maga,  Jun  1994.  [Not  previously  observed  in 
“spring”  period,  L.  For  more  detailed  information  see  Mullié  et  al.  (1995).] 

^C.  nigra  Black  Stork.  PM.  Four  (including  2 juveniles),  WNP,  16  Dec  1992  (PE), 
one  WNP,  Mar  1997  (J.  Culverwell,  pers.  comm.).  [Mentioned  by  Vanpraet  (1977), 
but  not  by  L,  who  predicted  its  presence  based  on  observations  in  the  Benoué  valley 
in  Nigeria.] 

Ephippiorhynchus  senegalensis  Saddle-billed  Stork.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  Maga. 
Often  in  couples.  Juveniles  observed  throughout  the  year.  Surprisingly  absent  from 
KNP. 

Leptoptilus  crumeniferus  Marabou  Stork.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Colonies  in  towns  such 
as  Zina,  Guirvidig  and  Pouss,  on  the  NE  edge  of  WNP  and  in  Chad  near  KNP. 
Displaying  in  Oct,  breeding  Dec-Jan.  [Breeding  only  from  Feb  according  to  L.] 

Threskiornithidae 

Plegadis  falcinellus  Glossy  Ibis.  PM.  F:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP,  Sep-Jun. 
Flocks  up  to  500. 


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27 


Bostrychia  hagedash  Hadada.  Res?  F-C:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP,  Absent  from 
floodplain  during  inundation  period.  Display  flight  in  wooded  savanna  of  WNP,  Jul 
1994. 

Threskiornis  aethiopica  Sacred  Ibis.  Res.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 
Absent  from  floodplain  during  inundation  period.  One  pair  breeding  in  Andirni 

colony,  Jul  1994  {sQQArdea  melanocephald). 

^Platalea  leucorodia  Eurasian  Spoonbill.  PM.  One  adult  present  in  SF,  May-Jun 
1994.  [Observed  near  Lake  Chad  in  Nigeria  (L).] 

P.  alba  African  Spoonbill.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct-Jun.  Flocks  up  to  320 
birds. 

Phoenicopteridae 

^Phoenicopterus  ruber  Greater  Flamingo.  One  bird  in  group  of  White  Pelicans,  SF,  6 
Feb  1995.  [Only  in  S Cameroon  (Brown  et  al.  1982,  L).] 

Anatidae 

Dendrocygna  bicolor  Fulvous  Whistling-Duck.  Res?  F:  Maga,  SF,  WNP,  Logone, 
KNP. 

D.  viduata  White-faced  Whistling-Duck.  Res.  VA:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP  (see  Fig.  4), 
Logone,  KNP.  Three  immatures  in  SF,  16  Sep  1994,  showing  breeding  during  the 
rainy  season.  [L  mentioned  lack  of  accurate  breeding  data  for  Cameroon.] 

Thalassornis  leuconotus  White-backed  Duck.  AM.  Three  in  WNP,  7 Jul  1994. 


Figure  4.  White-faced  Whistling-Duck,  Waza,  October  1997 


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P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Alopochen  aegyptiacus  Egyptian  Goose.  AM.  Four  in  KNP  throughout  Feb  1996. 
Three  ,SF,  30  Oct  1997.  Surprisingly  rare  in  the  area  compared  to  the  Benoué  valley. 
[Four  birds  on  21  Jan  1993  (Wetten  & Spierenburg  1993);  now  possibly  less  common 
than  before  (see  L).] 

Plectropterus  gambensis  Spur-winged  Goose.  Res?  A:  Maga,  SNF  (see  Fig.  5),  WNP, 
Logone,  KNP. 


Figure  5.  Spur-winged  Goose,  S Floodplain,  1996 


Sarkidiornis  melanotos  Comb  Duck.  Res?  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 
Flocks  up  to  200. 

Nettapus  auritus  African  Pygmy  Goose.  Res?  60,  two  and  five  respectively  16  Jan 
1993,  13  May  1993  and  4 Feb  95,  Maga.  SF:  a pair,  26  Aug  1994;  10,  30  Oct  1997. 
[Collected  at  WNP  (L),  but  not  observed  there  lately.] 

Anas  acuta  Northern  Pintail.  PM.  F:  SNF,  WNP.  Mainly  present,  Oct-Feb.  Flocks  up 
to  530.  One  WNP,  24  Apr  1994;  one  female  SF,  May-Jun  1994. 

A.  querquedula  Garganey.  PM.  VA:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP,  Sep-Feb.  25 
in  the  floodplain,  May-Jun  1994.  Flocks  up  to  15,000  in  SF. 

^A.  clypeata  Northern  Shoveler.  PM.  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  [Occurrence  unconfirmed  (L).] 
Pandionidae 

Pandion  haliaetus  Osprey.  PM.  U:  Maga,  SNF,  Logone.  C;  KNP,  Sep-May.  One  on 
29  Aug.  1994,  probably  a summering  bird.  On  16  Jan  1993  seven  near  Maga. 
[Almost  certainly  more  than  a passage  migrant,  contra  L.] 

Accipitridae 

Pernis  apivorus  Honey  Buzzard.  PM.  SF:  10,  16,  29  Oct  1994,  24  Nov  1994.  NF: 
one,  2 Nov  1997.  [Previously  observed  by  Thiollay  (1978)  in  WNP.] 
^Machaerhamphus  alcinus  Bat  Hawk.  Res?  Recorded  in  Zina  town,  16  Oct  1994  and 
Zimado,  23  Feb  1995.  Twice  recorded  near  Waza  town,  26  May  1993  (AS),  31  May 
1996.  One,  Andimi,  2 Dec  1998.  Probably  overlooked  in  N Cameroon.  [Only  forest 
and  well-wooded  savanna  zones  (L).] 


1999 


Birds  of  N Cameroon 


29 


Elanus  caeruleus  Black-shouldered  Kite.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP;  A:  WNP,  rainy 
season.  Pair  displaying,  16  Jan  93  (PE).  Absent  from  floodplain  during  inundation. 
Chelictinia  riocourii  African  Swallow-tailed  Kite.  AM.  C:  Nov-Jun,  SNF,  WNP, 
KNP.  Group  of  1 1,  1 Nov  1994. 

Milvus  migrans  Black  Kite.  Res  & PM.  A:  entire  area. 

Haliaeetus  vocifer  River  Eagle.  Res;  F:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  One  on  nest, 
WNP,  16  Dec  1992  (PE). 

Neophron  percnopterus  Egyptian  Vulture.  PM,  AM.  F:  Nov-Mar,  WNP,  Logone, 
KNP.  Breeding  recorded  near  study  area  (Scholte  in  press).  [More  common  than 
previously  known  (L).] 

Necrosyrtes  monachus  Hooded  Vulture.  Res;  A:  entire  area.  Breeding  Feb-Jun.  (see 
Scholte  in  press). 

Gyps  africanus  African  White-backed  Vulture.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Breeding  period 
Jan-Apr  (see  Scholte  in  press). 

G.  rueppellii  RüppelFs  Griffon.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Nests  with  young  on  Waza  rock, 
15  Feb  93  (PE)  in  colony  of  20-30  pairs;  four  pairs  only  in  1997  (see  Scholte  in 
press).  [More  common  than  previously  known,  (L).] 

Aegypius  tracheliotus  Lappet-faced  Vulture.  Res.  F:  WNP,  SNF,  KNP  (see  Scholte  in 

press). 

A.  occipitalis  White-headed  Vulture.  Res.  F:  WNP,  KNP.  (see  Scholte  in  press). 
Circaetus  gallicus  European  Snake  Eagle.  Res  & PM.  F:  entire  area,  Oct-Apr. 
Nesting  Dec-Feb  in  WNP.  We  have  often  not  been  able  to  distinguish  the  two  races 
gallicus  and  beaudouni  in  the  field  (see  also  Elgood  et  al.  1994). 

C.  cinereus  Brown  Snake  Eagle.  Res?.  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  [More  common  than 
previously  known  (L).] 

C.  cinerascens  Smaller  Banded  Snake  Eagle.  Recorded  twice  in  KNP,  16  Feb  1992, 
20  Jun  1994.  [Observed  by  Thiollay  and  Chappuis  near  Kousseri  (quoted  by  L).] 
Terathopius  ecaudatus  Bateleur.  Res.  F:  entire  area.  Juveniles,  Oct  1994. 

Polyboroides  typus  African  Harrier  Hawk.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

Circus  macrourus  Pallid  Harrier.  PM.  C:  entire  area,  Nov-May.  First  arrival  date 
1994,  18  Sep. 

C.  pygargus  Montagu’s  Harrier.  PM.  C:  entire  area,  Oct-Apr.  [Confirms  L that  at 
least  as  common  as  C.  macrourus.] 

C.  aeruginosus  Marsh  Harrier.  Res?  & PM.  C:  entire  area;  A:  during  Palaearctic 
winter.  [More  common  than  suggested  by  L.] 

Micronisus  gabar  Gabar  Goshawk.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP;  C:  KNP.  Melanistic  form 
regularly  recorded. 

Melierax  metabates  Dark  Chanting  Goshawk.  Res?  C:  entire  area.  Probably  breeding 
during  the  inundation  period  (Aug-Nov). 

Accipiter  badius  Shikra.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP;  C:  KNP. 

Butastur  rufipennis  Grasshopper  Buzzard.  Res.  C:  entire  area,  but  during  the  rainy 
season  not  recorded  in  the  floodplains  [contra  L.] 


30 


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Malimbus  21 


Buteo  rufmus  Long-legged  Buzzard.  PM.  One  record,  Maga,  5 Feb  1995.  [Previous 
records  by  Thiollay  (1978).] 

Buteo  auguralis  African  Red-tailed  Buzzard.  Res?  U:  SNF,  WNP.  C:  KNP. 

Aquila  pomarina  Lesser  Spotted  Eagle.  PM.  One  record  Maga,  14  Jun  1994.  [Many 
observations  in  Feb  and  Apr  1973  (Thiollay  1978).] 

A.  rapax.  A.  r.  belisarius  Tawny  Eagle.  Res.  C:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  Breeds  WNP  and 
KNP,  Dec-Apr.  A.  r.  nipalensis  Steppe  Eagle.  PM.  Two  juveniles,  5 Feb  1993  (PE) 
and  28  May  1994.  [Two  observed  in  1975  (Thiollay  1978).] 

A.  wahlbergi  Wahlberg’s  Eagle.  Res?  U:  SF,  WNP. 

Hieraaetus  spilogaster  African  Hawk  Eagle.  One  record,  WNP,  26  Sep  1992.  [Twice 
observed  by  Thiollay  (1978).] 

H.  pennatus  Booted  Eagle.  PM.  U:  Maga,  SF,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct-Feb.  Once  recorded 
during  Palaearctic  summer,  21  Jun  1994. 

Lophaetus  occipitalis  Long-crested  Eagle.  Res?  F:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 
Polemaetus  bellicosus  Martial  Eagle.  Res.  U:  SF,  WNP,  KNP. 

Sagittariidae 

Sagittarius  serpentarius  Secretary  Bird.  Res?  F:  WNP,  KNP. 

Falconidae 

Falco  naumanni  Lesser  Kestrel.  PM.  One,  WNP,  5 Dec  1997.  [One,  Jan  1993 
(Wetten  & Spierenburg  1993).  Regularly  observed  in  1975  by  Thiollay  (1978).] 

F.  tinnunculus  Common  Kestrel.  PM,  AM.  U:  SF,  WNP.  C:  KNP.  [More  than  10 
observed  in  WNP  (Pettet  1976).] 

F.  alopex  Fox  kestrel.  Res?  F:  WNP. 

F.  ardosiaceus  Grey  Kestrel.  Recorded  three  times:  Maga,  28  May  1994;  WNP,  25 
Feb  1995,  10  Nov  1997. 

F.  chicquera  Red-necked  Falcon.  Res?  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

F.  vespertinus  Red-footed  Falcon.  PM.  One  record:  SF,  28  Sep  1994.  [WNP  in  Apr 
and  once  in  Feb  (L).] 

cuvieri  African  Hobby.  One  observation  WNP,  28  Apr  1993  (AS).  [Not  observed 
before  in  savanna  in  Cameroon  (L).] 

F.  biarmicus  Lanner  Falcon.  Res?  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

F.  peregrinus.  F.  p.  peregrinus  Peregrine  Falcon.  PM.  U:  WNP,  SNF,  Nov-Jan.  F.  p. 
pelegrinoidus  Barbary  Falcon.  One  KNP,  21  Jan  1993  (Wetten  & Spierenburg  1993). 
[Not  mentioned  by  L.] 

Phasianidae 

Numida  meleagris  Helmeted  Guineafowl.  Res.  VA:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  Average 
densities  in  wooded  habitats  in  WNP  fluctuated  between  38  and  215  birds/km^  (H. 
NJifortii  pers.  comm.). 

^Coturnix  coturnix  Common  Quail.  15  at  drinking  pool  WNP,  evening  25  Mar  1993 
(AS);  six,  7 Feb  1995,  flushed  several  times  by  moving  car  on  E border  of  WNP. 
Identified  by  pale  wings  and  call  when  flushed. 

delegorguei  Harlequin  Quail.  Res?  C:  SF,  WNP.  [One  previous  Cameroon  record  (L).] 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


31 


Francolinus  ciappertoni  Clapperton's  Francolin.  Res?  A:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 
Turnicidae 

Ortyxeios  meiffrenii  Quail  plover.  Res?  U:  WNP. 

^Turnix  sylvatica  African  Button  Quail.  One  record,  25  Mar  1993,  WNP  (AS).  [No 
previous  Cameroon  observations  but  known  from  Chad  and  Nigeria  (L)] 

Rallidae 

^Crex  egregia  African  Crake.  AM?  F:  SF,  Oct-Dec. 

crex  Corncrake.  One  recorded  SF,  1 1 Oct  1994.  [One  record  (L).] 
^Aenigmatolimnas  marginalis  Striped  Crake.  Recorded  SF,  16  Oct  1994.  [Only 
recorded  from  forest  zone  (L).] 

Amaurornis  flavirostris  Black  Crake.  Res?  F-C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

Porphyrio  alleni  Allen’s  Gallinule.  One  recorded  SF,  23  Aug  1994.  [Mentioned  by 
Vanpraet  (1977)  for  WNP.] 

^P.  porphyrio  Purple  Swamphen.  25  Lake  Maga,  Jan  1997.  [Not  recorded  Cameroon, 
although  observed  around  Lake  Chad  in  Nigeria  (L),  see  also  Elgood  et  al.  1994.] 
Gallinula  chloropus  Moorhen.  One  recorded  WNP,  24  Nov  1992  (PE),  two  at  Maga, 
Jan  1996,  five  at  Maga,  Jan.  1997  [Recorded  by  Dragesco  (1961)  and  Fry  (1970)  and 
collected  (L).] 

G.  angulata  Lesser  Moorhen.  Recorded  three  times  SF,  12  Oct  1994,  27  Nov  1997 
and  5 Dec  1997  (Andirni).  Also  observed  WNP  (AS). 

Gruidae 

Balearica  pavonina  Crowned  Crane.  Res.  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 
Breeding  starts  Aug.  Nest  with  chick  and  egg  in  water  50  cm  deep,  Oct  1995  (see 
Scholte  1996). 

Otidae 

Neotis  denhami  Denham’s  Bustard.  AM.  U:  SP,SF,  WNP,  Jun-Jul.  One  male,  WNP, 
21  Nov  1998. 

^Neotis  nuba  Nubian  Bustard.  One  male  WNP,  early  May  1998.  [Praed  & Grant  1970 
erroneously  mention  it  from  Cameroon  (L);  once  observed  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al 
1994),  rather  rare  S Chad  (Salvan  1968),  one  observed  Apr  1992  in  Chad,  20  km  east 
ofZimado,  pers.  obs.] 

Ardeotis  arabs  Arabian  Bustard.  Res.  C:  SF,  WNP;  once  recorded  KNP,  27  Mar 
1996.  Displaying  Apr-May.  Breeding  starts  after  the  first  rains  at  end  of  May.  A hen 
with  one  chick,  29  Jun  1994  and  a hen  with  three  chicks,  15  Jul  1994. 

^Eupodotis  ruficrista  Crested  Bustard.  One  male  on  road  in  wooded  savanna  WNP, 
J8  Sep  1994.  In  floodplain  zone  of  WNP,  one  2 Nov  1995  and  one  female  on  26  Feb 
1996.  [Present  in  Nigeria  and  Chad.] 

E.  senegalensis  White-bellied  Bustard.  Res?  U:  SNF,  WNP.  Calling  Nov-Jan. 

£ melanogaster  Black-bellied  Bustard.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP.  Display  near  Zina,  20  Jul  1994. 
Jacanidae 

Actophilornis  africana  African  Jacana.  Res.  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP.  A 
fledgling,  Maga,  4 Feb  1995;  male  with  chicks,  Andirni,  21  Nov  1998. 


32 


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Malimbus  21 


Microparra  capensis  Lesser  Jacana.  Res?  U:  Maga,  Feb  1995,  Jan  1997;  SF  in  May, 
Jun  1994,  Nov  1996  and  Oct  1997.  [Two  records  in  N Cameroon  (L).] 

Rostratulidae 

Rostratula  benghalensis  Painted  Snipe.  AM.  F:  SNF,  Oct-Jul.  [Collected  WNP,  1970  (L).] 
Recurvirostridae 

Himantopus  himantopus  Black-winged  Stilt.  PM,  Res?  A:  SNF,  WNP,  Maga. 
Numbers  increase  from  Sep  to  Apr. 

Recurvirostra  avosetta  Eurasian  Avocet.  R:  One  KNP,  12  Apr  1992;  four,  Logone  25 
Jan  1996.  [Once  observed  by  Dragesco  (1961),  also  mentioned  by  Vanpraet  (1977).] 

Burhinidae 

Burhinus  senegalensis  Senegal  Thick-knee.  Res?  F;  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

B.  capensis  Spotted  Thick-knee.  Res?  U:  SNF,  WNP. 

Glareolidae 

Pluvianus  aegyptius  Egyptian  Plover.  Res?  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 
During  rainy  season  also  on  higher  ground. 

Cursorius  chalcopterus  Bronze- wing  Courser.  Three  records  in  WNP  (AS):  two,  4 
Apr  1993;  two,  25  May  1993;  one,  10  Jun  1993.  [Mentioned  for  inundation  area  by 
L,  possibly  as  transit  migrant.] 

Glareola  pratincola  Common  Pratincole.  PM,  Res.  Maga,  SNF,  WNP:  VA  Nov- 
May,  F Jun-Oct.  Breeding  Feb  1995. 

G.  cinerea  Grey  Pratincole.  Three  on  bank  of  the  Logone,  18  Jul  1994. 

Charadriidae 

Charadrius  dubius  Little  Ringed  Plover.  PM.  C:  SNF,  Logone,  KNP,  Nov-Feb. 

C.  hiaticula  Ringed  Plover.  PM.  C:  SNF,  Logone,  KNP,  Oct-Feb.  [More  common  in 
N Cameroon  than  suggested  by  L.] 

C.  pecuarius  Kittlitz’s  Sand-Plover.  Res?  F:  SNF,  Logone. 

C.  alexandrinus  Kentish  plover.  Three  SF,  22  Nov  1992  (PE). 

Vanellus  senegallus  African  Wattled  Plover.  Res?  C:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 

V.  albiceps  White-headed  Lapwing.  Four  records:  KNP,  14  Nov  1992;  SF,  19  Jan 
1993  (PE),  12  and  30  Aug  1994. 

V.  tectus  Black-headed  Lapwing.  Res.  A:  entire  area,  especially  in  denuded  areas 
(locally  called  “hardé”).  On  nest  under  shrub,  3 m from  sleeping  lions  in  WNP,  24 
Apr  1994. 

V.  spinosus  Spur-winged  Plover.  Res.  A:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  Maga.  Chicks  Feb 
1995,  May  and  Sep  1994. 

^V.  lugubris  Senegal  Plover.  Two  records  SF,  18  and  20  Jul  1994,  possibly  same  bird. 
[Not  mentioned  by  L,  although  Vanpraet  (1977)  mentioned  it  for  WNP.] 

V.  crassirostris  Long-toed  Lapwing.  U:  SF,  Aug-Dec  1994,  one  30  Oct  1997.  Maga: 
three,  1 Apr  1994;  15  couples,  4 Feb  1995;  40  in  Jan  1996.  Logone:  two,  1 Apr  1994. 
[Two  previous  records;  a straggler  (L).] 

Scolopacidae 

Calidris  minuta  Little  Stint.  PM.  F:  SNF,  Logone,  KNP,  Nov-Apr. 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


33 


^C.  temminckii  Temminck’s  Stint.  One,  SF,  24  Sep  1994.  [Collected  once  in 
Cameroon:  WNP,  Dec  1970  (L).] 

C.  ferruginea  Curlew  Sandpiper.  Three  records:  Maga,  24  Jan  1993  (PE),  6 Oct  1994; 
SF,  1 Nov  1994.  [Only  in  “autumn”  (L).] 

C alpina  Dunlin.  Twice  recorded  on  20  Feb  1992  by  Robertson  (1993).  [Mentioned 
by  Dragesco  (1961),  considered  an  error  by  L.] 

Philomachus  pugnax  Ruff.  PM.  VA:  Maga,  SNF,  Logone,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct—Apr. 
Also  present  in  small  numbers  May-Sep.  [For  more  details  see  OAG  Münster 
(1991).] 

^Lymnocryptes  minimus  Jack  Snipe.  Recorded  SF:  one  1 and  5 Nov  1994;  one,  9 Oct 
1995.  [Common  in  Chad  (L).] 

Gallinago  gallinago  Common  Snipe.  PM.  F:  SF,  KNP,  Oct-Feb,  one  in  WNP  May 
1975  (pers.comm.  A.Green)  [Not  recorded  in  Palaearctic  winter  (L).] 

G.  media  Great  Snipe.  PM.  U:  SF,  Oct-Feb.  [Not  recorded  in  Palaearctic  winter  (L).] 
Limosa  limosa  Black-tailed  Godwit.  PM.  C:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct-Feb  (Mar).  F: 
Apr-Sep. 

Numenius  arquata  Eurasian  Curlew.  PM.  U (c.  10  records):  SNF  KNP,  Nov-Feb. 
[Not  mentioned  by  L;  see  Dragesco  (1961),  Robertson  (1993).] 

Tringa  erythropus  Spotted  Redshank.  Seven  records:  60,  SF,  5 Apr  1991  (PS);  one, 
SF,  15  Jul  1994;  one,  SF,  7 Feb  1995;  60,  SF,  9 Oct  1995;  two,  WNP,  30  Jan  1997; 
one,  SF,  24  Nov  1997;  one,  SF,  5 Dec  1997. 

T.  totanus  Common  Redshank.  PM.  U:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct-Feb. 

T.  stagnatilis  Marsh  Sandpiper.  PM  & Res?  C:  SNF,  WNP,  Nov-Apr,  F:  May-Oct. 
[More  common  than  suggested  by  L.] 

T.  nebularia  Common  Greenshank.  PM.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Oct-Apr.  F: 
May-Sep. 

T.  ochropus  Green  Sandpiper.  PM.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP,  Nov-Apr.  F: 
May-Oct. 

T.  giareola  Wood  Sandpiper.  PM,  Res?  A:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Sept-May.  C:  Jun-Aug. 
Actitis  hypoleucos  Common  Sandpiper.  PM,  Res?  C:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  throughout 
year.  [Normally  not  wintering  in  N Cameroon  (L).] 

Laridae 

Lams  cirrocephalus  Grey-headed  Gull.  Res.  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP, 
ridibundus  Black-headed  Gull.  PM.  U:  Maga,  NF,  KNP,  17  Jan  1993  (PE),  23 
Mar  1993,  12  Aug  1994.  [Two,  20  Feb  1992,  (Robertson  1993);  not  recorded  (L).] 

^L.  fuscus  Lesser  Black-backed  Gull.  PM.  U:  Logone,  Maga,  Dec-Feb.  Group  of  31 
along  Logone,  5 Feb  1995. 

Gelochelidon  nilotica  Gull-billed  Tern.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  Logone,  KNP,  Nov-Apr. 
[Few  records  (L).] 

^Sterna  caspia  Caspian  Tern.  R:  Logone,  KNP.  Two  17  Jan  1993,  five,  5 Feb  1995. 

W.  hirundo  Common  Tern.  PM.  U:  SF,  Logone,  KNP,  Nov-Jan.  [Only  coast  (L).] 

S.  albifrons  Little  Tern.  PM.  C:  SNF,  Logone,  KNP,  throughout  year. 


34 


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Malimbus  21 


^Chlidonias  hybridus  Whiskered  Tern.  PM.  F:  SF,  Oct-Nov. 

^C.  nigra  Black  Tern.  PM.  A group  of  20  SF,  21  Oct  1994.  [Reaches  Chari  according 
to  Bannerman  (1931),  but  this  contested  by  Vielliard  (1971).] 

C.  leucoptera  White-winged  Black  Tern.  PM.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP, 
Sep-Jan.  Present  in  smaller  numbers  Jun-Aug.  [L  suspected  its  presence  all  year.] 

Pteroclidae 

Pterocles  exustus  Chestnut-bellied  Sandgrouse.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  Pair  with 
small  chicks,  WNP,  Apr  1998.  [More  common  than  indicated  by  L.] 

P.  quadricinctus  Four-banded  Sandgrouse.  Res.  A:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  dry  season;  F: 
rainy  season.  Pair  with  chick,  WNP,  16  Apr  1996.  [Breeding  only  till  January  in 
Benoué  area  (L)] 

Columbidae 

Treron  waalia  Bruce’s  Green  Pigeon.  Res?  C:  SP.  [Collected  WNP,  Dec  1970  (L); 
see  also  Holmes  (1972).] 

Turtur  abyssiniens  Black-billed  Wood-dove.  Res.  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

Oena  capensis  Namaqua  Dove.  Res.  VA:  entire  area.  Nest  with  two  eggs,  28  Nov 
1992  (PE). 

Columba  guinea  Speckled  Pigeon.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Breeding  Apr-Aug. 
Streptopelia  decipiens  Mourning  Dove.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Breeding  mainly  Feb- 
Aug  but  nest-building  also  in  Nov  1997. 

S.  vinacea  Vinaceous  Dove.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Mainly  breeding  Feb-Aug,  but  nest 
with  eggs,  WNP,  29  Oct  1993. 

S.  roseogrisea  African  Collared  Dove.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP. 

S.  turtur  European  Turtle  Dove.  PM.  A:  WNP,  Nov,  Dec  and  Feb.  [According  to 
Pettet  (1976),  passage  in  Oct-Nov  and  Feb-Mar,  Fry  (1970)  estimated  that  more  than 
60,000  passed  through  the  study  area,  a large  proportion  of  the  W Palaearctic 
population.] 

S.  senegalensis  Laughing  Dove.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

Psittacidae 

Poicephalus  senegalus  Senegal  Parrot.  Recorded  twice:  one,  KNP,  23  Feb  1992;  five, 
WNP,  4 Jun  1996.  [Expected,  but  not  confirmed  WNP  (L).] 

Psittacula  krameri  Rose-ringed  Parakeet.  Res?  C:  KNP,  WNP.  Recorded  once  near 
Zimado,  24  Feb  1995.  [Mentioned  for  WNP  by  Broadbent  (1971).] 

Musophagidae 

Crinifer  piscator  Western  Grey  Plantain-eater.  Res.  C:  in  KNP.  Recorded  WNP,  18 
Sep  1994.  [Mentioned  by  Vanpraet  (1977).  Collecting  twigs  in  Aug  1975  in  KNP 
(Kavanagh  1977).] 

Cuculidae 

Oxylophus  jacobinus.  O.  j.  serratus  Black  Crested  Cuckoo.  Recorded  twice  in  SF,  22 
Sep  1994,  16  Oct  1994.  [No  proof  of  occurrence  (L).]  O.  j.  pica  Black  and  White 
Cuckoo.  AM.  C:  entire  area,  Jul-Dec.  Seen  being  chased  by  Ploceus  melanocephalus, 
Sep  1994. 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


35 


O.  kvaillantii  Levaillant's  Cuckoo.  One,  WNP,  29  Oct  1993,  9 Aug  1994;  one,  NF, 
23  Jun  1994. 

Clamator  glandarius  Great  Spotted  Cuckoo.  PM,  AM.  U:  SNF,  WNP.  F:  KNP. 
^Cucuius  clamosus  Black  Cuckoo.  One,  WNP,  19  Jan  1996. 

C canorus  Common  Cuckoo.  PM.  U:  WNP:  31  Mar  1993,  17  Apr  1993  (AS). 

C gularis  African  Cuckoo.  Res?  F:  Maga,  WNP,  KNP. 

C.  klaas  Klaas’s  Cuckoo.  AM.  R:  WNP,  Mar  1993  (AS). 

Chrysococcyx  caprius  Diederik  Cuckoo.  AM.  C:  SF,  WNP,  Jun-Nov.  A chick  hosted 
by  Pioceus  luteolus,  29  Oct  1994. 

Centropus  senegalensis  Senega!  CoucaL  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

Strigidae 

Tyto  alba  Bam  Owl.  Res.  F:  entire  area. 

Otus  scops  Common  Scops  Owl  Res?  F:  SF,  KNP. 

O.  kucotis  White-faced  Scops  Owl.  Res?  U:  WNP.  [Mentioned  by  Vanpraet  (1977).] 
Bubo  africanus  Spotted  Eagle-Owl.  Res.  U:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  Nest  with  two  eggs, 
Zina,  Feb  1995.  Downy  young,  WNP,  9 Apr  1996. 

B.  iacteus  Verreaux’s  Eagle-Owl.  KNP  in  Tamarindus  indiens  woodland:  pair,  14 
Mar  1993  and  17  Apr  1993;  one  with  B.  africanus,  20  May  1996.  One  on  bridge  near 
Pété,  2 Dec  1998.  [Observed  Jul  1975  (Kavanagh  1977).] 

Asio  capensis  African  Marsh  Owl.  AM.  U:  SF,  one,  Apr-May  1994,  9 Oct  1995; 
WNP,  one,  Oct  1997. 

Caprimulgidae 

Caprimulgus  ciimacurus  Long-tailed  Nightjar.  Res?  C:  entire  area.  Observed  all  months 
but  especially  common  during  rainy  and  flood  season.  [Only  in  rainy  season  (L).] 

C.  inornatus  Plain  Nightjar.  Res?  Three  observations.  KNP:  one,  7 Dec  1991;  one,  15 
Nov  1994.  WNP:  26  Nov  1997. 

Macrodipteryx  longipennis  Standard-winged  Nightjar.  Res?  U:  WNP,  KNP.  [KNP: 
mentioned  by  Kavanagh  (1977),  collected  Dec  1970  (L).  Mentioned  by  Vanpraet 
(1977).] 

Apodidae 

Cypsiurus  parvus  African  Palm  Swift.  Res.  VA:  WNP,  SNF.  A:  elsewhere.  Breeding 
throughout  the  year. 

^Apus  pailidus  Pallid  Swift.  Ten,  WNP,  8 Jun  1993  (AS). 

A.  apus  European  Swift.  Recorded  twice  WNP,  14  May  1994,  and  in  1993  (AS). 
[Previously  recorded  Dec- Apr  (L).] 

coffer  White-rumped  Swift.  SF:  9 Jun  1993  (AS)  and  21  Jul  1994.  [Only  once 
observed  in  Cameroon,  at  Ngaoundéré  (L).] 

A.  affinis  Little  Swift.  Res.  VA:  SNF,  WNP,  Maga.  Breeding  Jun-Dec. 

^Tachymarptis  aequatorialis  Mottled  Swift.  One,  WNP,  9 Jun  1993  (AS). 

^T.  meiba  Alpine  Swift.  Two,  WNP,  8 Jun  1993  (AS);  group  of  c.  100  drinking  at 
waterhole,  SP,  21  Dec  1997.  [Only  recorded  in  S Cameroon  (Rodewald  et  al  1994); 
not  mentioned  by  L] . 


36 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Coliidae 

Urocolius  macrourus  Blue-naped  Mousebird.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

Alcedinidae 

Halcyon  leucocephala  Grey-headed  Kingfisher.  Res.  C:  entire  area.  One  nest  in  bank 
of  the  Logomatya  river,  late  Jul  1994. 

H.  senegalensis  Woodland  Kingfisher.  AM.  C:  entire  area,  May-Dec.  One  nest  in  a 
tree,  Jul  1994. 

H.  chelicuti  Striped  Kingfisher.  Res?  U:  SF,  Jul-Sep. 

Ceyx  picta  Pygmy  Kingfisher.  AM.  R:  WNP,  Mar-Apr  1993  (AS).  [Collected  WNP, 
Dec  1970  (L).] 

Corythornis  cristata  Malachite  Kingfisher.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  Logone;  C:  KNP. 
[Observed  throughout  the  year,  contra  L.] 

Megaceryle  maxima  Giant  Kingfisher.  Res?  F:  KNP.  [Observed  1958  along  Logone 
(Dragesco  1961).] 

Ceryle  rudis  Pied  Kingfisher.  Res.  A:  Maga,  SNF,  Logone,  KNP;  F:  WNP  Breeding 
Jun-Aug. 

Meropidae 

Merops  pusillus  Little  Bee-eater.  Res?  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP. 

M.  bullocki  Red-throated  Bee-eater.  Res?  C:  KNP.  [WNP  (Vanpraet  1977).] 

M albicollis  White-throated  Bee-eater.  Res.  F:  WNP,  KNP.  One  breeding  colony 
near  Andirni,  late  Jun  1994. 

M.  orientalis  Little  Green  Bee-eater.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

M persicus  Blue-cheeked  Bee-eater.  One  observation:  25  at  Zina,  28  May  1994. 

M nubiens  Carmine  Bee-eater.  Res.  A:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  KNP:  two  colonies  with  c. 
100  and  400  individuals,  1992;  three  colonies  along  (dry)  riverbanks,  Apr  1993  (Fig. 
6).  Especially  common  around  bushfires. 

Coraciidae 

Coracias  abyssinica  Abyssinian  Roller.  Res?  A:  entire  area. 

Eurystomus  glaucurus  Broad-billed  Roller.  One  record,  WNP,  8 Aug  1993. 

Upupidae 

Phoeniculus purpureus  Green  Wood-Hoopoe.  Res?  C:  WNP,  KNP. 

P.  aterrimus  Black  Wood-Hoopoe.  Res?  F:  WNP,  KNP. 

Upupa  epops  Hoopoe.  U.  e.  senegalensis.  Res?  C:  WNP,  SP,  SNF,  KNP.  U.  e.  epops. 
PM.  U:  WNP.  Several  observations  May-Jun  1994. 

Bucerotidae 

Bucorvus  abyssiniens  Abyssinian  Ground  Hornbill.  Res?  F:  Maga,  WNP.  Less 
cômmon  than  in  Benoué  valley  (pers.  obs). 

Tockus  erythrorhynchus  Red-billed  Hornbill.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

T.  nasutns  African  Grey  Hornbill.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

Capitonidae 

Pogoniulus  chrysoconus  Yellow-fronted  Tinkerbird.  Res?  U:  WNP  [Collected  L.] 
Lybius  vieilloti  Vieillot’ s Barbet.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


37 


Figure  6.  Carmine  Bee-eater,  Kalamaloué  NP,  April  1993 


L.  guifsobalito  Black-billed  Barbet.  R:  WNP  [Recorded  once,  WNP,  11  Feb  1993 
(Beirs  1997).] 

Indicatoridae 

Indicator  indicator  Greater  Honeyguide.  Recorded  once,  WNP,  13  Feb  1995.  [Less 
common  than  described  by  L.j 

Picidae 

Campethera  punctuligera  Fine-spotted  Woodpecker.  Res?  U:  WNP,  SNF,  KNP. 
Dendropicos  elachus  Little  Grey  Woodpecker.  One,  SF  24  Feb  1995.  [WNP  (Greling 
1972b).] 

^D.  fuscescens  Cardinal  Woodpecker.  Recorded  once,  KNP,  1 1 Apr  1993. 

D.  goertae  Grey  Woodpecker.  Res?  F;  entire  area. 

^Picoides  obsoletus  Brown-backed  Woodpecker.  Res?  U:  SF,  WNP. 

Aiaudidae 

Mirafra  rufocinnamomea  Flappet  Lark.  Recorded  once,  SF,  12  Dec  1994. 

Galerida  cristata  Crested  Lark.  Res?  C:  SNF,  WNP. 

Eremopterix  leucotis  Chestnut-backed  Sparrow-lark.  AM.  VA:  entire  area,  Nov-Jun. 

Hirundinidae 

Riparia  paludicola  Brown-throated  Sand  Martin.  AM.  F:  SF,  May-Feb. 


38 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


R.  riparia  Sand  Martin.  PM.  U:  SNF,  WNP,  May-Jun.  [Considerable  numbers  Dec 
(Pettet  1976).] 

R.  cincta  Banded  Martin.  AM.  SF:  20,  14  Jun  1994;  SP,  hundreds,  22-27  Nov  1997. 
Hirundo  semirufa  Rufous-breasted  Swallow.  One  observation,  WNP,  14  Jun  1993  (AS). 

senegalensis  Mosque  Swallow.  Maga,  12  Aug  1994;  WNP,  7 May  1998. 

H.  daurica  Red-rumped  Swallow.  PM.  U:  WNP,  KNP,  Nov-Apr. 

smithii  Wire-tailed  Swallow.  Observed  once,  WNP,  18  May  1994. 

H.  aethiopica  Ethiopian  Swallow.  Res.  VA:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP.  Breeding  Jun-Dec. 

H.  rustica  Barn  Swallow.  PM.  C:  SNF,  Oct-Feb,  first  arrivai  date  in  1994,  9 Oct. 
Delichon  urbica  Common  House  Martin.  PM.  U:  Maga,  WNP.  Only  record:  several 
WNP,  13  May  1993.  [Common  at  Maga,  1991  (O AG  Münster  1991).] 

Motacillidae 

Motacilla /lava  Yellow  Wagtail.  PM.  A:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  Logone,  KNP,  Oct-Apr. 
First  arrivai  date  in  1994,  5 Oct.  Sspp.  thunbergi,  /lava  (Greling  1972,  L)  and  feldegg 
observed.  [“Tens  of  thousands”  in  rice  field  at  Maga  (OAG  1991).] 

M.  alba  White  Wagtail.  PM.  U:  SNF,  WNP,  Nov-Feb.  [Rare  (L).] 

^Anthus  novaeseelandiae  Richard’s  Pipit.  AM.  C:  SNF,  Dec-Jun.  [Restricted  to 
montane  district  (L).] 

‘/I.  campestris  Tawny  Pipit.  SF,  group  of  five,  18  Oct  1994.  [Not  mentioned  for 
Cameroon  (L),  but  area  included  in  map  of  Keith  et  al.  (1992).] 

^A.  trivialis  Tree  Pipit.  PM.  R:  WNP.  Only  a few  observations,  Apr  1994. 

A.  cervinus  Red-throated  Pipit.  PM.  F:  SF,  WNP,  Oct-Apr.  Earliest  in  1994:  1 Oct. 
Macronyx  croceus  Yellow-throated  Longclaw.  One  observation  WNP,  9 Dec  1995. 
[Mentioned  by  Vanpraet  (1977).] 

Campephagidae 

Campephaga  phoenicea  Red-shouldered  Cuckoo-shrike.  Couple,  WNP,  23  Jun  1994. 
[Less  common  than  indicated  by  L.] 

Pycnonotidae 

Pycnonotus  barbatus  Common  Bulbul.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Restricted  to  human 
settlements. 

Turdidae 

Luscinia  megarhynchos  Nightingale.  PM,  R:  SF  26  Mar  1993;  NF  14  Feb  1995. 
Cercotrichas  galactotes  Rufous  Scrub-Robin,  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP. 

C.  podobe  Black  Scrub-Robin.  Res?  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

Phoenicurus  phoenicurus  Common  Redstart.  PM.  U:  SNF,  KNP,  Oct-Feb.  Earliest  in 
1994:  18  Oct. 

Saxicola  rubetra  Whinchat.  PM.  A:  SNF,  KNP.  Observed  Nov-Apr.  Earliest  in  1994: 
15  Sep. 

Oenanthe  oenanthe  Northern  Wheatear.  PM.  C:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Nov-Jun.  Earliest 
in  1994:  1 Nov. 

^O.  hispanica  Spanish  Wheatear.  R:  Maga,  WNP,  3 Mar  1996  [No  Cameroon  records  (L), 
but  included  on  map  in  Keith  et  al.  1992.  One  observation  Maga  (OAG  Münster  1991).] 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


39 


O.  bottae  Red-breasted  Wheatear.  Res.  U:  SNF,  WNP.  Breeding  starts  Apr  (PS). 

‘O.  isabeilina  Isabelline  Wheatear.  PM.  U:  WNP,  Feb-Apr.  [Not  mentioned  for 
Cameroon  (L).] 

Myrmecocichla  aethiops  Northern  Anteater  Chat.  Res?  F:  Maga,  SP;  U:  WNP.  [Three 
collected  in  1971-2  (L).] 

M soUtaria  Blue  Rock-Trush.  Only  observation  WNP,  25  Feb  1993  (AS).  [Several 
Nov-Mar  (Greling  1972b);  possibly  regular  (L).] 

Sylviidae 

Acrocephalus  schoenobaenus  Sedge  Warbler.  PM.  VA:  SF,  Oct— Dec  1994. 

A.  scirpaceus  Reed  Warbler.  PM.  F:  SF,  Nov-Dec  1994.  Earliest  in  1994:  16  Nov. 

A.  arundinaceus  Great  Reed  Warbler.  Three  records  SF:  one,  13  Oct  1994;  eight,  16 
Nov  1994;  two,  12  Oct  1995.  [Recorded  by  Vanpraet  (1977).] 

rufescens  Greater  Swamp  Warbler.  Res?  F:  SF.  [Presence  Cameroon  side  of  Lake 
Chad,  predicted  by  L,  is  hereby  confirmed.] 

Hippolais  pallida  laeneni  Olivaceous  Warbler.  Res?  A:  SF,  WNP.  H.  p.  opaca  not 
observed  with  certainty. 

H.  polyglotta  Melodious  Warbler.  PM.  Recorded  once,  SF,  22  Sep  1994. 

Cisticola  galactotes  Winding  Cisticola.  Res.  A:  SF. 

C.  ruficeps  Red-pate  Cisticola.  Res?  C:  SF.  Rufous  nape  and  mottled  back;  often 
heard  sieging.  No  indication  of  C dorsti,  which  occurs  nearby,  though  in  different 
montane  habitat  (Urban  et  al.  1997). 

C.  brachypterus  Shortwing  Cisticola.  Recorded  once,  singing  in  grassy  area  bordering 
wooded  savanna,  SF,  14  Oct  1994.  [Mentioned  by  Greling  (1972a).  L doubted  its 
presence  and  attributed  Greling’s  observation  to  C.  rufa.\ 

C.juncidis  Fan-tailed  Cisticola.  Res.  VA:  SF,  WNP.  Breeding  Jul-Dec  1994. 

Prinia  subflava  Tawny-flanked  Prinia.  Res.  VA:  SF,  WNP.  Breeding  Jul-Dec  1994. 
Found  in  virtually  all  habitat  types  in  the  region.  Identification  mainly  based  on  song. 
We  have  not  observed  River  Prinia  P.  fluviatilis,  although  it  occurs  nearby  (Urban  et 
al.  1997). 

Camaroptera  brachyura  Bleating  Warbler.  Res?  F:  WNP. 

Eremomela  pusilla  Senegal  Eremomela.  Res?  U:  WNP. 

Syivietta  brachyura  Northern  Crombec.  Res.  F:  SF,  WNP.  Juveniles,  Feb  1993  (PE). 
Phylloscopus  trochilus  Willow  Warbler.  PM.  C:  SF,  WNP,  Sep-Dec.  Earliest  in 
1994:  17  Sep.  [Only  on  passage  in  N Cameroon  (L).] 

coUybita  Chiffchaff  Recorded  once,  singing  male  in  tree  next  to  waterhole,  WNP, 
14  Oct  1994.  [One  previous  Cameroon  record,  WNP  (Pettet  1976).] 

P.  sibilatrix  Wood  Warbler.  PM.  C:  SF,  WNP,  Sep-Dec.  Earliest  in  1994:  17  Sep. 

P.  boneili  Bonelli’s  Warbler.  PM.  U:  WNP,  Nov-Apr. 

Sylvia  borin  Garden  Warbler.  PM.  U:  WNP,  Feb-Apr.  [Not  common  (L).] 

'^S.  atricapiiia  Blackcap.  One  male,  WNP,  9 Mar  1993  (AS).  [One  Cameroon  record  (L).] 

S.  communis  Common  Whitethroat.  PM.  U:  SF,  WNP.  [Common  in  the  north  (L).] 

S.  curruca  Lesser  Whitethroat.  PM.  U:  WNP,  Nov-Apr. 


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Malimbus  21 


S.  cantillans  Subalpine  Warbler.  PM.  U:  WNP,  Dec-Mar. 

Hyliota  flavigaster  Yellow-bellied  Hyliota.  Recorded  once,  SP,  one  male,  first  week 
Apr  1998. 

Muscicapidae 

Melaenornis  pallidus  Pale  Flycatcher.  Recorded  once,  SF,  16  Oct  1994. 

Muscicapa  striata  Spotted  Flycatcher.  PM.  F:  SF,  Sep-Feb.  Earliest  in  1994:  22  Sep. 
M.  aquatica  Swamp  Flycatcher.  Res?  U:  SF. 

Ficedula  hypoleuca  European  Pied  Flycatcher.  One  female,  SF,  10  Oct  to  7 Nov 
1994.  [Observed  WNP  by  Greling  (1972a).] 

Monarchidae 

Terpsiphone  viridis  Paradise  Flycatcher.  Res?  U:  Maga,  WNP,  KNP.  Normally 
brown-red  phase,  only  once  one  pair  of  white  phase,  WNP,  8 Aug  1993.  [Further 
south  the  white  phase  seems  to  be  more  common,  confirming  L.]' 

Platysteiridae 

Batis  orientalis  Grey-headed  Batis.  One,  KNP,  15  Nov  1992.  [Earlier  collected  in 
Logone  Birni;  said  to  be  allopatric  with  B.  senegalensis  (L).] 

Laniidae 

Nilaus  afer  Brubru  Shrike.  Res?  U;  SNF,  WNP.  [Recorded  WNP  (Greling  1972a, 
Vanpraet  1977),  collected  WNP  (L).] 

Tchagra  senegala  Black-crowned  Tchagra.  Res?  F:  SNF;  C:  KNP. 

Laniarius  barbarus  Barbary  Shrike.  Res?  U:  WNP.  [See  next  species.] 

L erythrogaster  Black-headed  Barbary  Shrike.  Res?  F:  SNF;  A:  KNP.  [L  suggested 
that  it  replaces  L.  barbarus  from  the  inundation  area  southward  and  eastward.  Our 
observations  confirm  this.] 

Lanius  collurio  Red-backed  Shrike.  Recorded  twice  in  SF:  13  and  16  Oct  1994. 

L.  isabellinus  Isabelline  Shrike.  PM.  F:  SNF,  Oct-Mar.  Earliest  in  1994:  10  Oct. 

L.  minor  Lesser  Grey  Shrike.  Recorded  once  SF,  14  Oct  1994.  [Mentioned  for  WNP 
by  Greling  (1972b),  not  regular  pace  L.] 

L.  excubitor  Great  Grey  Shrike.  Res?  F:  entire  area.  Juvenile,  Sep  1994.  [More 
common  than  indicated  by  L.] 

L.  excubitorius  Grey-backed  Shrike.  U.  SF,  several,  30  Nov  1997. 

^L.  collaris  Fiscal  Shrike.  Two  observations:  KNP,  25  Oct  1992;  Maga,  13  Oct  1995. 
L.  senator  Woodchat  Shrike.  PM.  Recorded  twice:  WNP,  28  Feb  1995;  NF,  28  Jan 
1996. 

L.  nubiens  Masked  Shrike.  Recorded  SNF:  18  Feb  to  26  Mar  1993  (AS);  24  Sep 
1994;  26  Feb  1995;  8 Jan  1998.  [Observed  in  WNP  by  Greling  (1972b),  not  regular 
pace  L.] 

Timaliidae 

Turdoides  plebejus  Brown  Babbler.  Res?  F:  SP.  U:  WNP.  Several,  3 Mar  1996.  Also 
observed  1992  (PE).  [Recorded  by  Fry  (1970).] 

Remizidae 

Remiz punctifrons  Sudan  Penduline  tit.  Res?  F:  WNP. 


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Birds  of  N Cameroon 


41 


Nectariniidae 

Anthreptes platura  Pygmy  Long-tailed  Sunbird.  Res?  C:  WNP,  KNP. 

Nectarinia  senegaiemis  Scarlet-breasted  Sunbird.  Res?  U:  WNP.  [Three  collected  WNP  (L).] 
N.  pulchella  Beautiful  Long-tailed  Sunbird.  Res?  C:  Maga,  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 
Zosteropidae 

Zosterops  senegalensis  Yellow  White-Eye.  Res?  F:  WNP, 

Emberizidae 

Emberiza  tahapisi  Rock  Bunting.  Res?  F:  SF,  WNP. 

Fringiilidae 

Serinus  leucopygius  Grey  Canary.  Res.  C:  SF,  WNP.  Breeding  Sep  1994. 

Estrildidae 

Amadina  fasciata  Cut-throat  Weaver.  Res?  U:  SNF,  WNP.  [Common  in  the 
inundation  area  (L).] 

Pytilia  meiba  Melba  Finch.  Res?  U:  SNF,  WNP.  Several  in  Waza  town,  2 Nov  1995. 
[Mentioned  by  Greling  (1972a);  ten  collected  WNP  (L).] 

Estrilda  troglodytes  Black-ramped  Waxbill.  Res?  C:  SNF,  Maga.  [Collected  WNP  (L).] 
E.  caerulescens  Lavender  Fire-Finch.  Res?  F:  SNF. 

E.  bengala  Red-cheeked  Cordon-blue.  Res.  A:  entire  area. 

Lagonosticta  senegala  Senegal  Fire  Finch.  Res.  A:  entire  area. 

^Amandava  subflava  Zebra  Waxbill  Res?  F:  SNF, 

Ortygospiza  atricollis  Quail-Finch.  Res?  U:  SF,  WNP.  [Observed  in  WNP  (Greling 
1972a).] 

Lonchura  malabarica  Warbling  Silverbill.  Res.  A:  entire  area.  Breeding  Aug-Nov 
1994  (“Feb  1995),  Concentrations  of  hundreds  around  water  holes  at  the  end  of  the 
dry  season. 

L cucullata  Bronze  Mannikin.  One  Maga,  17  Apr  1994.  [Not  in  N Cameroon  (L). 

Collected  by  Greling  (1972b)  in  Logone  Birni.j 

Ploceidae 

Ploceus  luteolus  Slender-billed  Weaver.  Res.  C;  SNF. 

P.  velatus  Vitelline  Masked  Weaver.  Res.  C:  entire  area.  [Further  north  than 
suggested  by  Hall  & Moreau  (1970),  confirming  L.] 

P.  heuglini  Heuglin’s  Masked  Weaver.  Group  of  15,  SF,  24  Sep  1994. 

P.  cucullatus  Village  Weaver.  Res.  VA  entire  area. 

P.  melanocephalus  Black-headed  Weaver.  Res.  VA:  Maga,  SNF,  KNP.  Breeding  in 
reedbeds  along  Logomatya,  Sep-Oct.  [Collected  WNP,  1970  and  1972  (L).] 

Quelea  quelea  Black-faced  Dioch.  Res.  VA:  entire  area.  The  largest  numbrs  observed 
in  the  floodplain  coincided  with  the  ripening  of  seeds  of  Echinochloa  pyramidalis 
and  Sorghum  arundinaceum.  Thousands  gather  during  the  ripening  of  dry  season 
crops  (sorghum,  rice)  and  towards  the  end  of  the  dry  season  around  waterholes  in 
WNP  and  KNP. 

Euplectes  afer  Yellow-crowned  Bishop.  Res.  VA:  entire  area.  Breeding  plumage 
appeared  in  Jul  1994. 


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Malimbus  21 


^E.  axillaris  Red-shouldered  Whydah.  Res.  A:  SNF.  Breeding  plumage  appeared  end 
Jun,  1994.  [Not  in  N Cameroon,  but  in  similar  habitats  in  neighbouring  countries 
(L).] 

^E.  macrourus  Yellow-mantled  Whydah.  R:  KNP,  several  observed  30  Jul  1994. 

E.  orix  Red  Bishop.  Res.  VA:  entire  area.  Breeding  plumage  appeared  end  of  Jun, 
1994. 

Bubal  omis  albirostris  Buffalo  Weaver.  Res.  A:  entire  area. 

Plocepasser  superciliosus  Sparrow-weaver.  Res?  U:  WNP.  [Rather  frequent 
(Dragesco  (1961).] 

Passer  griseus  Grey-headed  Sparrow.  Res.  A:  entire  area. 

P.  luteus  Golden  Sparrow.  AM.  U:  in  KNP:  23  Feb  1992  (hundreds);  17  May  1992 
(several  with  P.  melanocephalus);  8 Nov  1992  (one  male,  seven  females/juveniles); 
14  Nov  1992  (several).  [Mentioned  by  Greling  (1972b)  for  WNP.] 

Petronia  dentata  Bush  Sparrow.  Res?  U:  SF,  WNP.  [Breeding  in  WNP  (Pettet 
1976).] 

Sporopipes  frontalis  Scaly-fronted  Weaver.  Res.  C:  SF,  WNP.  Nest  in  SF,  27  Oct 
1994. 

Vidua  macroura  Pin-tailed  Whydah.  Res.  F:  entire  area.  Male  displaying,  Jul  1994 
[Not  in  WNP  according  to  L,  , although  mentioned  as  rather  common  by  Dragesco 
(1961).] 

V.  chalybeata  Senegal  Indigobird.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

V.  orientalis  Broad-tailed  Paradise  Whydah.  Res.  F:  entire  area.  Breeding  plumage 
and  display  appeared  Sep  1994  and  observed  Feb  1995. 

Sturnidae 

Lamprotornis  purpureus  Purple  Glossy  Starling.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

L.  chalybaeus  Greater  Blue-eared  Glossy  Starling.  Res?  C:  entire  area. 

L.  caudatus  Long-tailed  Glossy  Starling.  Res.  A:  entire  area. 

Cinnyric inclus  leucogaster  Amethyst  Starling.  Several  juveniles/females,  KNP,  14 
Nov  1992. 

Spreo  pulcher  Chestnut-bellied  Starling.  Res.  A:  SP;  C:  elsewhere. 

Craetophora  cinerea  Wattled  Startling.  AM.  SP:  one  in  group  of  Lamprotornis 
chalybaeus,  near  Andirni,  22  Nov  1998.  [No  Cameroon  records  (L).  Observed  WNP, 
Feb  1992,  including  a flock  of  60  (Robertson  1993);  elsewhere  in  N Cameroon 
(Wetten  & Spierenburg  1993).] 

Buphagus  africanus  Yellow-billed  Oxpecker.  Res?  C:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP. 

Oriolidae 

Oriolus  oriolus  Golden  Oriole.  PM.  F:  SNF,  WNP,  KNP,  Sept-May.  Earliest  in  1994: 
24  Sep.  More  than  30,  14  Apr  to  2 May  1993  (AS). 

^O.  auratus  African  Golden  Oriole.  Observed  twice  in  KNP,  1 1 Apr  1993  and  8 Aug 
1993.  [Not  north  of  Yagoua  (L).] 

Dicruridae 

Dicrurus  adsimilis  Fork-tailed  Drongo.  Res?  C:  WNP,  KNP. 


1999 


Birds  of  N Cameroon 


43 


Corvidae 

^Ptilostomus  afer  Black  Magpie.  Res?  A:  entire  area.  [Absent  from  Far  North  (L).] 
Corvus  albus  Pied  Crow.  Res.  C:  entire  area. 


List  2.  Species  observed  in  the  Waza-Logone  Area  only  prior  to  1980 
Phalacrocoracidae 

Phalocrocorax  carbo  Great  Cormorant.  Observed  once  in  1940  near  Logone  Birni, 
NF  (Salvan  1967). 

Anatidae 

Anas  penelope  Wigeon.  Observed  in  WNP,  Jan-Feb  1958  (Dragesco  1961). 

A.  strepera  Gadwall.  One  observed  in  WNP,  Dec  1958  (Dragesco  1961). 

A.  crecca  Green- winged  Teal.  Mentioned  for  WNP  by  Dragesco  (1961)  and  Vanpraet 
(1977);  15  observed  in  WNP  by  Fry  (1970). 

A.  capensis  Cape  Teal.  Mentioned  for  WNP  without  further  details  by  Vanpraet  (1977). 
A.  hottentota  Hottentot  Teal.  Large  flock  in  WNP,  Jan  1976  (L). 

Marmaronetta  angustirostris  Marbled  Teal.  One  flock  in  WNP,  Jan  1976  (L). 

Aythya  nyroca  Ferruginous  Duck.  Hundreds  in  WNP,  Jan  1976  (L),  also  in  Mar  1967 
(Greling  1972b). 

Accipitridae 

Gypohierax  angolensis  Palmnut  Vulture.  Observed  in  WNP,  Mar  1969  (Broadbent 
1971);  P.  Mundy  (pers.comm.  1996)  confirmed  its  presence  in  N Nigeria  in  the  same 
period  (see  Scholte  in  press). 

Aquila  clanga  Spotted  Eagle.  Two  observed,  WNP  and/or  NSF,  Feb  and/or  Apr  1973 
(Thiollay  1978). 

Falco  subbuteo  Hobby.  One  adult  observed  in  WNP,  Feb  (Thiollay  1978) 

F.  cherrug  Saker.  Mentioned  for  WNP  by  Vielliard  (1971),  and  three  by  Thiollay 
(1978).  This  unusual  observation  is  accepted  because  the  latter  author  also  observed 
F.  biarmicus. 

Charadriidae 

Limosa  lapponica  Bar-tailed  Godwit.  Mentioned  without  further  details  for  WNP  by 
Vanpraet  (1977);  no  details  other  than  “for  the  inundation  area”  (L). 

Rynchopidae 

Rynchops  Jlavirostris  African  Skimmer.  Common  along  the  Logone  in  1958-9 
(Dragesco  1961). 

Meropidae 

Merops  apiaster  European  Bee-eater.  Mentioned  for  WNP  without  details  (Vanpraet 
1977). 

Coraciidae 

Coracias  garrulus  European  Roller.  Fairly  common  in  WNP,  Dec  1958  to  Jan  1959 
(Dragesco  1961). 


44 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


Capitbnidae 

Lybius  dubius  Bearded  Barbet.  One  observed  in  Logone  Bimi,  16  Jan  1967  (Greling 
1972b).  L stated  not  observed  in  WNP. 

L.  leucocephalus  White-headed  Barbet.  One  observed  KNP,  March  1975  (Kavanagh 
1977).  Common  in  neighbouring  Mandara  Mts  (pers.  obs.). 

Motaciliidae 

Motacilla  aguimp  African  Pied  Wagtail.  Occured  along  the  Logone  1958-9 
(Dragesco  1961).  Common  in  the  Benoué  valley  (pers.  obs.). 

Turdidae 

Cercomela  melanura  Black-tailed  Rock-Chat.  Once  observed  in  WNP,  10  Apr  1966 
(Greling  1972b). 

Cossypha  heuglini  White-browed  Robin-Chat.  Several  near  Logone-Birni,  NF  1 965- 
7 (Greling  1972b) 

Monticola  saxatilis  Rock-Thrush.  Regular  at  Waza  (L),  but  no  recent  observations. 

Laniidae 

Prionops  plumata  Long-crested  Helmet-shrike.  Mentioned  for  WNP  without  further 
details  (Vanpraet  1977). 

Sylviidae 

Locustella  luscinioides  Savi’s  Warbler.  Two  well  documented  records  for  WNP,  Nov 
1969  (Fry  1970). 

Estrildidae 

Estrilda  melpoda  Orange-cheeked  Waxbill.  Collected  in  Pouss,  without  further 
details,  specimen  in  Paris  (L). 

Ploceidae 

Anomalospiza  imberbis  Parasitic  Weaver.  Collected  in  WNP,  1971  (L). 


Discussion 

The  present  checklist  contains  eleven  species  which  appear  not  to  have  been 
documented  in  Cameroon  before.  Twenty-six  species  had  not  been  observed  before  in 
the  Far  North  Province,  of  which  most  were  previously  thought  not  to  occur  north  of 
the  Adamawa  plateau.  Another  12  species  had  as  yet  not  been  observed  as  far  north  in 
Far  North  Province  Cameroon,  or  had  only  once  been  observed  there  before  (see  List 
1). 

In  terms  of  species  richness,  the  Waza-Logone  area  is  only  surpassed  in  West  and 
central  Africa,  by  a few  well-studied  rainforest  areas,  such  as  Korup  National  Park 
and  environs  (approximately  5000  km^  with  407  species,  Rodewald  et  al.  1994, 
Green  & Rodewald  1996).  In  the  Jonglei  area,  a huge  floodplain  of  68,000  km^  in  S 
Sudan,  only  270  species  have  been  observed,  although  the  area  is  less  well  studied 
(Howell  et  al.  1988).  In  contrast,  in  the  well  studied,  but  much  smaller,  Djoudj 
National  Park  (160  km^),  316  species  have  been  recorded  (Rodwell  et  al.  1996). 


1999 


Birds  of  N Cameroon 


45 


Compared  with  savanna  areas  such  as  Bamingui-Bangoran  NP  of  11,000  km^  with 
278  species  (Green  1983,  1984,  1990)  and  a steppe  zone  such  as  Ouadi  Rimé-Ouadi 
Achim  of  78,000  km^  with  267  species  (Newby  1979),  the  Waza-Logone  area 
harbours  an  unsurpassed  number  of  species.  Reasons  for  the  high  diversity  include 
the  variety  of  habitats  and  year-round  water  availability,  which  attract  an  important 
number  of  Palaearctic  migrants.  The  observation  intensity,  relatively  well  distributed 
in  space  as  well  as  in  a time  span  of  40  years,  has  also  contributed. 

Although  this  is  the  first  detailed  checklist  for  the  Waza-Logone  area,  some 
general  trends  can  be  detected  by  comparing  it  with  previous  records.  Most  striking 
are  the  seven  duck  species  which  have  not  been  recorded  recently,  a change  probably 
caused  by  the  desiccation  of  the  area  from  1979  onwards.  Changes  elsewhere  in  the 
Lake  Chad  Basin  may,  however,  have  caused  a more  general  decrease  in  species 
diversity  and  abundance.  Balearica  pavonina,  a typical  floodplain  resident,  has 
decreased  from  an  estimated  10,000  west  of  the  Waza  camp  in  1971  (Holmes  1972) 
to  an  estimated  2500  for  the  whole  area  at  present  (Scholte  1996).  It  is  most  likely 
that  degradation  of  the  area  started  prior  to  the  Maga  dam  construction,  most 
probably  influenced  by  increasing  human  exploitation,  construction  of  the  Waza- 
Kousseri  road  in  1972  (which  blocked  several  water  courses),  and  the  general 
Sahelian  drought  in  1973-5.  Species  typical  of  wooded  savanna,  such  as  Poicephalus 
senegalus,  Psittacula  krameri,  Crinifer  piscator  and  Lybius  dubius,  although  already 
restricted  in  1972,  seem  to  have  been  far  more  common  in  the  past.  Several  species, 
most  notably  Coturnix  delegorguei,  seem  to  be  more  common  than  suggested  by 
Louette  (1981).  Various  species  {e.g.  Ixobrychus  minutus,  I.  sturmii)  have  recently 
been  recorded  much  earlier  in  the  season  than  before,  probably  due  to  our  presence  in 
the  area  during  inundation,  which  prevented  access  to  previous  ornithologists. 


Acknowledgments 

The  Waza-Logone  project  is  carried  out  by  the  Government  of  Cameroon  and  lUCN 
- The  World  Conservation  Union,  in  cooperation  with  the  Centre  of  Environmental 
Science  of  Leiden  University,  the  Netherlands  Development  Organisation  and  WWF- 
Cameroon,  with  financial  support  from  the  Dutch  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  and 
WWF-Netherlands;  the  authors  remain,  however,  responsible  for  possible  errors  and 
the  views  expressed  in  this  paper.  We  should  like  to  thank  Pirn  Edelaar,  Aat 
Schaftenaar  and  Peter  Spierenburg  for  providing  their  unpublished  checklists.  Jeroen 
van  Wetten  was  involved  with  the  organisation  of  the  early  ornithological  research. 
We  should  also  like  to  thank  our  colleagues  Emmanuel  Battokok  and  Rigobert 
Azombo  of  the  Wildlife  School  in  Garoua,  and  Bobo  Kadiri  and  Philippe  Kirda  of  the 
Waza-Logone  Project,  as  well  as  Stephany  Kersten,  for  their  collaboration  in  the 
annual  waterfowl  census  and  other  bird  counts.  Arthur  Green  and  Alan  Tye 
commented  in  detail  the  manuscript. 


46 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


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Serle,  W.  & Morel,  G.  1977.  A Field  Guide  to  the  Birds  of  West  Africa.  Collins, 
London. 

Thiollay,  J.M.  1978.  Les  plaines  du  Nord  Cameroun.  Centre  d’hivernage  de  rapaces 
paléarctiques.  Alauda  46:  314-326. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  1986.  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  2.  Academie 
Press,  London. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  1997.  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  5.  Academie 
Press,  London. 

Vanpraet,  C.L.  1977.  L’écologie  et  T amenagement  du  Parc  National  de  Waza. 
Annexe  1.  Oiseaux  observés  au  Parc  National  de  Waza.  PNUD/FAO,  Rome. 


1999 


Birds  of  N Cameroon 


49 


ViELLiARD,  J.  1971.  Données  biogéographiques  sur  I’avifaune  de  FAfrique  Centrale. 
Alauda,  39:  227-248. 

Wetten,  J.  van  & Spierenburg,  P.  1993.  Wader  and  Waterfowl  in  the  Floodplain  of 
the  Logone,  January  1993.  Ecole  de  Faune,  Garoua. 


Appendix  1 

Observations  excluded  because  of  doubtful  identification  or  location 

Accipiter  ovampensis  Ovampo  Sparrowhawk.  Dark  phase  with  clear  yellow  legs 
observed  KNP,  28  Apr  1992  and  17  May  1992.  [Only  once  recorded  before  in 
Cameroon  (L).] 

Podica  senegalensis  Finfoot.  Mentioned  for  the  inundation  area,  without  further 
details  (L). 

Giareola  nordmanii  Black-winged  Pratincole.  Present  according  to  Urban  et  al. 
(1986)  but  not  according  to  L. 

Mirafra  javanica  Singing  Bush-Lark.  Mentioned  for  “the  inundation  area  near  L. 
Chad”  (L). 

Cisticola  cantans  Singing  Cisticola.  WNP,  possible  observation  (Fry  1970).  Included 
on  distribution  map  in  Urban  et  al  (1997). 


Appendix  2 

Rejected  records  from  the  Waza-Logone  area 

Egreiia  guiaris  Western  Reef  Heron.  One  observed  in  NF,  23  Mar  1966  (Greling 
1972b).  Observation  earlier  questioned  by  L. 

Milvus  milvus  Red  Kite.  Mentioned  without  further  comments  by  Vanpraet  (1977). 
Rallus  aquaticus  Water  Rail.  Reported  by  Wetten  & Spierenburg  (1993)  at  Maga, 
without  any  remark  on  this  exceptional  observation,  far  from  its  normal  range  (Urban 
etal  1986). 

Turtur  afer  Red-billed  Wood  Dove.  Reported  by  OAG  Münster  (1991);  possibly 
confused  with  T.  abyssinicus,  a vicariant  that  they  did  not  mention. 

Caprimuigus  europaeus  European  Nightjar.  Very  common  in  WNP  late  1958  and 
early  1959  according  to  Dragesco  (1961).  Most  probably  confused  with  C.  inornatus. 
Nectarina  chloropygia  Olive-bellied  Sunbird.  Several  observations  by  OAG  Münster 
(1991),  but  according  to  L only  once  observed  outside  the  forest  and  forest  galleries, 


50 


P.  Scholte  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


in  the  Benoué  valley.  Together  with  N.  rubescens  (below)  this  is  the  only  sunbird 
observed  by  OAG  Münster  (1991). 

N.  rubescens  Green-throated  Sunbird.  Some  observations  mentioned  by  OAG  Mün- 
ster (1991),  but  this  is  a species  of  the  equatorial  forest  block  and  forest  galleries  (L). 
Euplectis  ardens  Long-tailed  Black  Whydah.  Said  to  be  common  in  lightly  wooded 
savanna,  according  to  Dragesco  (1961),  who  does  not  mention  Vidua  orientalis.  L 
rejected  this  observation. 

E.  hordeacea  Fire-Crowned  Bishop.  Questionable  observation  in  WNP  by  Dragesco 
(1961)  who  does  not  note  E.  orix. 

Vidua  camerunensis  Cameroon  Indigo  Finch.  One  report  by  OAG  Münster  (1991). 
Given  that  they  did  not  report  the  common  V.  chalybeata,  we  assume  they  made  an 
identification  error. 


Appendix  3 

Gazetteer 


N 

E 

Andirni 

11°  4' 

14° 42' 

Fadaré 

10°55' 

14°36' 

Guirvidig 

10°53' 

14° 50' 

Ivye 

11°25' 

15°  3' 

Kousseri 

12°  5' 

15°  2' 

Logone  Birni 

11°47' 

15°  6' 

Maga 

10° 50' 

14°57' 

Maroua 

10° 36' 

14° 20' 

Mora 

11°  3' 

14°  9' 

N'djamena 

12°  8' 

15°  2' 

Ngodeuni 

11°24' 

15°  r 

Pété 

10° 58' 

14°30' 

Pouss 

10°51' 

15°  3' 

Tikélé 

11°  0' 

15°  3' 

Waza 

11°24' 

14°34' 

Zimado 

11°39' 

15°  4' 

Zina 

iri6' 

14°58' 

1999 


51 


Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 


Vocalisations  of  the  Mouse-brown  Sunbird  Anthreptes  gabonicus 

The  only  description  of  calls  or  songs  of  the  Mouse-brown  Sunbird  Anthreptes 
gabonicus  is  by  Barlow  et  al.  (1997):  a thin,  very  high  pitched  “sqee”  and  a 
conversational  “wit. wit.sqee. witter. witter”.  In  August  and  September  1986, 1 regularly 
saw  a pair  feeding  on  insects  in  trees  alongside  the  St  Paul  River  at  Haindi  (6°54'N, 
10°23'W)  near  Bong  Town,  Liberia.  On  5 Sept  one  uttered  a soft  “tsurp-tseeep- 
tseeep”  whilst  in  flight.  On  8 Sept,  what  I assumed  to  be  the  male  sang  from  a dead 
bough  at  the  top  of  a tall  tree  by  the  river’s  bank.  The  song  consisted  of  “tser-tser- 
tsew-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tsi-tseuuur”.  The  latter  part  of  the  song  was  similar  to  the 
twittering  made  by  many  species  of  sunbird  and  the  first  part  (“tser-tser-tsew”)  was 
sometimes  uttered  on  its  own  with  no  follow-up.  The  calls  resemble  the  description 
given  by  Barlow  et  al.  (1997). 

Reference 

Barlow,  C.,  Wacher,  T.  & Disley,  T.  (1997)  A Field  Guide  to  Birds  of  The  Gambia 
and  Senegal  Pica  Press,  Robertsbridge, 

Received  17  July  1998 

Revised  7 December  1998  Robert  A.  Cheke 

Dept  of  Pest  Management,  Natural  Resources  Institute,  University  of  Greenwich, 

Chatham  Maritime,  Chatham,  Kent  ME4  4TB,  UK 


Crowned  Eagle  Stephanoaetus  comnatus  and  White-breasted  Negro- 
Finch  Nigrita  fusconota^  new  to  the  Benin  list 

Stephanoaetus  comnatus  Crowned  Eagle.  I recorded  two  immatures  of  this  species 
in  Benin  on  29  Mar  1997,  at  9°12'N,  2°15'E  in  the  Ouémé  Valley  on  the  southern  end 
of  the  Forêt  Classée  of  Ouémé  Supérieur.  I was  attracted  by  their  calls  while  they 
soared  on  thermals  above  the  river,  from  30  m upwards,  at  about  llhSO.  This 
behaviour  allowed  excellent  views  of  both  upper-  and  underparts.  The  most  striking 
feature  on  the  underparts  was  the  brilliant  white  belly,  particularly  evident  in  the 
bright  sunlight.  The  breast  and  wing  linings  were  lightly  tinged  rufous,  the  remainder 
of  the  underwing  being  clearly  spotted.  The  upperparts  were  light  grey,  the  tail  long 
and  clearly  banded.  I thought  the  primaries  had  black  tips.  The  enormous  size,  fine 
soaring  flight,  call  (a  very  distinctive  “kwee-kwee”,  cf.  Gibbon  1991),  plumage  and 
habitat  contributed  to  its  ready  identification.  The  Martial  Eagle  Polemaetus 


52 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


bellicosus  has  been  recorded  in  the  drier  country  of  the  Pendjari  and  Arli  National 
Parks  (Green  & Sayer  1979),  and  there  is  potential  for  confusion  among  the 
immatures  of  these  two  species.  However,  the  grey  back,  rufous  breast  and  wing 
lining,  and  longer  tail,  combined  with  the  habitat,  appear  to  eliminate  Martial  Eagle  in 
this  case  (cf.  Brown  et  al.  1982,  Zimmerman  et  al.  1996). 

Crowned  Eagle  is  said  to  be  “frequent  to  uncommon”  throughout  its  range,  and 
not  yet  threatened,  although  its  numbers  are  probably  reduced  by  habitat  destruction 
(Brown  et  al.  1982).  It  has  not  previously  been  recorded  in  Benin,  nor  in  Niger  and 
Burkina  Faso,  and  Ouémé  is  probably  at  the  northern  edge  of  its  range;  suitable 
habitat  is  absent  from  the  well-studied  Arli  and  Pendjari  National  Parks  on  the  Benin- 
Burkina  Faso  border  (Green  & Sayer  1979).  In  Togo  it  is  said  to  be  a not  uncommon 
resident,  north  to  8°57'N  in  the  Mo  Valley,  where  it  has  been  reported  breeding  twice 
(Cheke  & Walsh  1996);  in  Nigeria  it  is  a rare  resident,  extending  “well  north  of  forest 
in  Guinea  zone”  (Elgood  et  al.  1994).  The  Ouémé  Valley  and  the  three  Forêts 
Classées  of  central  Benin  are  particularly  suitable  habitat  for  this  species,  which 
prefers  “remnant  forest  in  river  valleys”  (Brown  et  al.  1982).  The  Ouémé  Supérieur  is 
well  stocked  in  the  small  mammals  that  make  up  its  diet  (Green  & Sayer  1977).  It  is 
therefore  an  intersting  addition  to  the  52  diurnal  raptor  species  that  make  up  the 
present  Benin  list  (Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  1993,  Claffey  1997). 

Nigrita  fusconota  White-breasted  Negro-Finch.  On  7 May  1996,  also  in  Ouémé 
Supérieur,  I observed  a bird  of  this  species  in  the  upper  level  of  the  trees.  The  dark 
brown  upperparts,  sharply  contrasting  white  underparts,  and  black  head,  were  clearly 
seen  and  preclude  confusion  with  other  species  in  the  area.  The  site  consists  of 
secondary  forest  and  savanna  woodland,  at  9°12'N,  2°15'E. 

White-breasted  Negro-Finch  has  been  recorded  as  an  uncommon  resident  in  both 
Ghana  north  to  7°4'N  and  Nigeria  north  to  6°12'N  (Grimes  1987,  Elgood  et  al.  1994). 
It  has  not  been  reported  from  Togo  or  Benin  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996,  Dowsett  & 
Dowsett-Lemaire  1993).  In  Ghana,  it  occurs  in  mature  and  secondary  forest,  clearings 
and  riverine  forest  (Grimes  1987). 

The  forest  reserves  of  central  Benin  are  still  in  relatively  good  condition  and 
rather  poorly  studied,  and  it  is  likely  that  several  other  discoveries  are  waiting  to  be 
made  there. 

My  thanks  to  Dr  J.F.  Walsh  for  comments  on  a first  draft. 

References 

Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 
Academic  Press,  London. 

Cheke,  R.A.  & Walsh,  J.F.  (1996)  The  Birds  of  Togo.  Checklist  14,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Claffey,  P.M.  (1997)  Western  Red-footed  Falcon  Falco  vespertinus,  a new  addition 
to  the  Republic  of  Benin  list.  Malimbus  19:  95-96. 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


53 


DOWSETT,  R.I  & Dowsett-Lemaire,  F=  (1993)  A Contribution  to  the  Distribution 
and  Taxonomy  of  Afrotropical  and  Malagasy  Birds.  Res.  Rep.  5,  Tauraco  Press, 

Liège. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  NJ.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria  (2nd  ed.).  Checklist  4,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Gibbon,  G.  (1991)  Southern  African  Bird  Sounds.  Cassettes.  South  African  Birding, 
Durban. 

Green,  A. A.  & Sayer,  J.A.  (1977)  La  Conservation  des  Ecosystèmes  Forestiers  de  la 
Région  des  Monts  Kouffés.  Unpubl.  Rep.  to  FAO/PNUD,  FAO,  Rome. 

Green,  A. A.  & Sayer,  J.A.  (1979)  The  birds  of  the  Pendjari  and  Arli  National  Parks 
(Benin  and  Upper  Volta).  Malimbus  1:  14-29. 

Grimes,  L.L.  (1987)  The  Birds  of  Ghana.  Checklist  9,  British  Ornithologists’  Union, 
London. 

Zimmerman,  D.A.,  Turner,  D.A.  & Pearson,  D.J.  (1966)  The  Birds  of  Kenya. 
Russell  Friedman,  Halfway  House. 

Received  26  September  1997  Patrick  M.  Claffey 

Revised  25  September  1998  B.P.  302,  Parakou,  Benin 


Sharp  decline  in  the  population  of  Pin-tailed  Whydah  Vidua  macroura  in 
Benin 

The  Pin-tailed  Whydah  Vidua  macroura  is  regarded  as  common  throughout  much  of 
its  range,  and  it  is  certainly  so  in  the  countries  surrounding  Benin.  It  is  a common 
resident  in  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al  1994)  and  Ghana  (Grimes  1987)  and  an  abundant 
resident  in  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996).  The  species  is  also  present  as  a resident  in 
Niger  and  a breeding  resident  in  Burkina  Faso  (Dowsett  & Forbes  Watson  1993).  In 
eleven  years  of  observation  in  Benin  I have  classified  it  as  an  abundant  resident,  with 
some  movements  from  south  to  north  during  the  rainy  season  (Claffey  1995). 

The  earliest  observations  of  males  in  breeding  plumage  in  Benin  are  from  March 
(Bouet  1914),  with  some  present  up  to  the  end  of  November  or  even  into  December 
(pers.  obs).  My  earliest  records  for  males  in  breeding  plumage  are  for  22  April  1995, 
in  the  south.  The  species  has  been  consistently  observed  in  south  Benin  up  to  a month 
earlier  than  in  the  north.  In  Togo,  males  in  breeding  plumage  have  been  noted  from 
May  to  October;  there  is  a similar  pattern  in  both  Nigeria  and  Ghana. 

Pin-tailed  Whydah  is  an  abundant  breeding  resident  in  the  Borgou  Province  of 
north  Benin.  Males  are  noted  with  groups  of  8-10  females,  often  in  flocks  of  several 
males  with  females.  However,  an  apparent  sharp  decline  in  the  population  occurred 
during  the  rainy  season  of  1997. 1 had  no  observations  in  April  or  May  and  only  a few 


54 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


by  the  end  of  July.  It  continued  to  be  scarce  until  the  end  of  the  known  breeding 
season.  Local  people  confirmed  this  difference  from  other  years.  At  the  same  time,  a 
possible,  but  lesser,  decline  in  Euplectes  spp.  was  noted,  particularly  of  Yellow- 
mantled  Whydah  E.  macrourus.  Lack  of  quantitative  data  make  the  latter  observation 
more  difficult  to  substantiate,  but  the  decline  in  the  population  of  V.  macroura  was 
easily  established  by  the  simple  lack  of  field  observations  in  the  period  Apr-Oct  1997. 

I have  no  idea  why  this  should  have  occurred,  apart  from  a possible  epidemic. 
There  has  been  no  apparent  habitat  destruction.  However  the  increasing  use  of 
pesticides  for  cotton  and  other  agricultural  production  in  the  area  must  be  mentioned 
and  V.  macroura  is  considered  to  be  a pest  by  Dept,  of  Agriculture  officials  (J.B. 
Adjakpa  pers.  comm).  R.A.Cheke  {in  litt.)  has  speculated  that  the  declines  in  this 
species  might  be  associated  with  reductions  in  available  host  species;  in  the  study 
area,  these  are  Orange-cheeked  Waxbill  Estrilda  melpoda  and  Black-rumped  Waxbill 
E.  troglodytes.  However  no  observations  to  support  this  have  been  made. 

My  thanks  to  Drs.  J.F.  Walsh  and  R.A.  Cheke  for  comments  on  this  note. 

References 

Bouet,  G.  (1914)  Liste  des  oiseaux  recueillis  ou  observés  au  Dahomey  de  1908  à 
\9\\.  Rev.fr.  Orn.  3:  263-269,  304-308. 

Cheke,  R.A.  & Walsh,  J.F  (1996)  The  Birds  of  Togo.  Checklist  14,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Claffey,  P.M.  (1995)  Birds  of  the  Bétérou  area,  Borgou  Province,  Republic  of 
Benin.  Malimbus  17:  63-84. 

Dowsett,  R.J  & Forbes-Watson,  A.D  (1993)  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  Afrotropical 
and  Malagasy  Regions.  Tauraco  Press,  Liège. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham  J.B.,  Moore  A.M.,  Nason  A.M.,  Sharland  R.E.,  Skinner, 
N.J  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4 (2nd  ed.),  British  Ornithologists’ 
Union,  Tring. 

Grimes,  L.G.  (1987)  The  Birds  of  Ghana.  Checklist  9,  British  Ornithologists’  Union, 


London. 


Received  1 December  1997 
Revised  22  September  1998 


Patrick  Claffey 
B.P.  302,  Parakou,  Benin 


Cream-coloured  Courser  Cursorius  cursor^  new  for  Ghana 

On  19  May  1996,  in  the  coastal  area  of  Ghana,  east  of  Prampram  (c.  60  km  from 
Accra),  we  discovered  two  Cream-coloured  Coursers  Cursorius  cursor  along  the  side 
of  the  road.  The  road  runs  parallel  to  the  coast,  c.  300  m from  the  coastline  and  the 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


55 


habitat  is  stony  grassland  with  low  bushes.  We  were  familiar  with  the  species  in  Syria. 
As  we  had  only  recently  taken  up  our  new  assignment  in  Ghana,  we  merely  noted  the 

observation. 

Subsequently,  on  27  July  1997,  we  saw  Temminck’s  Courser  C.  temminckii  along 
a track  which  runs  in  a northerly  direction  parallel  to  the  Kpeshie  Lagoon  just  at  the 
eastern  outskirts  of  Accra.  We  noted  a clear  difference  between  that  species  and  the 
birds  seen  in  May  1996,  i.e.  the  chestnut  cap.  We  only  realized  the  significance  of  the 
May  observation  at  a much  later  date,  when  we  found  that  Grimes  (1987)  does  not  list 
the  species  for  Ghana,  while  in  Urban  et  al.  (1986)  Ghana  is  not  included  in  the 
distribution  area  of  the  species.  Similarly,  Hayman  et  al.  (1986)  indicate  a southern 
limit  to  the  West  African  range  of  Cream-coloured  Courser  somewhat  north  of  Ghana. 
Elgood  et  al.  (1994)  report  it  in  northern  Nigeria. 

This,  therefore,  appears  to  be  the  first  record  of  Cream-coloured  Courser  in 
Ghana.  However,  the  migratory  habits  of  the  species,  particularly  Mediterranean 
populations,  make  such  an  occurrence  relatively  unsurprising. 

We  should  like  to  thank  Guy  Manners  for  his  inspiring  bird-watching  support  in  Syria 
and  for  critically  reading  the  manuscript. 

References 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria  (2nd  ed.).  Checklist  4,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Grimes,  L.G.  (1987)  The  Birds  of  Ghana.  Check-list  9,  British  Ornithologists’  Union, 
London. 

Hayman,  P.,  Marchant,  J.  & Prater,  T.  (1986)  Shorebirds:  An  Identification  Guide 
to  the  Waders  of  the  World.  Croom  Helm,  London. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (eds)  (1986)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  2. 
Academic  Press,  London. 

Received  23  August  1998 

Revised  16  Januaiy  1999  A.J.G.  van  Gastel  & E.R.  van  Gastel 

c/o  GTZ,  P.O.  Box  9698,  Kotoka  International  Airport,  Accra,  Ghana 


First  records  of  Xavier’s  Greenbul  Phyllastrephus  xavieri  in  Nigeria 

On  13  December  1997,  while  walking  along  an  old  logging  track  in  Cross  River 
National  Park,  Oban  Division,  Nigeria  (5°47'N,  8°26'E)  our  attention  was  drawn  by 
nasal  calls  coming  from  members  of  a mixed  bird  party,  at  a height  of  about  10-15  m. 
Two  birds  responded  immediately  to  playback  by  approaching  and  calling  excitedly. 


56 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


They  were  bulbuls  and  differed  strikingly  in  size;  whereas  the  larger  bird  appeared  to 
be  close  in  size  to  Golden  Bulbul  Calyptocichla  serina,  the  second  was  noticeably 
smaller  and  similar  in  size  and  appearance  to  Icterine  Greenbul  Phyllastrephus 
icterinus.  Their  upperparts  were  uniformly  olive-green,  their  underparts  drab 
yellowish  washed  olive-green  on  the  breast  and  flanks,  with  the  pale  throat  contrasting 
with  the  breast.  The  tail  was  olive-green,  only  slightly  washed  with  rufous. 
Differences  with  P.  icterinus,  which  also  occurred  at  the  site,  included  the  larger  size 
of  one  individual  and  the  less  rufous  tail  (noticeable  when  the  birds  came  into  a more 
well-lit  spot).  These  characters  pointed  to  Xavier’s  Greenbul  P.  xavieri.  Although 
Dowsett-Lemaire  (1997)  found  the  bill  to  be  conspicuously  longer  in  P.  xavieri  than 
in  P.  icterinus  and  considered  this  the  best  field  character,  apart  from  voice,  to 
distinguish  between  them,  we  failed  to  find  this  a striking  feature;  perhaps  it  requires 
more  experience  to  be  useful  as  a field  mark.  The  greenish  tail  came  as  a surprise  to 
RD,  who  had  recently  observed  both  species  in  Makokou,  Gabon,  and  had  not  noticed 
any  significant  difference  in  tail  colour.  Brosset  & Erard  (1986),  however,  state  that 
Xavier’s  indeed  has  less  rufous  rectrices,  noticeable  when  both  are  seen  together.  The 
difference  in  voice  was  most  significant.  Calls  included  a short  nasal  “kwah,  kwah, 
kwah,...  kwahkwah...”  and  a more  drawn-out,  squeaky  “kwehhh”  and  “kehh”.  Both 
calls  were  uttered  in  shorter  or  longer  series  of  either  similar  or  combined  notes 
(“kwah-kehh”)  and  were  quite  different  from  the  “fast,  nasal  chatter,  slowing  down  at 
the  end”  (Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  1991),  typical  of  P.  icterinus.  The  tape- 
recording proved  identical  to  the  recording  of  what  is  erroneously  presented  as  P. 
icterinus  by  Chappuis  (1975)  but  which  has  recently  been  shown  to  be  of  P.  xavieri 
(Dowsett-Lemaire  1997).  Vocalisations  of  P.  icterinus  can  be  found  at  the  end  of 
Chappuis ’s  (1975)  second  sequence  of  P.  albigularis.  About  1 km  further  into  the 
forest  another  pair  was  encountered,  also  in  a mixed  flock. 

This  record  appears  to  be  the  first  documented  for  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994). 
The  presence  of  the  species  in  the  area  is  not  surprising,  however,  considering  its 
occurrence  in  the  same  forest  block,  in  Korup  National  Park  on  the  other  side  of  the 
nearby  border  with  Cameroon,  where  it  is  uncommon  in  primary  and  secondary  forest 
(Rodewald  et  al.  1994).  The  species  had  already  been  observed  in  SE  Nigeria,  in 
Oban  near  the  Ebe  River,  on  9-12  April  1988,  and  near  Awai,  on  13-15  April  1988, 
by  F.  Dowsett-Lemaire  and  R.J.  Dowsett  {in  litt.),  but  their  reliance  on  Chappuis’s 
(1975)  recording  led  to  the  birds  being  misidentified  as  P.  icterinus.  As  presently 
known.  Cross  River  N.P.  thus  holds  the  westernmost  population  of  the  species. 

The  visit  to  Cross  River  N.P.  was  part  of  a programme  of  field  surveys  conducted  for 
the  Important  Bird  Areas  in  Nigeria  Project  of  the  Nigerian  Conservation  Foundation, 
co-ordinated  by  Dr  A.U.  Ezealor.  The  Royal  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Birds  and 
BirdLife  International  sponsored  the  project.  We  thank  the  management  of  Cross 
River  N.P.  for  permission  to  work  in  the  park,  Joseph  Ntui,  station  officer  Oban 
Division,  for  logistical  help,  and  Abdulmalik  L.  Abubakar  and  Harry  H.  Junior  for 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


57 


assistance  in  the  field.  F.  Dowsett-Lemaire  and  R.J.  Dowsett  are  thanked  for  their 

unpublished  records  of  P.  xavieri  and  L.D.C.  Fishpool  for  comments  on  the 

manuscript. 

References 

Brosset,  a.  & Erard,  C.  (1986)  Les  Oiseaux  des  Régions  Forestières  du  Nord-est 
du  Gabon.  Vol.  I:  Ecologie  et  comportement  des  espèces.  Société  National  pour  la 
Protection  de  la  Nature,  Paris. 

Chappuis,  C.  (1975)  Les  Oiseaux  de  l’Ouest  africain.  Disque  5 (Pycnonotidae). 
Alauda,  Paris. 

Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.  (1997)  The  avifauna  of  Odzala  National  Park,  northern  Congo. 
Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  6:  15-48. 

Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.  & Dowsett,  R.J.  (1991)  The  avifauna  of  the  Kouilou  basin  in 
northern  Congo.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  4:  189-239. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N. J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Check-list  4 (2nd  ed.),  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Rodewald,  P.G.,  Dejaifve,  P.-A.  & Green,  A. A.  (1994)  The  birds  of  Korup 
National  Park  and  Korup  Project  Area,  Southwest  Province,  Cameroon.  Bird 
Conserv.  Int.  4:  1-68. 

Received  20  July  1998  Shiiwua  A.  Manu*  & Ron  Demey^ 

'iBAs  of  Nigeria,  Dept  of  Biological  Sciences, 
Ahmadu  Bello  University,  Zaria,  Nigeria 
^Van  der  Heimstraat  52,  2582  SB  Den  Haag,  The  Netherlands 

Email:  106706.603@compuserve.com 


First  documented  records  of  Green-throated  Sunbird  Nectarinia  rubescens  for 
Nigeria,  with  a discussion  of  the  distinctive  race  crossensis 

On  the  evening  of  4 July  1995,  MTEH  observed  a sunbird  perched  on  a treetop  in  the 
middle  of  the  village  of  Burn  in  Taraba  State,  Nigeria  (7°  UN  10°53'E).  Burn  is 
situated  in  an  area  of  relict  forest  and  derived  savanna  whose  annual  precipitation 
(2563  mm  at  Abong,  15  km  west  of  Burn:  Bawden  & Tuley  1966)  is  due  to 
orographic  rainfall  generated  by  the  Mambilla  Plateau,  a few  kilometres  to  the  east. 
On  its  southern  flank,  the  village  abuts  directly  onto  the  forest;  in  other  directions  it  is 
surrounded  by  derived  savanna.  Though  the  sunbird  was  over  50  m away,  a 30  x 80 
telescope  permitted  adequate  views  in  the  last  rays  of  sunlight.  In  its  warm,  chocolate- 
brown  coloration  it  closely  resembled  a male  Scarlet-chested  Sunbird  Nectarinia 
senegalensis  or  Buff-throated  Sunbird  N.  adelberti.  Like  N.  senegalensis,  it  had  an 


58 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


iridescent  emerald-green  forehead,  but  unlike  that  bird  its  throat  and  breast  were  the 
same  brown  as  the  rest  of  the  body.  The  only  other  distinction  from  N.  senegalensis 
noted  was  that  this  bird  appeared  a little  more  compact  in  shape,  and  may  have  been 
slightly  smaller.  The  overall  colour  and  the  lack  of  contrast  between  the  throat  and 
breast  and  the  rest  of  the  body  eliminate  all  species  except  Green-throated  Sunbird  N. 
rubescens:  it  was  a male  of  the  subspecies  crossensis,  which  lacks  the  green  throat  of 
the  nominate  race  (Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  1973). 

On  26  October  1996  JCB  saw  a sunbird  in  a tree  of  3-4  m height,  in  a small  patch 
of  sub-montane  woodland  at  c.  900  m elevation  at  Anape,  6 km  west  of  Obudu  Cattle 
Ranch  Hotel,  Cross  River  State  (6°26'N  9°23'E).  When  seen  initially  from  both 
below  and  above  it  appeared  uniformly  dark  and  was  first  considered  a Copper 
Sunbird  N.  cuprea.  However,  as  it  moved  down  in  the  tree  and  into  sunlight,  a 
metallic  green  forehead  and  crown  became  apparent.  A thin  moustachial  stripe 
running  from  the  gape  to  below  the  eye  was  also  noted,  and  was  considered  to  be  of  a 
more  turquoise-green  coloration  than  the  green  of  the  head.  Upper-  and  underparts 
were  a uniformly  dark  chocolate-brown.  The  bird  had  a noticeably  upright  posture  and 
was  larger  than  a nearby  male  Preuss’s  Sunbird  N.  preussi.  These  features,  combined 
with  the  lack  of  any  green  on  the  throat  and  breast,  were  indicative  of  N.  r.  crossensis. 
The  bird  was  observed  for  c.  30  s before  it  moved  into  other  trees  further  down  the 
hillside. 

A third  sighting  of  N.  r.  crossensis  was  obtained  still  further  west,  in  the  Afi  River 
Forest  Reserve  (6°19'N  8°59'E)  near  Buanchor,  by  RD  and  the  Nigerian  Important 
Bird  Areas  team,  on  7 December  1997.  The  bird  was  feeding  in  a large  flowering  tree 
in  the  company  of  other  sunbirds,  including  Green  Anthreptes  rectirostris,  Blue- 
headed N.  cyanolaema,  Johanna’s  N.  johannae  (one  male)  and  Buff-throated  N. 
adelberti  (two  males). 

There  appear  to  be  very  few  published  records  of  N.  r.  crossensis,  which  was 
formerly  known  only  from  a small  area  of  adjacent  western  Cameroon.  The  first  adult 
male  was  collected  just  west  of  Bamenda  (5°55'N  10°10'E),  on  26  May  1948  (Serle 
1950);  the  second  at  Mamfe  (5°45'N  9°20'E),  on  10  March  1953,  together  with  a 
female  that  appeared  not  to  differ  from  the  female  N.  r.  rubescens  (Serle  1963).  We 
have  been  unable  to  find  any  other  literature  records  from  western  Cameroon  referring 
explicitly  to  crossensis.  The  limits  of  this  race’s  range  remain  unknown.  The 
nominate  form  is  found  to  the  south  at  Mundemba  (Rodewald  et  al.  1994,  A. A.  Green 
in  litt.),  Kumba  (Serle  1953,  1965) , Mt  Kupe  and  the  Bakossi  Mts  (R.J.  Dowsett  & F. 
Dowsett-Lemaire  in  litt.)  and,  to  the  east,  at  Kounden  (Louette  1981)  and  Bamale 
(Serle  1963).  There  is  a sight  record  (race  unknown)  from  Baro  (Green  & Rodewald 
1996),  60  km  south  of  Mamfe  and  50  km  north-east  of  Mundemba. 

Green  (1990)  reported  sighting  several  Green-throated  Sunbirds  at  the  Kam  River, 
Gashaka-Gumti  Game  Reserve  (now  NP),  in  February  1988  (no  subspecies 
mentioned),  although  this  record  was  omitted  by  Elgood  et  al.  (1994).  Our  three 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


59 


records  confirm  its  presence  in  Nigeria,  apparently  at  the  north-western  edge  of  its 
range. 

The  validity  of  crossensis  as  a separate  race  was  considered  unproven  by  White 
(1965)  and  Eisentraut  (1973),  presumably  because  of  the  limited  number  of 
specimens.  Louette  (1981)  first  suggested  that  crossensis  might  be  a hybrid  between 
N.  rubescens  and  N.  adelberti,  but  later  accepted  it  as  valid  (Louette  1982).  The 
observation  of  N.  adelberti  in  the  same  tree  at  Afi  River  is  therefore  interesting, 
although  it  does  not  necessarily  invalidate  Louette’ s (1982)  opinion  that  they  are  a 
typical  allospecies  pair.  Indeed,  at  Afi  River,  both  possibly  reach  the  extreme  limits  of 
their  respective  ranges,  and  at  least  N.  adelberti  is  known  to  make  seasonal 
movements  (Grimes  1987,  Elgood  et  al.  1994).  Although  the  glossy  forehead  suggests 
otherwise,  the  possibility  of  crossensis  being  either  an  eclipse  plumage,  or  derived 
from  one,  can  not,  as  yet,  be  entirely  ruled  out.  Eclipse  plumages  are  indeed  known  to 
be  very  variable  in  some  other  sunbirds  (Skead  1967).  In  view  of  the  above,  the 
precise  delimitation  of  the  ranges  of  N.  r.  crossensis,  N.  r.  rubescens  and  N.  adelberti, 
and  their  relations,  behaviour  and  vocalisations  would  be  worthy  of  further  research. 

RD’s  visit  to  Afi  Forest  Reserve  was  part  of  a programme  of  field  surveys  conducted 
for  the  Important  Bird  Areas  in  Nigeria  Project  of  the  Nigerian  Conservation 
Foundation,  co-ordinated  by  Dr.  A.U.  Ezealor.  The  Royal  Society  for  the  Protection 
of  Birds  and  BirdLife  International  sponsored  the  project.  We  thank  A.A.  Green  and 
P.  Rodewald  for  their  notes  on  N.  rubescens  in  Nigeria  and  Cameroon,  M.  Louette 
(Royal  Museum  for  Central  Africa)  for  providing  stimulating  discussion  and  relevant 
literature,  and  R.J.  Dowsett,  F.  Dowsett-Lemaire,  L.D.C.  Fishpool  and  A.  Tye  for 
comments  on  the  manuscript. 

References 

Bawden,  M.G.  & Tuley,  P.  (1966)  The  land  resources  of  southern  Sardauna  & 
southern  Adamawa  Provinces,  Northern  Nigeria.  Directorate  of  Overseas 
Surveys,  Tol worth. 

Eisentraut,  M.  (1973)  Die  Wirbeltiere  von  Fernando  Poo  und  Westkamerun.  Bonn, 
zool.  Monogr.  3:  1-428. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4 (2nd  ed.),  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Green,  A.A.  (1990)  The  avifauna  of  the  southern  sector  of  the  Gashaka-Gumti  Game 
Reserve,  Nigeria.  Malimbus  12:  31-51. 

Green,  A.A.  & Rodewald,  P.G.  (1996)  New  bird  records  from  Korup  National  Park 
and  environs,  Cameroon.  Malimbus  18:  122-133. 

Grimes,  L.G.  (1984)  The  Birds  of  Ghana.  Checklist  9,  British  Ornithologists’  Union, 
London. 


60 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


Louette,  M.  (1981)  The  birds  of  Cameroon.  An  annotated  check-list.  Verhandl.  Kon. 

Acad.  Wetensch.  Lett.  Schone  Kunst.  Belg.  43:  1-295. 

Louette,  M.  (1982)  Allopatric  species  of  birds  approaching  in  western  Cameroon: 

the  Nectarinia  adelberti,  N.  rubescens  example.  Bonn.  zool.  Beitr.  33:  303-312. 
Mackworth-Praed,  C.W.  & Grant,  C.H.B.  (1973)  Birds  of  West  Central  and 
Western  Africa.  Longman,  London. 

Rodewald,  P.G.,  Dejaifve,  P.-A.  & Green,  A. A.  (1994)  The  birds  of  Korup 
National  Park  and  Korup  Project  Area,  Soutwest  Province,  Cameroon.  Bird 
Conserv.  Int.  4:  1-68. 

Serle,  W.  (1950)  A contribution  to  the  ornithology  of  the  British  Cameroons.  Ibis  92: 
243-376,  602-638. 

Serle,  W.  (1963)  A new  race  of  sunbird  from  West  Africa.  Bull.  Brit.  Ornithol.  Club 
83:  118-119. 

Serle,  W.  (1965)  A third  contribution  to  the  ornithology  of  the  British  Cameroons. 
Ibis  107:60-94,  231-246. 

Skead,  C.J.  (1967)  The  Sunbirds  of  Southern  Africa.  Balkema,  Cape  Town. 

White,  C.M.N.  (1965)  A revised  check-list  of  African  non-passerine  birds. 
Addendum  to  African  flycatchers,  tits,  etc.  Govt  Printer,  Lusaka. 

Received  22  September  1998  Mark  T.E.  Hopkins',  Ron  Demey^  & J.C.  Barker^ 
Revised  23  January  1999  'TCNN,  P.O.  Box  64,  Bukuru,  Plateau  State,  Nigeria 

^Van  der  Heimstraat  52,  2582  SB  Den  Haag,  The  Netherlands 

email:  106706.603@compuserve.com 
^Okwango  Programme,  Cross  River  National  Park,  Itek,  Hospital  Road, 

P.O.  Box  233,  Obudu,  Cross  River  State,  Nigeria 


1999 


61 


Corrigenda 


An  annotated  check-list  of  birds  occurring  at  the  Parc  National  des 
Oiseaux  du  Djoudj  in  Senegal,  1984-1994  (Rodwell,  S.P.  et  ai,  Malimbus 
18:  74-111) 

We  should  like  to  apologize  to  P.  Triplet  and  P.  Yésou  for  accidentally  omitting  their 
names  from  the  acknowledgments  to  this  paper. 

S.P.  Rodwell,  A.  Sauvage,  S.J.R.  Rumsey,  A.  Braunlich 


Observation  d’une  parade  collective  de  Cypsiurus  parvus  (Sala,  A.,  1997, 
Matimbus  20:  126-127) 

Le  nom  scientifique  du  Martinet  des  palmiers  n’est  pas  Cypsiurus  parvulus,  comme  il 
est  écrit  dans  l’article,  mais  C parvus.  Le  nom  scientifique  du  palmier  n’est  pas  Etais, 
mais  Elaeis. 


62 


Malimbus  21 


Letters  - — Lettres 


Bird  ringing  recoveries  from  Guinea-Bissau 

Hazevoet  (1996)  has  usefully  drawn  attention  to  the  fact  that  Frade  & Bacelar  (1959) 
published  a list  of  the  passerines  known  from  Guinea-Bissau,  in  addition  to  that  on 
non-passerines  (Frade  & Bacelar  1955).  I had  not  encountered  the  former  publication, 
and  hence  the  list  I presented  for  the  country  (Dowsett  1993)  needs  amendment.  But 
Hazevoet  also  writes,  concerning  my  list  of  the  birds  of  Guinea-Bissau:  “his 
unreferenced  data  on  ringing  recoveries  are  not  included,  as  they  appear  to  contain 
many  inaccuracies”.  This  is  a strange  comment,  as  Hazevoet  at  no  time  asked  to  see 
the  ringing  recovery  data  that  1 have  available  for  that  country  (a  fact  he  has 
confirmed  in  litt.  1996).  Moreover,  it  is  quite  wrong,  for  there  are  definite  ringing 
recoveries  for  all  the  species  concerned,  a good  many  of  them  published.  For 
example.  Sandwich  Tern  Sterna  sandvicensis  was  not  included  by  me  “on  the  basis  of 
unpublished  ringing  recoveries”:  there  are  no  fewer  than  19  recoveries  from  the 
British  Isles  alone  (Mead  & Clark  1993).  Details  for  other  species  included  by 
Dowsett  (1993)  from  Guinea-Bissau  on  the  basis  of  ringing  recoveries  alone  have 
been  re-examined,  and  all  are  correct.  The  limited  nature  of  Hazevoet’s  own  list  of 
birds  observed  in  Guinea-Bissau  shows  how  important  all  sources  of  data  are  for  such 
a country. 

Information  from  the  Tauraco  database  is  freely  available  on  request. 

References 

Dowsett,  R.J.  (1993)  Afrotropical  avifaunas:  annotated  country  checklists.  Guinea- 
Bissau.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  5:  19-23. 

Frade,  F & Bacelar,  A.  (1955)  Catalogo  das  aves  da  Guiné  Portuguesa.  I — Non 
Passeres. Estud.  Zool.  (Lisboa)  10(4)2:  1-194. 

Frade,  F.  & Bacelar,  A.  (1959)  Catalogo  das  aves  da  Guiné  Portuguesa.  II  — 
Passeres.  Mem.  Junta  Invest.  Ultramar  (2)7:  1-116. 

Hazevoet,  C.J.  (1996)  Birds  observed  in  Guinea-Bissau,  January  1986,  with  a review 
of  current  ornithological  knowledge  of  the  country.  Malimbus  18:  10-24. 

Mead,  C.J.  & Clark,  J.A.  (1993)  Report  on  bird  ringing  in  Britain  and  Ireland  for 
\99\ . Ringing  Migration  14:  1-72. 


Received  26  March  1997 


R.J.  Dowsett 

12  rue  des  Lavandes,  F-34190  Ganges,  France 


1999 


Lettres 


63 


Response  to  Dowsett 

The  main  reason  I did  not  include  ringing  recoveries  listed  by  Dowsett  (1993)  was 
that  they  did  not  concern  “new”  species,  except  for  Garden  Warbler  Sylvia  borin, 
which  I included  in  Appendix  2,  with  a reference  to  Dowsett  et  al.  (1988).  I felt  that  it 
was  not  important  to  include  the  others  because  they  were  already  covered  by 
publications  other  than  Dowsett  (1993). 

References 

Dowsett,  R.J.  (1993)  Afrotropical  avifaunas:  annotated  country  checklists.  Guinea- 
Bissau.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  5:  19-23. 

Dowsett,  R.J.,  Backhurst,  G.C.  & Oatley,  T.B.  (1988)  Afrotropical  ringing 
recoveries  of  Palaearctic  migrants.  1.  Passerines  (Turdidae  to  Oriolidae).  Tauraco 
1:29-63. 

Received  26  March  1997  C.J.  Hazevoet 

Revised  4 November  1998  Inst,  for  Systematics  and  Population  Biology, 

University  of  Amsterdam, 
PO  Box  94766,  1090  GT  Amsterdam,  Netherlands 


64 


Malimbus  21 


Reviews  — Revues 


Echassiers,  Canards  et  Limicoles  de  l’Ouest  Africain.  Par  O.  Girard,  1998.  136  pp. 
Castel  Éditions,  Château  d’Olonne.  ISBN  2-910399-45-1,  broché,  FFr70.  Disponible 
de  rO.N.C.,  Service  documentation,  Saint-Benoist,  F-78610  Auffargis,  France  (frais 
de  port  FFr15). 

Il  s’agit  essentiellement  d’un  manuel  destiné  à ceux  qui  s’occupent  à quelque  titre  que 
ce  soit  des  zones  humides  (baguage,  dénombrements,  protection)  et  des  oiseaux  qui 
s’y  rapportent.  En  une  trentaine  de  pages  est  rassemblé  l’essentiel  des  méthodes  de 
comptage  (détaillées  avec  des  exemples  concrets),  les  moyens  pratiqués,  le  baguage  et 
une  liste  des  centres  européens  avec  leur  adresse.  Je  n’ai  cependant  pas  trouvé  de 
chapitre  sur  les  moyens  de  capture.  L’importance  des  zones  humides  et  leur  gestion 
font  également  l’objet  d’un  chapitre.  Le  reste  de  l’ouvrage,  96  pages,  est  consacré  à la 
description  des  espèces  susceptibles  de  fréquenter  les  lieux  humides.  Considérant  que 
ce  petit  guide  sera  le  seul  à être  emporté  sur  le  terrain,  l’auteur  a pris  un  soin 
particulier  à décrire  les  espèces  prêtant  à confusion.  C’est  ainsi  que  les  limicoles 
d’identification  délicate,  surtout  sous  le  plumage  d’hiver  qu’ils  portent  habituellement 
en  Afrique,  sont  l’objet  d’un  soin  particulier.  Toutes  les  espèces  sont  représentées  en 
couleurs  et  une  flèche  souligne  le  caractère  à rechercher;  elles  sont  l’oeuvre  de  J. 
Chevallier  et  S.  Nicolle.  Elles  sont  toutes  bonnes,  voire  très  bonnes,  et  il  faut  en 
souligner  la  qualité  pour  un  ouvrage  de  ce  format.  Les  noms  des  espèces  sont  donnés 
en  français,  anglais  et  portugais. 

Ce  manuel  était,  dit  l’auteur  technicien  de  l’ONC,  réclamé  depuis  longtemps  dans 
l’Ouest  africain.  Nous  le  conseillons  sans  réserve  à tous  ceux  qui  “pratiquent”  la 
sauvagine  et  pourquoi  pas  aux  chasseurs  un  peu  curieux. 


Gérard  J.  Morel 


The  Bird  Collectors.  By  B.  Meams  & R.  Mearns,  1998.  xviii  + 472  pp.,  many 
monochrome  illustrations.  Academie  Press,  London.  ISBN  0-12-487440-1,  hardback, 
£29.95. 

If  you  “turn  pale  at  the  mere  thought  of  killing  birds”,  then  consider:  “Anyone  who 
drives  a car,  uses  products  of  the  petro-chemical  industries,  owns  a cat,  has  glass  in 
the  windows  of  their  home,  buys  paper,  or  consumes  electricity  will  be  responsible 
for  killing  birds.... Remember... that  dead  birds  in  museums  are  the  only  casualties 
that  can  be  used  to  help  the  living.”  This  eloquent  justification  of  scientific  collecting 
begins  this  book.  Chapters  1 and  17  put  scientific  collecting  in  its  fuller  context:  it  is 


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insignificant  in  comparison  with  other  killing  for  sport,  food,  vermin  control  and 
decoration,  and  with  population  reductions  caused  by  habitat  loss.  A clear  argument 
is  set  out  that  scientific  collecting  has,  even  in  the  past,  had  very  little  impact  on  bird 

populations,  including  extinctions. 

The  book  goes  on  to  consider  the  people  who  made  the  collections  on  which 
ornithology  relies,  many  of  whom  suffered  severe  privations  in  the  course  of  their 
work,  and  all  too  commonly  met  their  deaths  in  the  cause  of  their  science.  Most  of  the 
book  groups  biographies  according  to  the  type  of  person  the  collector  was  (traders, 
artists,  government  officers,  medics,  missionaries  etc.  The  style  of  presentation 
sometimes  seems  a little  stilted,  especially  in  the  introductions  to  each  section,  where 
continuity  is  often  lacking;  this  improves  in  the  later  sections,  where  the  relative 
contributions  of  the  various  actors  to  their  aims  becomes  clearer,  especially  in  the 
chapter  on  conservation.  The  biographies  are  generally  good  as  brief  introductions  to 
some  of  the  major  players  (but  tantalisingly  brief  in  many  cases),  and  put  faces  and 
backgrounds  to  many  familiar  names;  references  are  provided  to  longer  biographies 
where  they  exist.  Each  chapter  contains  a lot  of  background  information,  such  as  on 
collecting  standards,  and  the  role  of  museums,  dealers  and  rich  private  collectors. 
There  are  some  fascinating  journal  extracts,  including  from  participants  in  the  “worst 
journey  in  the  world”,  and  exciting  (and  sobering)  travelogues. 

One  interesting  and  recurring  observation  is  the  sensitivity  of  many  of  the 
collectors:  so  many  wrote  of  their  distaste  for  killing,  although  they  were  willing  to 
overcome  it  in  the  cause  of  science.  As  Pat  Hall  notes,  “In  the  final  assessment  it  is 
understanding  rather  than  sentimentality  that  will  do  most  for  the  conservation  of 
creatures  other  than  ourselves.”  The  final  chapter  is  a summary  of  the  need  for 
collections  and  their  many  uses,  without  which  much  of  natural  history  and  zoology 
would  be  impossible.  These  needs  and  uses  are  so  many  that  it  takes  14  pages  simply 
to  summarize  them,  including  their  many  benefits  to  conservation,  a classic  example 
being  the  proof  of  eggshell  thinning  correlated  with  pesticide  use. 

There  is  a useful  appendix  listing  the  biggest  museum  collections,  with 
information  on  their  holdings.  This  is  followed  by  a list  of  biographical  sources  by 
subject  person,  plus  a full  bibliography.  A lot  of  research  has  gone  into  this  book,  and 
the  authors  obviously  enjoyed  the  search  for  information  entailed.  They  reflect  the 
feelings  of  many  ornithologists  in  today’s  time  of  reduced  funding  for  museums  and 
systematic  research,  and  misplaced  concern  for  animal  rights,  when  they  quote  V. 
Remsen:  “Unless  specimens  continue  to  be  collected,  the  current  decades  will  be 
viewed  as  a dark  age  of  scientific  history,  the  time  when  scientists  were  unable  to 
make  permanent  records  of  biodiversity  because  of  opposition  to  scientific 
collecting.” 


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Birds  of  Liberia.  By  W.  Gutter,  1998.  320  pp.,  4 col.  plates,  107  photographs,  maps 
figures.  Pica  Press,  Mountfield.  ISBN  1-873403-63-1,  hardback,  £40. 

Liberia  is  unlikely  to  be  on  many  people’s  list  of  top  visiting  priorities.  It  is  hot  and 
humid,  and  memories  of  the  recent  civil  wars  and  attendant  atrocities  are  still  in 
people’s  minds.  It  has  been  virtually  unknown  ornithologically,  except  for  work  on 
Mt  Nimba  by  Forbes-Watson  and  others  {The  Birds  of  Mt  Nimba,  Liberia.  Colston  & 
Curry-Lindahl,  1986,  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London).  Now  Wulf  Gutter, 
who  has  spent  some  15  years  as  a forester  in  Liberia,  gives  us  the  present  work, 
beautifully  produced  by  Pica  Press. 

The  book’s  central  section  consists  of  the  species  accounts,  each  with  a brief  text 
in  three  sections  (status,  habits  and  ecology,  annual  cycle),  accompanied  for  most 
residents  and  some  migrants  by  a map.  Maps  are  omitted  for  a few,  rarely  recorded, 
species.  The  70-page  introduction  covers  topography,  climate,  vegetation, 
seasonality,  migration  and  ecology.  As  befits  a forester,  there  is  a comparative  survey 
of  the  different  forest  types  as  found  today  as  well  as  in  the  past.  Liberia  was  once 
almost  totally  forested,  with  practically  none  of  the  natural  tree  savanna  that  is  found 
in  its  neighbours.  Gutter  presents  a gloomy  picture  of  accelerating  deforestation,  with 
maps  showing  progressive  forest  fragmentation,  even  though,  as  recently  as  1985, 
50%  of  the  country  was  still  covered  by  high  forest.  By  1987,  all  high  forest  except 
Sapo  National  Park  (disappointingly,  not  mapped)  had  been  leased  for  logging,  and 
“forestry”  regressed  to  pure  exploitation,  continuing  even  during  the  1990-6  war. 
Even  following  the  extensive  fragmentation,  many  open-country  birds  common  in 
Sierra  Leone  are  still  either  absent  or  extremely  rare  in  Liberia. 

On  migration.  Gutter  has  already  written  several  papers,  which  are  summarized 
here.  Birds  migrating  roughly  north-south  around  the  western  edge  of  the  Sahara 
must,  when  they  reach  Liberia,  turn  due  east  if  they  are  to  continue  overland.  Many 
open-country  migrants,  particularly  warblers,  must  concentrate,  in  Liberia,  in  very 
small  areas,  mostly  in  the  mountains,  unlike  in  Sierra  Leone,  where  they  spread  more 
evenly  right  across  the  tree  savanna. 

Large  sections  of  the  introduction  and  appendices  are  devoted  to  niche 
occupation,  including  detailed  new  data  on  use  of  vegetation  strata  and  branch  sizes. 
Although  this  analysis  reveals  interesting  new  insights  on  habitat  use,  such  detailed, 
original  material  might  have  reached  a more  appropriate  audience  through  papers  in 
scientific  journals,  rather  than  in  this  book. 

The  four  plates  are  beautifully  painted  by  Martin  Woodcock  and  depict  29 
species.  It  is  not  clear  how  these  were  chosen,  as  might  also  be  said  of  the  56  colour 
photographs  of  birds,  which  range  from  good  to  adequate  in  quality  (although  the 
habitat  photographs  are  admirable).  I have  my  doubts  about  Plate  68,  purportedly  of 
Phyllastrephus  baumanni,  which  is  possibly  the  most  misidentified  species  in  Africa 
(L.D.C.  Fishpool  pers.  comm.);  unless  the  lighting  is  extremely  distorting,  the  bird 
seems  more  likely  to  have  been  P.  albigularis.  This  is  worrying:  once  one  finds  an 


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apparent  error,  one  inevitably  wonders  about  other  records.  I also  doubt  the  value  of 
one  appendix,  where  population  estimates  for  the  country  are  given  for  a number  of 
species  (with  no  reasons  given  for  the  selection  made).  How  can  one  reliably  decide 
that  there  are  at  least  4 million  pairs  of  Andropadus  virens  and  1 million  A. 
latirostrisl 

The  author  readily  quotes  others’  findings  and  there  is  a good,  though  not  totally 
complete,  bibliography,  but  the  vast  majority  of  the  records  are  his  own:  an 
impressive  performance.  Anyone  interested  in  the  Upper  Guinea  forest  avifauna 
should  read  this  book.  Several  species  reach  their  known  western  limit  in  Liberia,  and 
this  book  will  be  a yardstick  against  which  to  judge  new  finds  for  many  years  to 
come. 


Guide  des  Oiseaux  de  Sio  Tomé  et  Principe.  By  P.  Christy  & W.V.  Clarke,  1998. 
144  pp.,  32  col.  plates,  two  maps.  ECOFAC,  Sâo  Tomé.  Hardback,  no  price  given. 

This  book  is  a proper  field  identification  manual,  far  more  useful  for  this  purpose 
than  the  recent  work  of  R.  de  Naurois  (1994:  reviewed  Malimbus  18:  63-64). 
However,  although  more  up  to  date  than  Naurois,  it  is  far  less  well  referenced  as  a 
source  of  information  on  the  status  of  the  birds  of  the  islands.  One  of  its  major 
shortcomings  is  the  complete  lack  of  any  references,  and  of  any  information  on  the 
source  and  reliability  of  new  records;  many  “new”  species,  especially  seabirds,  are 
included  but  the  evidence  presented  is  not  strong  for  many  of  them,  or  at  least  they 
are  not  properly  documented  (observers,  descriptions,  conditions  etc.). 

An  introduction,  with  site  descriptions,  is  included  in  Portuguese,  English  and 
French,  and  bird  names  are  given  in  all  three  languages,  but  the  rest  of  the  book  is  in 
French.  The  reason  for  this  choice  of  language  is  obvious,  in  that  the  main  author  is 
French  and  the  ECOFAC  project  is  dominated  by  francophones,  but  it  seems  a pity 
that  it  was  not  issued  in  either  Portuguese  (which  would  be  much  more  useful  for  the 
local  population  and  many  tourists)  or  English  (probably  the  most  widely  known 
language  among  potential  users  of  the  book  from  outside  the  islands). 

Not  all  species  included  are  illustrated  (106  of  143),  which  is  a pity,  especially  for 
such  difficult  groups  as  the  petrels;  one  would  need  to  take  another  book  for  reliable 
seabird  identification.  But  the  descriptions  are  quite  good.  The  plates  have  a 
distinctive  style  that  can  be  somewhat  distracting,  but  they  are  quite  accurate 
representations,  not  as  stylized  as  usual  in  field  guides.  The  colours  in  many  are  much 
too  bright  and  the  iridescence  very  poorly  represented  by  bright  single  colours, 
especially  in  the  pigeons,  sunbirds  and  starlings.  An  additional  minor  gripe  is  that  the 
order  of  species  on  a plate  is  often  upside  down  with  reference  to  the  order  of  the 
accompanying  texts.  Strangely,  in  the  texts,  the  notes  referring  to  a group  {e.g.  storm 


68 


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petrels)  are  included  within  the  account  for  the  first  species  of  the  group,  which  is  a 
little  confusing. 

There  are  few  comments  on  the  general  biogeography  and  evolution  of  the 
islands’  birds,  but  the  claim  is  made  that  all  open-country  species  have  been 
introduced  to  the  islands  by  man  and  that  there  was  no  open  habitat  before  the  arrival 
of  man.  This  point  is  still  controversial,  and  can  never  really  be  substantiated. 

These  criticisms,  however,  should  not  seriously  detract  from  the  book’s  use  by 
francophone  birdwatchers,  and  it  is  indispensable  as  a field  guide. 


Alan  Tye 


Shrikes.  A guide  to  the  shrikes  of  the  world.  By  N.  Lefranc  & T.  Worfolk,  1997. 
192  pp.,  16  col.  plates,  numerous  maps  and  line  drawings.  Pica  Press,  Mountfield. 
ISBN  1-873403-47-X,  hardback,  £25. 

This  is  much  more  than  a field  guide,  more  like  a monograph.  In  its  almost  200  pages 
of  small  print,  it  deals  with  shrikes  in  only  the  most  limited  sense:  the  genera  Lanius, 
Corvinella  and  Eurocephalus,  a total  of  only  31  spp.,  with  species  accounts  ranging 
from  less  than  one  {L.  marwitzi)  to  nine  pages  {L  excubitor).  This  permits  a full 
review  of  the  biology  of  the  group.  The  book  begins  with  a balanced  discussion  of 
shrike  systematics,  followed  by  introductory  sections  for  each  genus,  covering 
morphology,  distribution,  habitat,  behaviour  and  population  dynamics.  This  review 
contains  a lot  of  detail  for  Lanius,  but  is  completed  in  less  than  a page  each  for  the 
other  two  genera,  reflecting  their  size  (two  species  each)  and  lack  of  knowledge  of 
their  biology.  Just  over  a third  of  the  species  treated  occur  in  West  Africa:  eight 
residents  and  another  three  in  winter. 

The  author  of  the  texts  is  French,  but  the  English  is  mostly  good,  with  only 
occasional  oddities  and  ambiguities.  One  error  is  that  the  section  on  “Style  and 
layout”  (pp.  41-43)  was  obviously  intended  to  come  before  the  first  chapter  (p.  11). 
The  book  is  a little  temperate-zone  biased;  the  generalizations,  especially  in  the 
section  on  population  dynamics,  are  largely  based  on  temperate  species  and  may  not 
be  justified  for  tropical  species.  For  example,  it  is  not  recognized  that  the  life  span  of 
Palaearctic  species  might  not  reflect  that  of  tropical  species,  and  that  mortality  in 
tropical  species  can  be  extremely  low  after  reaching  adulthood.  However,  the  lower 
breeding  success  of  tropical  species  is  noted. 

The  plates  are  beautiful  and  useful:  perfect  for  identification  (although  nobody 
would  actually  buy  this  book  for  identification  alone),  nicely  arranged,  accurate  and 
attractive,  with  many  plumages  and  races  shown.  The  distribution  maps  are  very 
clearly  done,  with  the  maximum  scale  possible  on  each  one,  by  avoiding  the  use  of  a 
few  standard  base  maps  (on  which  a bird’s  distribution  might  be  a small  part  of  the 


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total  area  shown)  as  is  so  common  in  bird  books.  The  bibliography  is  not  complete, 
but  includes  most  of  the  key  works. 

In  summary,  this  is  one  of  the  best  guides  to  a bird  taxonomic  group  to  appear  in 
recent  years,  and  finds  a clear  niche  as  a semi-technical  but  readable  monograph.  It 
avoids  being  merely  a not-very-useful  field  guide  to  a world-wide  group  of  birds, 
which  no-one  would  actually  want  for  that  purpose,  as  are  so  many  similar  books. 

Alan  Tye 


70 


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Society  Notices  — Informations  de  la  Société 


General  Meeting  of  W.A.O.S.,  6-7  June  1998 

The  latest  general  meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  in  France  at  Beuzeville,  a market 
town  in  Normandy.  It  was  based  at  the  Cochon  d’Or  hotel,  where  the  17  participants 
who  had  travelled  variously  from  Belgium,  Benin,  France,  Germany  and  the  U.K. 
were  welcomed  by  the  Mayor. 

A field  trip  was  arranged  for  Saturday  morning,  when  a visit  was  paid  to  the  Hode 
Marsh,  a conservation  area  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Seine  Estuary,  led  by  members  of 
the  Groupe  Ornithologique  Normand  and  Claude  Chappuis,  who  used  playback  to 
attract  into  view  a variety  of  marshland  birds.  The  picnic  was  eaten  in  the  reserve,  on 
a scarcely  used  path  and,  as  at  command,  a group  of  five  White  Storks  Ciconia 
ciconia  flew  overhead  during  the  meal.  A second  field  trip,  to  the  Forest  of  Brotonne 
was  made  on  the  Sunday,  led  by  Dr  Chappuis,  whose  careful  preparations  ensured 
that  we  enjoyed  excellent  views  of  Black  Woodpecker  Dtyocopus  martins  and 
Middle  Spotted  Woodpecker  Dendrocopus  médius. 

The  Consultative  Meeting  took  place  on  the  afternoon  of  Saturday  6th. 

Financial  report 

Bob  Sharland  presented  the  Revenue  Account  for  the  year  ended  31  Dec  1997,  as 
published  in  Malimbus  20:  68.  He  drew  attention  to  the  reduction  of  £1 157  in  the  cost 
of  printing  in  1997,  obtained  by  employing  a new  printing  firm.  A Research  Grant  of 
£500  had  been  paid.  The  accumulated  funds  at  31  Dec  1997  were  £4268. 

The  President  said  that  an  additional  rate  of  payment  of  subscriptions  had  been 
initiated  instead  of  an  overall  increase  in  the  subscription.  The  additional  supporting 
membership  rate  was  available  for  those  wishing  to  offer  further  support.  Of  the  24 
members  who  pay  in  FFr,  44%  paid  the  supporting  rate,  an  encouraging  result.  The 
Treasurer  said  that  he  intended  to  draw  the  attention  of  all  other  members  to  the 
supporting  membership  and  ask  them  to  review  their  bankers’  orders.  The  Treasurer 
outlined  the  budget  for  1998.  Sales  of  back  numbers  were  not  known  but  he  expected 
a deficit  of  £180  over  the  year  if  no  research  grants  were  made. 

Michel  Louette  said  that  a grant  from  the  Frank  Chapman  Fund  of  New  York  to 
his  student  Kizungu  Byamana  was  dependent  on  the  receipt  of  the  grant  from 
W.A.O.S.  He  asked  if  a written  statement  of  the  agreed  W.A.O.S.  grant  could  be 
given  in  order  to  secure  the  Chapman  grant.  The  President  agreed  to  supply  this. 

Next  meeting 

Clive  Barlow  had  proposed  that  the  next  meeting  be  held  in  The  Gambia  in 
November  2000.  Members  were  told  that  the  next  Pan-African  Ornithological 
Congress  would  be  held  in  Uganda  in  June,  July  or  August  2000  (the  arrangement  to 
hold  it  in  Tunisia  having  been  cancelled).  In  the  discussion,  members  thought  it 


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preferable  to  hold  the  next  W.A.O.S.  meeting  in  West  Africa,  perhaps  in  The  Gambia 
in  November  1999,  and  it  was  proposed  to  enquire  in  Malimbus  whether  members 
would  be  interested  in  attending  on  either  of  those  dates.  It  was  suggested  that 
participants  from  Senegal  National  Parks  would  attend,  augmenting  the  number  of 
African  participants. 

Other  business 

Michel  Louette  said  that  several  ornithological  societies  were  already  well 
represented  on  the  Internet  and  that  W.A.O.S.  should  consider  taking  this  step.  The 
need  to  find  a person  to  create  a web  site  was  recognized. 

The  question  of  W.A.O.S.  representation  at  the  International  Ornithological 
Congress  in  Durban,  in  August  1998,  was  raised  ; as  Council  members  would  not  be 
present  at  the  I.O.C.,  M.  Louette  and  C.  Chappuis  were  asked  to  organize  an  informal 
meeting  and  take  a poster. 

On  Saturday  after  dinner,  Gérard  Debout,  President  of  the  G.O.N.,  made  a 
presentation  of  the  work  of  creating  and  conserving  the  wetland  area  visited  earlier  in 
the  day.  The  marshland  of  the  Seine  Estuary  had  been  increasingly  threatened  by  the 
development  of  the  port  and  petrochemical  complex  of  Le  Havre  but  action  by  the 
G.O.N.  had  resulted  in  the  introduction  of  a statutory  conservation  order  for  the  area. 

Jacques  Boco  Adjakpa,  researcher  at  Benin  University  and  recipient  of  a grant 
from  W.A.O.S.,  gave  a presentation  on  his  main  work,  with  Abdim’s  Stork  Ciconia 
abdimii.  It  nests  in  large  trees  (not,  as  in  Mali,  on  mosques),  after  returning  from 
winter  quarters  in  southern  Africa  (laying  from  the  first  half  of  April  until  2 July). 
Formerly  protected  by  the  local  populace,  it  is  now  hunted  and  eaten  by  newcomers, 
who  do  not  know  or  respect  these  customs.  Further,  pesticides  reduce  its  food  supply 
or  poison  it  directly.  All  juveniles  were  marked.  This  intra-African  migrant  seems  to 
have  much  in  common  with  the  White  Stork. 

Michel  Louette,  professor  at  the  Royal  Museum,  Tervuren,  spoke  about  the 
origins  of  the  West  African  avifauna.  He  considered  the  geological  and  climatic 
features  and  the  human  and  plant  populations  across  the  region,  and  their  effect  on  the 
distribution  of  birds  in  West  Africa. 

We  are  grateful  to  Dr  Marie-Yvonne  Morel,  Dr  C.  Chappuis  and  F.  Morel  for  the 
excellent  arrangements  made  for  this  meeting,  not  least  for  the  picnics  provided  on 
the  two  field  excursions.  It  was  a most  interesting  and  enjoyable  meeting. 

Amberley  Moore  & G.J.  Morel 

Assemblée  Consultative  de  la  S.O.O.A.,  6-7  juin  1998 

L’Assemblée  Consultative  de  la  S. O. O. A.  eut  lieu  en  France  à Beuzeville,  petit  bourg 
de  Normandie,  à partir  de  l’Auberge  du  Cochon  d’Or,  où  17  participants,  qui  étaient 


72 


Society  Notices 


Malimbus  21 


venus  aussi  bien  de  Belgique,  du  Bénin,  de  France,  d’Allemagne  que  de  Grande- 
Bretagne,  furent  accueillis  par  le  maire. 

Tout  le  samedi  matin  fut  réservé  à l’exploration  du  marais  du  Hode,  vaste 
roselière  de  l’estuaire  de  la  Seine.  Cette  visite  fut  guidée  et  facilitée  par  la  coopération 
de  François  Morel  (du  Groupe  Ornitologique  Normand,  GONm)  et  de  Claude 
Chappuis,  qui  utilisa  largement  et  avec  quelle  maîtrise  la  technique  de  la  repasse  pour 
attirer  à bonne  distance  toute  une  variété  d’espèces  de  marais.  Le  pique-nique  eut  lieu 
sur  un  chemin  à peine  fréquenté  et,  comme  sur  commande,  cinq  Cigognes  blanches 
Ciconia  ciconia  vinrent  nous  survoler  durant  le  repas.  Une  deuxième  excursion  eut 
lieu  le  dimanche  matin  en  forêt  de  Brotonne,  dirigée  par  C.  Chappuis,  avant  la  clôture 
de  la  réunion.  Grâce  à une  minutieuse  préparation,  Claude,  après  plusieurs  essais  de 
repasse,  nous  obtint  d’excellentes  observations  du  Pic  mar  Dendrocopus  médius  et  du 
Pic  noir  Dryocopus  martins. 

La  Réunion  Consultative  eut  lieu  l’après-midi  du  samedi  6. 

Rapport  financier 

Bob  Sharland  présenta  le  budget  pour  l’année  achevée  au  31  décembre  1997  et  publié 
dans  Malimbus  20:  68.  Bob  attira  l’attention  sur  la  réduction  du  coût  de  l’impression 
de  Malimbus  en  1997,  obtenu  en  s’adressant  à un  nouvel  imprimeur.  Une  bourse  de 
recherches  de  £500  avait  été  versée.  Les  fonds  cumulés  au  31  décembre  1997  étaient 
de  £4268. 

Le  Président  dit  alors  qu’un  système  mixte  de  paiement  des  abonnements  avait  été 
appliqué  avec  succès.  Au  lieu  de  l’augmentation  générale,  ceux  qui  peuvent  payer 
davantage  le  font  (abonnement  de  soutien)  tandis  que  les  autres  demeurent  libres  de 
payer  à l’ancien  tarif.  Ainsi,  sur  24  membres  qui  payèrent  en  FF,  44%  payèrent 
l’abonnement  de  soutien,  ce  qui  est  très  encourageant.  Le  Trésorier  déclara  qu’il 
attirerait  l’attention  de  tous  les  membres  sur  cet  abonnement  de  soutien  en  demandant 
à leur  banque  de  revoir  leurs  instructions.  Le  Trésorier  donna  les  principales 
orientations  pour  1999.  Le  produit  de  la  vente  des  anciens  numéros  n’est  pas  encore 
connu  mais  il  s’attend  à un  déficit  de  £180  pour  l’année  si  aucune  bourse  n’est 
accordée. 

Michel  Louette  dit  qu’une  bourse  du  Frank  Chapman  Fund  de  New-York,  serait 
versée  à son  étudiant  Kizungu  Byamana,  s’il  recevait  l’assurance  de  la  S.O.O.A.  de 
recevoir  sa  bourse.  Il  demanda  si  une  assurance  écrite  de  la  S.O.O.A.  pouvait  être 
donnée  afin  d’obtenir  la  bourse  du  Chapman  Fund.  Le  Président  proposa  de  donner 
cette  garantie. 

Prochaine  Réunion  Bisannuelle 

Clive  Barlow  avait  proposé  que  la  prochaine  Réunion  Bisannuelle  ait  lieu  en  Gambie 
en  novembre  2000.  Les  membres  furent  informés  que  le  prochain  Congrès  Pan- 
Africain  d’Omithologie  aurait  lieu  en  Ouganda  en  juin,  juillet  ou  août  2000  (les 
accords  pour  le  tenir  en  Tunisie  ont  été  annulés).  Il  ressortit  de  la  discussion  que  l’on 
préférait  la  prochaine  réunion  S.O.O.A.  dans  l’Ouest  Africain,  peut-être  en  Gambie 
en  novembre  1999;  il  fut  proposé  de  faire  un  sondage  dans  le  journal  pour  connaître 


1999 


Informations  de  la  Société 


73 


la  date  préférée.  On  suggéra  que  les  participants  viendraient  des  Parcs  Nationaux  du 
Sénégal,  augmentant  le  nombre  de  participants. 

Autres  questions 

Michel  Louette  ajouta  que  plusieurs  sociétés  ornithologiques  étaient  déjà  présentes 
sur  Internet  et  que  S. O. O. A.  devrait  réfléchir  à cette  question.  Il  fut  reconnu  qu’il 
fallait  d’abord  trouver  la  personne  pour  créer  le  site. 

La  question  de  la  représentation  de  la  Société  au  Congrès  International 
d’Ornithologie  à Durban  en  août  1998  fut  soulevée;  en  l’absence  de  membres  du 
Conseil,  il  fut  demandé  à M.  Louette  et  à C.  Chappuis  d’y  tenir  une  réunion 
informelle  et  d’y  placer  une  affichette. 

Le  samedi  après  dîner,  Gérard  Debout,  Président  du  GONm,  fit  une  présentation  du 
travail  accompli  pour  conserver  la  zone  visitée  le  matin.  La  zone  de  marais  de 
l’estuaire  de  la  Seine  était  progressivement  convoitée  et  menacée  par  l’extension  du 
port  du  Havre.  Ce  n’est  que  par  une  action  tenace,  qui  mobilisa  jusqu’à  la  Cour 
Européenne,  que  la  France  dut  honorer  ses  engagements  de  protéger  ses  zones 
humides  importantes;  un  statut  de  réserve  a enfin  pu  être  obtenu. 

Jacques  Boco  Adjakpa,  chercheur  à l’université  du  Bénin,  et  boursier  de  la 
Société,  fit  un  exposé  sur  son  sujet  principal,  la  Cigogne  d’Abdim  Ciconia  abdimii. 
Elle  niche  sur  de  grands  arbres  (et  non  sur  les  mosquées,  comme  au  Mali),  au  retour 
de  ses  quartiers  d’hiver  en  Afrique  australe  (ponte  de  la  première  moitié  d’avril 
jusqu’au  2 juillet).  Jadis  protégée  par  les  populations  locales,  elle  est  maintenant 
chassée  et  consommée  par  de  nouveaux  venus,  ignorants  des  coutumes.  S’ajoute  à 
cela  l’action  des  pesticides  qui  réduisent  la  nourriture  ou  intoxiquent  directement 
l’oiseau.  Le  marquage  de  tous  les  jeunes  a été  réalisé.  Ce  migrateur  intra-africain  a 
décidément  beaucoup  en  commun  avec  la  Cigogne  blanche. 

Michel  Louette,  professeur  au  Musée  Royal  de  Tervuren,  et  tourné  vers  l’Afrique 
centrale,  fit  un  exposé  sur  les  origines  de  l’avifaune  ouest-africaine.  Il  examina  les 
facteurs  géologiques  et  humains  et  les  populations  humaines  et  de  plantes  à travers  la 
région  et  leurs  effets  sur  la  distribution  des  oiseaux  dans  l’Ouest  africain. 

Nous  sommes  reconnaissants  à Marie- Yvonne  Morel,  à C.  Chappuis  et  à F.  Morel 
pour  l’excellente  préparation  de  cette  réunion,  sans  oublier  les  pique-niques  des  deux 
excursions.  C’était  une  excellent  réunion. 


Amberley  Moore  & G.J.  Morel 


74 


Society  Notices 


Malimbus  21 


Next  Consultative  Meeting  of  the  Society 

As  the  next  Pan-African  Ornithological  Congress  is  now  to  be  held  in  Uganda  about 
June-August  2000,  it  is  suggsted  that  the  next  Consultative  Meeting  of  W.A.O.S. 
should  be  held  in  West  Africa,  possibly  in  The  Gambia  in  1999.  A further  meeting 
may  be  held  at  the  P.A.O.C.  the  following  year.  It  would  be  helpful  if  members 
would  register  with  the  President  (1  route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Bréville-les-Monts, 
France;  email  gmorel@mail.cpod.fr;  tel/fax  (0)231  787250)  their  interest  in  attending, 
giving  their  preference  of  dates  (see  questionnaire  enclosed  with  this  issue). 

Prochaine  Réunion  Consultative  de  la  Société 

Comme  le  prochain  Congrès  Pan-Africain  d’Ornithologie  doit  avoir  lieu  en  Ouganda 
en  juin-août  2000,  on  a suggéré  que  la  prochaine  Réunion  Consultative  de  la 
S. 0.0. A.  se  tienne  dans  l’Ouest  africain,  peut-être  en  Gambie  en  1999.  Une  autre 
réunion,  peut-être  moins  importante,  pourrait  se  tenir  durant  le  C.P.A.O.  l’année 
suivante.  Le  Conseil  apprécierait  que  les  membres  expriment  leur  intérêt  pour  cette 
réunion,  en  indiquant  le  date  qu’ils  préfèrent  au  Président  (1  route  de  Sallenelles, 
14860  Bréville-les-Monts,  France;  email  gmorel@mail.cpod.fr;  fax/téléphone  (0)231 
787250);  voir  feuille  volante  avec  cette  livraison. 


Obituary:  John  Hamel  Elgood  1909-1998 

John  Elgood  was  born  at  Dulwich  on  16  June  1909.  He  was  educated  at  Whitgift 
Middle  School  and  St  Catherine’s  College,  Cambridge.  He  taught  at  Regent  Street 
Polytechnic  and  was  from  there  recruited  for  the  new  University  of  Ibadan.  His  early 
interest  was  marine  biology  but  he  soon  realised  the  ornithological  potential  of  Ibadan 
and  was  leading  bird  walks  and  lecturing  on  birds.  He  had  a pact  with  Ronald  Keay 
(at  that  time  Chief  Conservator  of  Forests)  that  he  would  teach  Ronald  birds  in 
exchange  for  instruction  on  flora. 

He  saw  a need  for  a small  guide  on  birds  and  in  1960  brought  out  his  Birds  of  the 
West  African  Town  and  Garden.  This  stimulated  interest  in  birds  and  in  1964  the 
Nigerian  Ornithologists’  Society  was  formed  with  John  as  Secretary,  Hilary  Fry  as 
Editor  of  the  Bulletin  and  myself  as  Treasurer.  John  remained  as  Secretary  and  we 
produced  regular  Bulletins  until  1989,  when  the  society  metamorphosed  into  the  West 
African  Ornithological  Society  and  John  was  appointed  Vice-President. 

John  found  and  described  a new  species  of  Malimbus  {ibadanensis),  some  of  the 
work  being  done  in  his  own  garden.  He  produced  a checklist  The  Birds  of  Nigeria  in 
1964  (British  Ornithologists’  Union,  London)  and  when  this  went  out  of  print  he 
organized  a team  to  produce  a second  edition  in  1994  (BOU,  Tring).  The  first  book 


1999 


Informations  de  la  Société 


75 


printed  by  Ibadan  University  Press  was  Animal  Classification  by  Joe  Webb  and  John 
Elgood  and  in  1964  John  produced  Certificate  Biology  for  Tropical  Schools. 

John  and  his  wife  Peggy  toured  frequently  in  Nigeria  and  stayed  with  us  in  Kano 
many  times.  In  1 962  he  went  with  a team  to  Bornu  to  investigate  the  Quelea  problem. 
He  often  told  the  story  of  how  in  an  expedition  after  a certain  bird  he  got  the  bird  but 
lost  his  trousers  in  the  process.  He  had  a great  sense  of  humour  and  was  very  popular 
with  his  students  and  kept  up  with  some  of  them  (by  now  Professors  themselves)  for 
many  years. 

John  returned  to  England  in  1965  and  taught  at  Goldsmiths’  College  and  the 
American  University  in  Sussex.  He  was  asked  back  to  Nigeria  and  did  a spell  at 
Ahmadu  Bello  University  (Zaria)  and  Lagos  University.  He  helped  with 
Examinations  in  RJiodesia  twice  and  taught  for  six  months  in  Papua  New  Guinea.  He 
came  out  to  stay  with  me  in  Kano  again  in  1976  and  produced  a Report  on  the 
Wetlands  between  Hadejia  and  Nguru  for  Kano  State  Department  of  Agriculture.  This 
led  to  the  area  being  officially  opened  as  a Wetland  Reserve  by  Prince  Bernard  of  the 
Netherlands. 

John  was  an  active  member  of  the  British  Ornithologists’  Union  and  British 
Ornithologists’  Club  serving  on  the  Council  of  both  Societies.  He  was  also  a frequent 
lecturer  in  the  Bournemouth  Science  Society. 

John  would  have  thoroughly  approved  of  his  memorial  service  in  Highcliffe 
Methodist  Church.  We  entered  the  church  to  the  sound  of  bird-song  on  tape  (one  of 
his  daughters  threatened  a questionnaire  at  the  end  of  the  service)  and  the  service 
sheet  was  encircled  by  exotic  birds  holding  glasses  of  wine.  We  have  all  lost  a great 
friend. 


R.E.  Sharland 


76 


Society  Notices 


Malimbus  21 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 


Revenue  Account  for  the  year  ended  31  December  1998 


Income 

1997 

Subscriptions 

£2843 

£2701 

Sales  of  back  numbers 

305 

467 

Interest 

92 

122 

Donations 

40 

— 

£3280 

£3290 

Expenditure 

Printing  and  publication 

£1850 

£1739 

Postage 

612 

766 

Research  Grant 

500 

500 

2962 

3005 

Surplus  for  year 

318 

285 

£3280 

£3290 

Balance  Sheet  as  at  31  December  1998 


Assets 

Building  society  balance 

£5112 

£4122 

Bank  balance 

336 

1011 

Debtor 

28 

5476 

— 

5133 

Liabilities 

Creditor 

500 

100 

Subscriptions  in  advance 

390 

890 

765 

865 

£4586 

£4268 

Accumulated  funds 

Balance  at  1 January 

£4268 

£3983 

Surplus  for  year 

318 

285 

£4586 

£4268 

R.E.  Sharland,  Treasurer 


Certified  that  I have  verified  the  Society’s  bank  accounts. 


G.D.  Field 


Instructions  to  Authors 


Malimbus  publishes  Papers,  Short  Notes,  Reviews,  News  and  Letters,  and  illustrative  material 
covering  the  field  of  West  African  ornithology. 

Papers  and  Short  Notes  cover  original  contributions;  material  published  elsewhere,  in 
whole  or  in  part,  will  not  normally  be  accepted.  Short  Notes  are  articles  not  exceeding  1000 
words  (including  references)  or  two  printed  pages  in  length.  Wherever  possible,  manuscripts 
should  first  have  been  submitted  to  at  least  one  ornithologist  or  biologist  for  critical  scrutiny. 
Manuscripts  will  be  sent  for  critical  review  to  at  least  one  relevant  authority. 

Items  for  News  and  Letters  should  not  exceed  1000  words. 

Contributions  are  accepted  in  English  or  French;  editorial  assistance  will  be  made 
available  to  authors  whose  first  language  is  not  one  of  these.  Two  copies  are  required,  typed  on 
one  side  of  the  paper,  with  double  spacing  and  wide  margins.  Dot-matrix  printouts  will  only  be 
accepted  if  they  are  of  “near-letter”  quality.  Authors  should  not  send  a diskette  copy  with  their 
initial  submission,  but  are  requested  to  indicate  whether  they  can  do  so  if  their  paper  is 
accepted.  Diskettes  will  be  returned  to  authors.  Consult  the  editor  for  further  details,  e.g.  for 
acceptable  word  processing  programs. 

Conventions  regarding  tabular  material,  numbers,  metric  units,  references,  etc.  may  be 
found  in  this  issue  and  should  be  adhered  to  carefully.  Note  particularly  the  following:  dates 
should  be  in  the  form  2 Feb  1990  but  months  standing  alone  in  text  may  be  written  in  full; 
times  of  day  are  written  6h45,  17h32;  coordinates  are  written  in  the  form  7°46'N,  16°4'E; 
numbers  up  to  ten  are  written  in  full,  except  when  followed  by  abbreviated  units  {e.g.  6 m), 
numbers  from  11  upwards  are  written  in  figures  except  at  the  beginning  of  a sentence.  All 
references  mentioned  in  the  article,  and  only  such,  must  be  entered  in  the  bibliography. 

Avifaunal  articles  must  contain  a map  or  gazetteer,  including  all  localities  mentioned. 
They  should  include  brief  notes  on  climate,  topography,  vegetation,  and  conditions  or  unusual 
events  prior  to  or  during  the  study  {e.g.  late  rains  etc.).  Species  lists  should  include  only 
significant  information;  full  lists  are  justified  only  for  areas  previously  unstudied  or  unvisited 
for  many  years.  Otherwise,  include  only  species  for  which  the  study  provides  new  information 
on  range,  period  of  residence,  breeding  etc.  For  each  species,  indicate  migratory  status,  period 
of  residence  (as  shown  by  the  study),  range  extensions,  an  assessment  of  abundance  {Malimbus 
17:  36)  and  dated  breeding  records.  Where  appropriate,  set  data  in  context  by  brief  comparison 
with  an  authoritative  regional  checklist.  Lengthy  species  lists  should  be  in  tabular  form  {e.g. 
Malimbus  12:  39-51,  1:  22-28,  or  1:  49-54)  or  of  the  textual  format  of  recent  issues  (e.g. 
Malimbus  12:  19-24,  12:  61-86,  13:  49-66,  16:  10-29).  The  taxonomic  sequence  and 
scientific  names  (and  preferably  also  vernacular  names)  should  follow  Dowsett  & Forbes- 
Watson  (1993,  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  Afrotropical  and  Malagasy  Regions,  Tauraco  Press, 
Liège)  or  The  Birds  of  Africa  (Brown  et  al.  1982,  Urban  et  al.  1986,  1997,  Fry  et  al.  1988, 
Keith  et  al.  1992,  Academie  Press,  London),  unless  reasons  for  departure  from  these  authorities 
are  stated.  A more  complete  guide  for  authors  of  avifaunal  papers,  including  the  preferred 
abundance  scale,  appeared  in  Malimbus  17:  35-39.  A copy  may  be  obtained  from  the  Editor, 
who  will  be  happy  to  advise  on  the  presentation  of  specific  studies. 

Figures  should  be  prepared  as  for  final  reproduction,  allowing  for  20-50%  reduction, 
using  indian  ink  on  good  quality  white  paper  or  heavy  tracing,  and  adhesive  transfer  lettering  as 
appropriate.  Diagrams  produced  by  computer  programs  other  than  specialized  graphics 
packages,  and  by  printers  other  than  laser  printers,  are  rarely  of  acceptable  quality.  W'hen 
designing  Figures,  pay  attention  to  the  page-shape  of  Malimbus. 

All  Papers  (but  not  Short  Notes)  should  include  a Summary,  not  exceeding  5%  of  the 
paper’s  length.  The  Summary  should  include  brief  reference  to  major  findings  of  the  paper  and 
not  simply  review  what  was  done.  Summaries  will  be  published  in  both  English  and  French  and 
will  be  translated  as  appropriate  by  the  Editorial  Board. 

Ten  offprints  of  Papers  (but  not  of  Short  Notes)  will  be  sent  to  single  or  senior  authors, 
gratis.  Offprints  will  not  be  stapled,  bound,  or  covered;  they  are  merely  cut  from  copies  of  the 
journal. 


Malimbus  21(1)  March  1999 
Contents  — Table  des  Matières 


Additions  and  corrections  to  the  avifauna  of  Central  African  Republic. 


R.J.  Dowsett,  P.  Christy  & M.  Germain  1-15 

The  birds  of  the  Waza-Logone  area,  Far  North  Province,  Cameroon. 

P.  Scholte,  S.  de  Kort  & M.  van  Weerd  16-50 

Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 

Vocalisations  of  the  Mouse-brown  Sunbxr A Anthreptes  gabonicus. 

R.A.  Cheke  51 

Crowned  Eagle  Stephanoaetus  coronatus  and  White-breasted 
Negro-Finch  Nigrita  fusconota,  new  to  the  Benin  list 
P.M.  Claffey  51-53 

Sharp  decline  in  the  population  of  Pin-tailed  Whydah 

Vidua  macroura  in  Benin.  P.  Claffey  53-54 

Cream-coloured  Courser  Cursorius  cursor,  new  for  Ghana. 

A.J.G.  van  Gastel  & E.R.  van  Gastel  54-55 

First  records  of  Xavier’s  Greenbul  Phyllastrephus  xavieri 

in  Nigeria.  S.A.  Manu  & R.  Demey  55-57 

First  documented  records  of  Green-throated  Sunbird  Nectarinia 
rubescens  for  Nigeria,  with  a discussion  of  the  distinctive  race 
crossensis.  M.T.E.  Hopkins,  R.  Demey  & J.C.  Barker  57-60 


Corrigenda 

An  annotated  check-list  of  birds  occurring  at  the  Parc  National 

des  Oiseaux  du  Djoudj  in  Senegal,  1984-1994  (Rodwell,  S.P.  ei  al. 


18:  74-111).  61 

Observation  d’une  parade  collective  de  Cypsiurus parvus 

(Sala,  A.,  1997,  Malimbus  20:  126-127)  61 

Letters  — Lettres 

Bird  ringing  recoveries  from  Guinea-Bissau. 

R.J.  Dowsett  62 

Response  to  Dowsett. 

C.J.  Hazevoet  63 

Book  Reviews  — Revues  de  Livres  64-69 


Society  Notices  — Informations  de  la  Société 


70-76 


MALIMBUS 


\6\\ 

\Kl,5'\ 


Journal  of  the  West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Revue  de  la  Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


VOLUME  21  Number  2 
ISSN  0331-3689 


September  1999 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


Conseil: 

Président:  Dr  Gérard  J.  Morel 

Vice-Président:  Prof.  C.  Hilary  Fry 

Trésorier  et  chargé  des  abonnements:  Robert  E.  Sharland 

Secrétaire  Générale:  Dr  Roger  Wilkinson 

Membre  du  Conseil:  Dr  Max  Germain 

Rédacteur  en  Chef:  Dr  Alan  Tye 

Comité  de  Rédaction:  Dr  R. A.  Cheke,  P.M.  Claffey,  Dr  R. J.  Dowsett,  Dr  F. 
Dowsett-Lemaire,  Dr  L.D.C.  Fishpool,  Prof  C.H.  Fry,  S.  Keith,  Dr  G.J.  Morel,  A. 
Sauvage,  Dr  J.-M.  Thiollay 

Distribution  de  Malimbus:  G.D.  Field 

La  correspondance  doit  être  adressée  comme  suit: 

— au  Rédacteur  en  Chef  (CDRS,  Casilla  17-01-3891,  Quito,  Ecuador)  pour  les  pub- 
lications dans  Malimbus,  y compris  éventuellement  des  photos  ou  des  dessins  au  trait; 

— au  Trésorier  (1  Fisher’s  Heron,  East  Mills,  Fordingbridge,  Hampshire,  SP6  2JR, 
U.K.)  pour  les  abonnements,  les  questions  financières  et  les  numéros  anciens; 

— au  Secrétaire  Générale  (Zoological  Gardens,  Chester  CH2  ILH,  U.K.)  pour  les 
demandes  des  Bourses  de  Recherches  de  la  Société; 

— au  Président  (1  Route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Bréville-les-Monts,  France;  e-mail 
gmorel@mail.cpod.fr)  pour  les  questions  d’intérêt  général. 

La  Société  tire  son  origine  de  la  “Nigerian  Ornithologists’  Society”,  fondée  en  1964. 
Son  but  est  de  promouvoir  l’intérêt  scientifique  pour  les  oiseaux  de  l’Ouest  africain  et 
de  faire  avancer  l’ornithologie  de  ces  régions  principalement  au  moyen  de  sa  revue 
Malimbus  (anciennement  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists  ’ Society). 

Les  demandes  d’adhésion  sont  les  bienvenues.  Les  cotisations  annuelles  sont  de  £10 
pour  les  Membres  Ordinaires  et  de  £25  pour  les  Sociétés  (les  cotisations  peuvent  être 
payées  en  £ sterling  au  Trésorier  ou  en  francs  français  au  Président).  Les  Membres 
Ordinaires  reçoivent  Malimbus  par  courrier  ordinaire  et  les  Sociétés  par  courrier 
aérien,  gratuitement.  Un  supplément  est  exigé  des  Membres  Ordinaires  pour  le 
courrier  aérien  (demander  au  Trésorier  le  tarif). 

Anciens  Numéros:  Les  Volumes  11-14  (1975-78)  du  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian 
Ornithologists  ’ Society  (du  même  format  que  Malimbus)  sont  disponibles  à £ 2 par 
numéro  (£4  par  volume)  ou  £15  l’ensemble.  Les  Volumes  1-9  de  Malimbus  sont 
disponibles  à £3  par  numéro  (£6  par  volume)  et,  à partir  du  Vol.  10,  à £5  par  numéro 
(£10  par  volume).  On  peut  acheter  la  série  complète  des  Vols  1-21  de  Malimbus  au 
prix  spécial  de  £150.  Frais  de  port  et  emballage  sont  gratuits.  Veuillez  joindre  le 
paiement  à votre  commande  et  l’adresser  au  Trésorier. 

Bourses  de  Recherches  de  la  S.O.O.A.:  Les  conditions  à remplir  pour  les 
candidatures  se  trouvent  dans  Malimbus  15:  103-106  et  peuvent  être  obtenues  auprès 
du  Secrétaire  Générale  (voir  adresse  ci-dessus). 


1999 


77 


La  Spatule  blanche  Platalea  leucorodia  hivernant  dans  le 

delta  du  Fleuve  Sénégal 


par  Patrick  Triplet'  & Pierre  Yésou^ 

' Réserve  naturelle  de  la  baie  de  Somme  (SMACOPI),  1 place  de  l’Amiral  Courbet, 
80100  Abbeville,  France  (email:  triplet@dyadel.net) 

^ Office  National  de  la  Chasse 

(Ministère  de  l’Aménagement  du  Territoire  et  de  l’Environnement),  53  rue  Russeil, 
44000  Nantes,  France  (email:  p.yesou@onc.gouv.fr) 

Reçu  12  mars  1998;  revu  1 mars  1999 

Résumé 

L’hivernage  de  la  Spatule  blanche  Platalea  leucorodia  est  connu  dans  le  delta 
du  Sénégal  depuis  les  années  1950,  en  relative  abondance,  même  si  le 
dénombrement  de  ces  oiseaux  a rarement  été  exhaustif  Une  attention 
particulière  a été  portée  à l’espèce  dans  les  années  1990,  montrant  que  cette 
région  est  de  toute  première  importance  pour  les  Spatules  blanches  des 
colonies  ouest-européennes  (effectif  maximum  recensé:  2852  oiseaux  en 
janvier  1999).  Les  mentions  d’oiseaux  attribuables  à la  sous-espèce  balsaci, 
qui  niche  au  Banc  d’Arguin  en  Mauritanie,  sont  rares  en  hiver  dans  le  delta. 

Summary 

It  has  been  known  since  the  1950s  that  the  Spoonbill  Platalea  leucorodia 
regularly  overwinters  in  the  Senegal  delta  in  fair  numbers,  although  censuses 
have  rarely  been  complete.  Particular  attention  was  paid  to  the  species  in  the 
1990s,  showing  that  the  area  is  of  prime  importance  for  the  west-European 
breeding  population  (maximum  count  of  2852  birds  in  January  1999). 
Records  of  the  subspecies  balsaci,  which  breeds  on  Banc  d’Arguin, 
Mauritania,  are  rare  in  winter  in  the  delta. 


L ’hivernage  de  la  Spatule  blanche  est  connu  dans  le  delta  du  Sénégal  depuis  les 
prospections  pionnières  de  Naurois  (1969)  et  Morel  & Roux  (1966,  1973)  dans  les 
années  1950-60.  Des  données  chiffrées  sont  disponibles  à partir  de  1972  (Morel  & 
Roux  1973):  les  dénombrements  de  1972  à 1990  ont  été  édités  par  Pérennou  (1991), 
des  compléments  étant  fournis  par  Dupuy  & Fournier  (1981)  et  Poorter  (1982),  et  par 
A.  Sauvage  {in  litt.).  Au  cours  de  cette  période,  la  couverture  n’a  été  uniforme  ni  dans 


78 


P.  Triplet  & P.  Yésou 


Malimbus  21 


l’espace  ni  dans  le  temps.  Ainsi,  les  informations  publiées  se  limitent  souvent  à un 
effectif  total  pour  le  delta,  sans  distinction  des  différents  sites  ni  précision  sur  le  degré 
d’exhaustivité  de  la  prospection.  Par  ailleurs,  il  n’y  a aucune  donnée  de  1977  à 1979, 
en  1982,  ni  de  1984  à 1987.  Depuis  1989,  les  agents  de  l’Office  National  de  la  Chasse 
ont  recensé  cette  espèce  lors  des  dénombrements  annuels  d’oiseaux  d’eau  de  la  mi- 
janvier  et  ont  enregistré  leurs  observations  site  par  site. 

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O 

m 

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N- 

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Figure  1.  Evolution  des  effectifs  de  Spatalea  leucorodia  dénombrés  en  janvier 
dans  le  delta  du  fleuve  Sénégal,  1972-99.  D’après  Dupuy  & Fournier  1981,  Poorter 
1982,  Pérennou  1991,  Girard  et  al.  1991,  1992,  Schricke  et  al.  1989,  1991,  1998, 
Triplet  et  al.  1995,  1997,  Triplet  & Yésou  1994,  Trolliet  et  al.  1993,  Yésou  et  al. 
1996,  Altenburg,  van  der  Kamp,  Meininger,  Hôtker  et  Dietrich  fide  A.  Sauvage  in 
lut.,  B.  ould  Messaoud  et  V.  Schricke  (comm.  pers.). 

Les  effectifs  recensés  dans  le  delta  (Fig.  1)  sont  affectés  de  très  importantes 
variations  qui  peuvent  en  partie  s’expliquer  par  la  couverture  géographique  variable 
selon  les  années,  et  parfois  très  incomplète,  du  moins  jusqu’en  1994.  De  1995  à 1999, 
la  couverture  intégrale  des  zones  humides  du  delta  a montré  la  difficulté  d’y  recenser 
précisément  les  Spatules  blanches,  espèce  très  mobile  et  relativement  dispersée.  Dans 
le  delta,  ces  oiseaux  fréquentent  essentiellement  les  lagunes  littorales  et  plans  d’eau 
des  dépressions  arrière-dunaires,  du  sud  de  Saint-Louis-du-Sénégal  au  Chott-Boul  en 
Mauritanie,  ainsi  que  les  parcs  nationaux  du  Djoudj  (Sénégal)  et  du  Diawling 
(Mauritanie)  et  le  site  sénégalais  de  N’Digue  dans  la  vallée  du  Djeuss.  Le  N’Diael,  où 
s’observait  jusqu’à  une  centaine  d’oiseaux  en  novembre  1958  (Morel  & Roux  1966), 
est  maintenant  très  asséché  (Triplet  & Yésou  1997)  et  n’accueille  l’espèce  que  de 


1999 


Effectifs  de  Platalea  leucorodia 


79 


façon  très  occasionnelle. 

Dans  une  minorité  de  cas,  au  Djoudj  et  à N’Digue  en  particulier,  les  Spatules 
peuvent  être  disséminées  en  petits  groupes  sur  des  mares  aux  rives  bordées  d’écrans; 
leur  observation  est  alors  difficile,  ce  qui  peut  être  source  de  sous-estimations.  Mais 
les  sites  fréquentés  par  ces  oiseaux  sont  généralement  des  paysages  ouverts,  ce  qui 
facilite  leur  dénombrement  (il  reste  toutefois  difficile  de  différencier  Spatule  blanche 
et  Spatule  d’Afrique  Platalea  alba  lors  d’observations  à grande  distance,  ce  qui  peut 
biaiser  certaines  estimations).  La  principale  difficulté  vient  de  leur  extrême  mobilité, 
les  mêmes  oiseaux  pouvant  visiter  plusieurs  sites  à bref  intervalle,  voire  dans  la  même 
journée:  or  le  recensement  d’une  région  telle  que  le  delta  du  Sénégal  (plus  de 
50000  ha  de  zones  humides)  s’étale  toujours  sur  plusieurs  jours.  Aussi  des  oiseaux 
peuvent  être  comptés  deux  fois  ou,  à l’inverse,  échapper  à l’observateur. 

Dans  ce  contexte,  l’effectif  très  élevé  de  1965  oiseaux  en  1992  est  peut-être  sous- 
estimé,  car  cette  année-là  il  n’y  a pas  eu  de  dénombrement  sur  les  lagunes  de  Saint- 
Louis,  ni  en  Mauritanie.  De  même,  l’effectif  très  bas  de  1994  tient  peut-être  à une 
prospection  incomplète  en  Mauritanie  et  sur  les  lagunes  de  Saint-Louis.  L’année  1996 
pose  un  autre  problème  difficile  à résoudre,  un  même  effectif  (829  oiseaux)  ayant  été 
noté  à 24  heures  d’intervalle  de  part  et  d’autre  du  fleuve.  Certains  oiseaux  ont 
vraisemblablement  été  comptés  deux  fois,  mais  toutes  les  spatules  ne  se  sont  pas 
dépla-cées  d’une  rive  à l’autre  contrairement  à ce  que  suggère  la  similitude  des 
chiffres  et  l’effectif  total  reste  incertain.  Ces  précautions  d’interprétation  étant  posées, 
les  effectifs  recensés  en  janvier  lors  des  récentes  couvertures  complètes  du  delta  ont 
été  de  1170  oiseaux  en  1995,  1892  en  1996,  1209  en  1997,  2400  en  1998  (dont  1951 
dénombrées  simultanément  le  15  janvier  sur  les  parcs  nationaux  du  Djoudj  et  du 
Diawling,  et  leurs  abords  immédiats)  et  2852  en  1999  (dont  1996  le  13  janvier  sur  le 
P.N.  du  Diawling). 

Morel  & Roux  (1966,  1973)  et  Naurois  (1969)  indiquaient  que  des  oiseaux  de  la 
sous-espèce  P.  l.  balsaci,  endémique  du  Banc  d’Arguin  en  Mauritanie,  pouvaient 
atteindre  la  région  du  fleuve.  Cette  sous-espèce  se  distingue  en  particulier  par  sa  plus 
petite  taille  et  par  la  couleur  uniforme  du  bec  sans  pointe  jaunâtre  chez  les  adultes,  la 
détermination  des  jeunes  étant  plus  délicate  (Cramp  & Simmons  1977,  Otto  Overdijk, 
comm.  pers.),  et  quelques  reprises  d’oiseaux  bagués  confirment  son  occurrence  passée 
jusqu’à  Saint-Louis  et  Richard-Toll  (Morel  & Roux  1966).  Toutefois,  Poorter  (1982) 
estimait  que  cette  sous-espèce  représentait  moins  de  5 % des  effectifs  hivernant  dans 
le  delta,  et  une  récente  synthèse  souligne  que  sa  présence  reste  à confirmer  sur  la  rive 
mauritanienne  (Messaoud  et  al.  1998).  L’un  de  nous  (PT)  a porté  une  attention 
particulière  aux  groupes  de  spatules  en  janvier  1998,  mais  n’a  observé  aucun  individu 
de  cette  sous-espèce  (446  oiseaux  déterminés  sub-spécifiquement  sur  un  total  de  1326 
dénombrés).  En  1999,  la  recherche  effectuée  par  O.  Overdijk  et  PT  n’a  pas  fourni  la 
preuve  de  la  présence  de  cette  sous-espèce  en  janvier. 

Poorter  (1982),  Court  & Aguilera  (1997)  et  O.  Overdijk  (comm.  pers.)  ont  en  fait 
montré  que  les  Spatules  observées  au  Sénégal  proviennent  des  Pays-Bas  et  d’Espagne 


80 


P.  Triplet  & P.  Yésou 


Malimbus  21 


(plus  de  200  contrôles  effectués  principalement  sur  la  réserve  de  Guembeul  et  au  Parc 
National  du  Djoudj).  De  nombreux  contrôles  d’oiseaux  français  ont  également  été 
réalisés  ces  dernières  années  (obs.  pers.,  O.  Overdijk  comm.  pers.).  Les  spatules 
hivernant  dans  le  delta  du  Sénégal  sont  bien,  dans  leur  quasi-totalité,  des  P.  l. 
leucorodia  originaires  des  colonies  de  reproduction  ouest-européennes. 

En  conclusion,  cette  synthèse  confirme  l’importance  du  delta  du  Sénégal  comme 
site  d’hivernage  des  spatules  ouest  européennes.  Les  effectifs  de  cette  population,  en 
augmentation,  s’élève  à 5100-5200  oiseaux  (Overdijk  sous  presse,  comm.  pers.)  qui 
hivernent  de  façon  disséminée  de  la  France  à l’Afrique  de  l’Ouest.  Près  de  50  % de 
cet  effectif  hivernerait  donc  dans  le  delta  du  fleuve  Sénégal  et  30-40  %,  parfois 
jusqu’à  50  % selon  les  années,  sur  banc  d’Arguin  (Overdijk  sous  presse).  Le  delta  du 
Sénégal  apparaît  comme  une  des  deux  zones  les  plus  importantes  de  faire 
d’hivernage  de  cette  population  ouest-européenne.  Au  sein  du  delta,  plusieurs  sites 
(Parcs  Nationaux,  lagunes  de  Saint-Louis)  sont  favorables  au  stationnement  prolongé 
d’effectifs  conséquents  et  se  prêtent  à une  étude  détaillée  des  modalités  d’hivernage 
(occupation  de  l’espace,  exigences  écologiques)  qui  compléterait  utilement  les 
connaissances  sur  l’écologie  et  le  statut  numérique  de  l’espèce. 


Remerciements 

Aux  lecteurs  dont  les  commentaires  ont  permis  d’enrichir  une  première  version  de  ce 
texte,  à Brahim  ould  Messaoud,  et  à nos  collègues  Jean-Pierre  Lafond,  Gilles  Leray, 
Jean-Yves  Mondain-Monval  et  Vincent  Schricke  pour  leurs  informations  inédites 
concernant  janvier  1999.  Otto  Overdijk,  coordinateur  du  réseau  européen  “Spatule”,  a 
fourni  de  nombreux  renseignements,  a amélioré  le  texte  et  a contribué  à l’évaluation 
des  effectifs  de  1999. 


Bibliographie 

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SCHRICKE,  V.,  BENMERGUI  M.,  NDIAYE,  S.,  MESSAOUD,  B.  OULD,  DiOUF,  S.,  M’BARE, 
c.  OULD,  Sylla,  S.I.,  Amadou,  B.,  Mondain-Monval,  J. -Y.,  Mouronval,  J.- 
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82 


Malimbus  21 


Notes  on  the  avifauna  of  the  Noyau  Central, 
Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama,  Republic  of  Benin 

by  Matthias  Waltert  & Michael  Mühlenberg 

Zentrum  für  Naturschutz  (Abt.I),  Universitât  Gottingen, 
Von-Siebold-StraBe  2,  37075  Gottingen,  Germany 

Received  12  October  1998;  revised  14  May  1999 

Summary 

Based  on  field  work  in  1998,  an  avifaunal  list  of  106  species  is  presented  of 
the  previously  ornithologically  neglected  Noyau  Central.  This  core  area  of 
the  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama  is  c.  4500  ha  in  extent  and  constitutes  one  of 
the  last  remaining  natural  forests  in  the  south  of  Benin.  Fifteen  species  were 
recorded  for  the  first  time  in  Benin.  As  other  forest  areas  in  Benin  are  much 
smaller,  the  conservation  of  the  Noyau  Central  may  be  of  crucial 
importance  to  the  country’s  avifauna. 

Résumé 

A partir  d'un  travail  de  terrain  réalisé  en  1968,  une  liste  d'oiseaux  de  106 
espèces  est  établie  pour  le  Noyau  Central  jusqu'ici  négligé  du  point  de  vue 
ornithologique.  Cette  partie  essentielle  de  la  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama 
s'étend  sur  environ  4500  ha  et  constitue  l'une  des  dernières  forêts  naturelles 
du  sud  du  Bénin.  Quinze  espèces  furent  observées  pour  la  première  fois  au 
Bénin.  Comme  les  autres  surfaces  boisées  du  Bénin  sont  bien  plus  petites,  la 
conservation  du  Noyau  Central  est  d'une  importance  cruciale  pour  l'avifaune 
du  pays. 


Introduction  and  study  area 

Published  information  on  Benin’s  forest  avifauna  is  scarce  and  is  mainly  presented  in 
older  works,  dating  from  times  when  the  south  of  Benin  still  contained  large  tracts  of 
forest  (Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  1993).  At  present,  forests  are  rare  in  S Benin  and 
it  is  doubtful  whether  large  forest  species,  such  as  the  Ceraîogymna  hornbills,  can  still 
maintain  viable  populations  in  the  country.  In  this  paper,  we  present  a list  of  birds 
observed  in  the  Noyau  Central,  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama,  which  is  believed  to  be  one 
of  the  largest  forest  remnants  in  the  southern  part  of  Benin. 


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The  Noyau  Central  represents  the  core  area  of  the  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama 
(Lama  Forest,  in  total  16250  ha).  It  is  situated  in  the  Dahomey  Gap,  about  80  km 
north  of  Cotonou  and  is  an  important  production  area  for  Teak  Tectona  grandis.  It 
ranges  between  and  7°0'N  and  between  2°4'  and  2°12'E  (Fig.  1).  The  mean 
annual  rainfall  is  1163  mm,  with  a pronounced  dry  season  from  November  to  April. 
The  Noyau  Central  lies  60  m above  sea  level  in  the  shallow,  but  large,  east-west 
orientated,  Lama  depression.  The  soil  contains  much  clay,  resulting  in  the  flooding  of 
vast  areas  during  the  rainy  season.  In  the  dry  season  the  soil  cracks,  forming  deep 
crevices.  Although  these  special  conditions  allow  forest  to  grow,  few  tree  species  can 
cope.  Dominant  species  include  Afzeiia  africana,  Bombax  buonopozense,  Ceiba 
pentandra  and  Parinari  excelsa. 


Figure  1.  The  location  of  the  Lama  Forest  and  other  places  mentioned  in  the  text 

In  1950,  most  of  the  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama  comprised  natural  forest  but,  due  to 
dear-cutting  and  shifting  cultivation,  this  decreased  to  about  2363  ha  by  1986.  In  that 
year,  forest  authorities  established  a management  plan  to  start  timber  production  and 
stop  deforestation.  The  core  area  called  “Noyau  Central”  with  the  last  remaining 
natural  forest,  in  total  4500  ha,  was  set  aside  for  protection.  At  present  the  Noyau 
Central  contains  about  1800  ha  of  low,  dense  forest,  including  secondary  as  well  as 


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mature  forest  patches,  while  the  rest  is  very  degraded  forest  (about  200  ha)  and  open 
bush  with  dominance  of  the  invasive  pioneer  Chromolaena  odorata.  A good  system 
of  parallel  trails  (evenly  spaced  900  m apart)  exists.  A good  laterite  road  runs  around 
the  area.  Three  25m  watchtowers  have  been  built  for  fire  control.  The  surroundings  of 
the  Noyau  Central  are  mainly  plantations  of  Teak  Tectona  grandis  (about  7000  ha) 
and  farmland  with  very  few  trees. 

Anciaux  (1996)  has  reported  on  the  avifauna  of  the  Allada  Plateau  and  the  south 
of  the  Lama  depression  (covering  c.  2140  km^  from  about  6°26'N,  2°10'E  to  6°55'N, 
2°16'E).  Her  study  area  included  mainly  deforested  areas  with  the  exception  of  the 
Niaouli  forest  (6°44'N  2°29'E),  a forest  island  of  about  100  ha.  Between  1991  and 
1994  she  recorded  124  species.  Claffey  (1995)  spent  eight  years  in  the  Bétérou  area 
(8°40'N,  1°40'E  to  9°30'N,  2°20'E).  His  list  includes  observations  from  the  Forêts 
Classées  of  Wari  Maro  and  Ouémé  Supérieur  lying  within  the  savannah  woodland 
zone  and  Green  & Sayer’s  (unpubl.  1977)  observations  from  the  Monts  Kouffé  area. 
In  this  paper,  we  compare  our  observations  with  these  two  papers  and  with  the  Benin 
list  of  Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  (1993)  and  the  additions  to  it  of  Cheke  (1996). 


Methods 

Between  16  Apr  and  7 May  1998  and  again  between  23  Jul  and  2 Aug  1998  (31  days 
fieldwork),  birds  were  recorded  within  the  Noyau  Central  with  the  following  methods: 
c.  160  h of  direct  observation  (one  observer);  six  nights  acoustical  recognition  of 
night-active  birds;  mist-netting  of  112  individuals  (marked  by  tail-clipping); 
observation  from  watchtowers  (2  h);  road  counts  of  raptors;  collection  of  nightjars  on 
the  road  on  five  evenings. 


Systematic  List 

In  the  following,  bird  abundance  is  indicated  as  follows  (after  Morel  & Tye  1995): 

A:  Abundant  1 1-100  may  be  seen  or  heard  in  suitable  habitat  per  day 

C:  Common  1-10  may  be  seen  or  heard  in  suitable  habitat  per  day 

F:  Frequent  often  seen  but  not  every  day. 

Notes  on  the  breeding  condition  of  trapped  individuals  are  also  given.  Species  not 
listed  for  Benin  by  Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  (1993),  Claffey  (1995),  Anciaux 
(1996)  or  Cheke  (1996)  are  considered  as  first  records  for  Benin  and  are  marked  with 
an  asterisk.  Sequence  and  nomenclature  follow  Birds  of  Africa  up  to  the  most  recent 
volume  (Urban  et  al.  1997),  and  Elgood  et  al.  (1994)  for  the  remaining  species. 

Accipitridae 

Aviceda  cuculoides  African  Cuckoo  Falcon.  C.  Pairs,  26  Apr,  IMay. 


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Pernis  apivorus  Honey  Buzzard.  One,  1 May. 

Elams  caerukus  Black-shouldered  Kite.  F. 

Milvus  migrons  Black  Kite.  C. 

Gypohierax  angolemis  Palm-nut  Vulture.  An  adult,  17  and  2Î  Apr. 

Circaeîus  cinerascens  Smaller  Banded  Snake  Eagle.  One,  2 May;  two,  5 May. 
Polyboroides  iypus  African  Harrier  Hawk.  C. 

Accipiter  tachiro  African  Goshawk.  F. 

A.  badius  Shikra.  C. 

Kaupifaico  monogrammicus  Lizard  Buzzard.  F. 

Aquiia  wahibergi  Wahlberg’s  Eagle.  One,  30  Apr. 

Lophaetus  occipitalis  Long-crested  Eagle.  F.  Pair  with  nest  material,  2 May. 

Falco  biarmicus  Larmer  Falcon.  C. 

Phasianidae 

Guttera  pucherani  Crested  GuineafowL  F.  Only  in  small  groups.  In  S Benin,  recorded 
at  Kétou  (c.  7°30'N,  2°50'E:  Brunei  1958).  Recent  records  only  from  the  Mount 
Kouffé  area  (Green  & Sayer  1977,  B.  Sinsin  pers.  comm.).  The  Noyau  Central 
probably  plays  a crucial  role  in  the  survival  of  this  species  in  the  south  of  Benin. 
Francoiinus  ahantensis  Ahanta  Francolin.  F. 

F.  bicalcaratus  Double-spurred  Francolin.  C. 

Rallidae 

Sarothrura  pulchra  White-spotted  Crake.  Song,  30  Apr,  1 May.  Confirms  first  Benin 
records  of  Anciaux  (1996)  near  Allada  (6°39'N,  2°9T). 

Columbidae 

Treron  calva  African  Green  Pigeon.  F. 

Turtur  tympanistria  Tambourine  Dove.  F. 

T.  afer  Blue-spotted  Wood-Dove.  F. 

Columba  iriditorques  Western  Bronze-naped  Pigeon.  F. 

Streptopeiia  semitorquata  Red-eyed  Dove.  F. 

Musophagidae 

Tauraco  per  sa  Green  Turaco.  F. 

Crinifer  piscator  Western  Grey  Plantain-eater.  C. 

Psittacidae 

Poicephaius  sermgalus.  Two,  1 Aug. 

Cueulidae 

Oxylopkus  ievaiilantii  African  Striped  Cuckoo.  One,  28  Apr. 

Cuculus  clamosus  Black  Cuckoo.  Heard  singing,  27  Apr;  one  individual  of  the  forest 
race,  C.  c.  gabonensis,  seen  23  JuL  The  Benin  records  of  this  species  from  the  end  of 
the  19th  century  were  recently  confirmed  by  Claffey  (1998)  at  Wari  Maro. 
Chrysococcyx  cupreus  Emerald  Cuckoo.  Song,  7 May. 

C Maas  Klaas’s  Cuckoo.  F. 

C.  caprius  Didric  Cuckoo.  F. 

Ceuthmochares  aereus  Yellowbill.  F. 


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Centropus  senegalensis  Senegal  Coucal.  C. 

Strigidae 

Strix  woodfordii  African  Wood  Owl.  F. 

Caprimulgidae 

Caprimulgus  climacurus  Long-tailed  Nightjar.  C.  Male  with  large  brood  patch,  22 
Apr;  another  male  with  enlarged  gonads,  2 Aug. 

C.  inornatus  Plain  Nightjar.  Three:  21  Apr,  30  Apr,  3 May. 

Macrodipterix  longipennis  Standard-winged  Nightjar.  Two,  3 and  5 May. 

Apodidae 

Telacanthura  ussheri  Mottled  Spinetail.  F. 

Cypsiurus  parvus  African  Palm  Swift.  Two,  24  Jul. 

Apus pallidus/apus  Pallid/European  Swift.  Flocks  up  to  60,  17  Apr  to  6 May. 

A.  affinis  Little  Swift.  One,  30  Apr. 

Trogonidae 

Apaloderma  narina  Narina  Trogon.  F. 

Alcedinidae 

Halcyon  malimbica  Blue-breasted  Kingfisher.  One,  7 May. 

H.  senegalensis  Woodland  Kingfisher.  C. 

Meropidae 

Merops  albicollis  White-throated  Bee-eater.A.  Only  Apr-May. 

M.  malimbicus  Rosy  Bee-eater.  F.  Only  Jul-Aug. 

Coraciidae 

*Eurystomus  gularis  Blue-throated  Roller.  One,  1 May.  Identified  by  loud,  harsh  call 
and  blue  throat.  First  record  for  Benin.  Occurs  in  relict  forest  patches  in  S Nigeria 
(Elgood  et  al.  1994);  not  uncommon  forest  resident  in  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 
Its  occurrence  in  the  Noyau  Central  is  therefore  not  surprising. 

E.  glaucurus  Broad-billed  Roller.  F. 

Phoeniculidae 

Phoeniculus  purpureus  Green  Wood-Hoopoe.  F. 

Bucerotidae 

Tockus  albocristatus  White-crested  Hombill.  F.  An  adult  with  a juvenile  taking  a 
sand-bath,  2 Aug.  Wing-coverts  spotted  (=  T.  a.  cassini).  This  may  be  the  last 
population  of  the  species  in  the  countiy,  but  its  viability  is  doubtful,  given  the  scarcity 
of  the  remaining  suitable  habitat.  Listed  by  Brunei  (1958).  Ssp.  macrourus  in  Togo 
(Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

T.  fasciatus  semifasciatus  Pied  Hornbill.  C. 

T.  nasutus  Grey  Hombill.  An  ad.  with  a juvenile,  1 May. 

Capitonidae 

Pogoniulus  bilineatus  Yellow-rumped  Tinkerbird.  F. 

P.  chrysoconus  Yellow-fronted  Tinkerbird.  One,  29  Apr. 

Picidae 

Dendropicos  pyrrhogaster  Fire-bellied  Woodpecker.  F. 


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Hirundinidae 

Hirundo  semirufa  Red-breasted  Swallow,  F. 

H.  aethiopica  Ethiopian  Swallow.  X.  Two  records,  28  Apr  and  2 May. 

Campephagidae 

*Campephaga  quiscalina  Purple-throated  Cuckoo-Shrike.  One  record,  25  Apr:  a 
female  in  the  crown  of  a small,  caterpillar-infested  tree  at  a height  of  c.  10m,  at  the 
edge  of  a forest  patch.  In  overall  size  and  coloration  it  recalled  Nicator  Nicator 
chloris,  but  clearly  showed  a grey  head  and  a smaller  bill  Other  features  noted 
include  black  lores  and  eye-stripe,  indistinct  whitish  supercilium  from  base  of  bill  to 
above  eye,  white  throat,  greenish-yellow  underparts,  olive-green  tail  edged  yellowish. 
After  the  bird  had  disappeared,  a high-pitched  whistle  consisting  of  two  notes,  the 
second  drawn  out  and  falling  in  pitch,  was  heard  twice  and  was  thought  to  come  from 
this  bird.  First  record  for  Benin.  In  Nigeria,  only  known  from  a single  forest  patch  on 
the  Jos  Plateau  (Elgood  et  al  1994).  In  Togo  it  is  known  from  several  forest  patches 
(Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

Pycnonotidae 

Andropadus  virens  Little  Greenbui.  C. 

*A.  curvirostris  Cameroon  Sombre  Greenbui.  C.  Four  adults  mist-netted  and 
photographed.  Identified  by  distinctive,  trilling  call,  often  introduced  with  tii-toowit. 
In  the  hand,  differed  from  A.  virens  in  having  a more  slender,  slightly  down-curved 
bill  and,  in  profile,  a straighter  contour  line  from  top  of  head  to  bill  tip.  Also  showed 
an  open,  pale  brown  eye-ring.  First  record  for  Benin.  In  Nigeria  occurs  west  of  the 
Low^er  Niger  (Elgood  et  al.  1994);  a not  uncommon  forest  resident  in  Togo  (Cheke  & 
Walsh  1996). 

*A.  gracilirostris  Slender-billed  Greenbui.  F.  A loose  group  of  four  or  five  birds 
observed  foraging  on  small  fruits  in  the  canopy  of  a forest  patch,  26  and  30  Apr.  They 
had  pale-olive-grey  underparts  contrasting  with  darker,  olive-brown  upperparts,  a 
fairly  long,  slender  bill,  and  a rather  long  tail.  Vocalizations  included  a call  ti-twee- 
wee-up  and  a characteristic,  drawn-out  whistle,  falling  in  pitch.  Two  more  birds  were 
seen  in. the  top  of  a small  tree  in  a clearing,  1 Aug.  First  record  for  Benin.  Not 
uncommon  resident  in  SW  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  ai.  1994)  and  recently  recorded  in  Togo 
(Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

Chlorocichla  simplex  Simple  Greenbui.  F. 

Phyllastrephus  aibiguiaris  White-throated  Greenbui.  C.  Twenty  adults  mist-netted,  of 
which  at  least  three  females  with  large  brood  patches,  18-19  Apr  and  4 May. 

*Bkda  syndactyla  Red-tailed  Bristlebill.  F.  Singing  birds  heard  in  dense  undergrowth 
of  mature  forest  patches,  6 May,  1 Aug,  3 Aug.  Song  (tape-recorded)  consisted  of  a 
repeated  introductory  knw-kaw-kaw-kaw-...  followed  by  a characteristic,  drawn-out, 
melancholic  trilling  whistle.  None  of  the  birds  was  seen,  but  we  were  familiar  with 
this  species’  vocalizations  from  fieldwork  in  Ivory  Coast,  and  identity  of  the 
recordings  was  subsequently  confirmed  (R.  Demey  in  Hit.).  First  record  for  Benin. 
Resident  S Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994);  but  unrecorded  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 


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B.  canicapilla  Grey-headed  Bristlebill.  C.  13  adults  mist-netted.  Large  brood  patches 
in  two  captured  females,  29  Apr,  6 May. 

Pycnonotus  barbatus  Common  Bulbul.  C. 

Turdidae 

*Stiphrornis  etythrothorax  Forest  Robin.  C in  forest  patches.  Four  adults  mist-netted. 
A captured  male  with  brood  patch  and  enlarged  gonads,  27  Apr.  First  record  for 
Benin.  Present  in  SW  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994),  but  uncertain  in  Togo,  where  there 
are  only  two  19th  century  records  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

Turdus  pelios  African  Thrush.  One,  16  Apr. 

Sylviidae 

Prinia  sub/lava  Tawny-flanked  Prinia.  C. 

*Apalis  rufogularis  Buff-throated  Apalis.  F.  Sightings  include:  a female,  20  Apr;  a 
male  and  two  females,  26  Apr.  The  male  was  in  a mixed  bird  party  and  was  identified 
by  its  blackish  head  and  throat,  contrasting  white  breast,  and  white  outer  tail-feathers. 
The  females  were  distinguished  by  their  buff  throat,  shading  to  orange  in  warm  light, 
white  lower  breast  and  belly,  slender  tail  with  white  outer  feathers  (appearing  wholly 
white  from  below)  and  grey  head.  The  song,  which  was  frequently  heard  in  forest 
patches,  was  tape-recorded  and  was  similar  in  rhythm  to  the  song  of  Sharpe’s  Apalis 
A.  sharpii,  with  which  we  were  familiar  from  Ivory  Coast,  but  had  a different,  harder 
tone.  First  records  for  Benin  and  westernmost  to  date.  Present  in  SW  Nigeria  (Elgood 
et  al  1994)  but  not  in  Togo,  where  it  is  replaced  by  A.  sharpii  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 
Camaroptera  brachyura  Grey-backed  Camaroptera.  A. 

C.  chloronota  Olive  Green  Camaroptera.  F.  One  mist-netted. 

Sylvietta  virens  Green  Crombec.  F.  An  adult  with  a brood  patch,  netted  21  Apr. 

*Hylia  prasina  Green  Hylia.  F.  The  characteristic  call,  a harsh  prrrsh,  followed  by  a 
whistled  teee-tee  was  first  heard  in  dense  undergrowth  of  secondary  forest,  27  Jul. 
First  record  for  Benin.  Common  forest  resident  in  Nigeria  and  Togo  (Elgood  et  ai 
1994,  Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

Muscicapidae 

*Fraseria  ocreata  Fraser’s  Forest-Flycatcher.  One  in  a mixed-species  flock,  26  Apr. 
Identified  by  its  blackish  upperparts  and  white  underparts  with  distinct  markings  on 
breast;  no  supercilium.  We  were  familiar  with  the  species  from  Ivory  Coast.  First 
record  for  Benin.  Present  in  SW  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994),  but  not  recorded  in 
Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

Muscicapa  caerulescens  Ashy  Flycatcher.  Two  records,  21  and  26  Apr. 

Platysteiridae 

*Megabyas  flammulatus  Shrike-Flycatcher.  A pair,  forest  canopy,  30  Apr.  Male  identified 
by  black  upperparts;  more  reminiscent  of  Sabine’s  Pufifback  Dryoscopus  sabini  than  of 
Black-and-White  Flycatcher  Bias  musicus.  Female  distinguished  by  white  underparts 
heavily  streaked  brown.  Both  birds  constantly  swayed  the  tail  from  side  to  side.  The  female 
carried  small  sticks  and  uttered  a hard  clicking  trill.  First  record  for  Benin.  Not  uncommon 
forest  resident  Nigeria  and  Togo  (Elgood  et  al.  1994,  Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 


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Dyaphorophyia  castanea  Chestnut  Wattle-eye.  F.  In  mixed  flocks  in  forest  patches. 
Six  individuals  captured,  of  which  pairs  with  brood  patches  and  males  with  enlarged 
gonads,  18  and  29  Apr  (all  males  with  white  neck  collars:  D.  c.  hormophora).  Not 
included  in  Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  (1993),  Claffey  (1995)  nor  Anciaux  (1996), 
but  mentioned  for  Benin  in  Urban  et  al.  (1997).  Known  also  from  Togo  (Cheke  & 
Walsh  1996)  and  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994). 

Monarchidae 

Terpsiphom  rufiventer  Red-bellied  Paradise-Flycatcher.  C.  Eleven  individuals  mist- 
netted.  Two  captured  birds  with  brood  patches,  17  Apr  and  6 May. 

T.  viridis  African  Paradise-Flycatcher.  Two  white-tailed  birds;  19  Apr,  1 May. 

Timaîiidae 

*Illadopsis  puveli  Puvel’s  Illadopsis.  F.  Five  birds  mist-netted  in  forest  patches, 
between  21  Apr  and  4 May.  All  with  large  brood  patches.  Song  frequently  heard. 
Distinguished  from  I.  fulvescem  and  Pale-breasted  Illadopsis  I.  rufipennis  by  larger 
size,  with  longer,  pale  legs  and  whitish  underparts;  from  similar-sized  I.  rufescens  by 
brown  (not  grey)  flanks.  Song  similar  in  structure  to  that  of  Rufous-winged  Illadopsis 
I.  rufescens,  but  with  a different  rhythm  and  falling  in  pitch.  After  its  release,  a 
trapped  bird  uttered  a drawn-out  whistle  falling  in  pitch,  somewhat  reminiscent  of 
European  Starling  Sturnus  vulgaris,  for  several  minutes.  First  records  for  Benin. 
Uncommon  resident  in  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  ai.  1994);  rare  (or  overlooked?)  forest 
resident  in  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

/.  fulvescens  Brown  Illadopsis.  F.  Two  netted. 

Nectariniidae 

Anthreptes  coUaris  Collared  Sunbird.  F.  Ten  netted:  two  with  brood  patches,  a male 
19  Apr,  a female  5 May. 

Nectarinia  olivacea  Olive  Sunbird.  C. 

N.  venusta  Variable  Sunbird.  Two,  16  Apr,  4 May. 
iV.  chioropygia  Olive-bellied  Sunbird.  F. 

N.  cuprea  Copper  Sunbird.  One,  1 May. 

N.  coccinigaster  Splendid  Sunbird.  Two,  1 May,  23  Jul. 

Malaconotidae 

Nicator  chloris  Nicator.  C.  Two  with  large  brood  patches,  netted  17  Apr,  5 May. 

Prionopidae 

Prionops  piumatus  Straight-crested  Helmet-Shrike.  F. 

P.  caniceps  Red-billed  Shrike.  F. 

Dicruridae 

Dicrurus  adsimilis  Drongo.  F. 

Oriolidae 

Oriolus  auratus  African  Golden  Oriole.  One,  28  Jul. 

*0.  brachyrhynchus  Western  Black-headed  Oriole.  One  in  a mixed  flock,  20  Apr, 
showed  combination  of  black  head,  greenish  (not  black)  upper  tail  and  white  wing- 
patch  at  primary  coverts  or  outer  secondaries.  A second  black-headed  individual 


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observed  some  days  later  again  showed  the  white  wing  patch.  The  call  was  a repeated, 
short,  whistled  tee-hu,  with  the  stress  on  the  first  syllable.  First  record  for  Benin. 
Suggested  to  occur  in  S Benin  by  Brunei  (1958).  Widespread  but  uncommon  in  SW 
Nigeria  (Elgood  etal  1994);  not  uncommon  in  Togo  forests  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 
Sturnidae 

* Lamprotornis  purpureiceps  Purple-headed  Glossy  Starling.  Two  together  in  the 
canopy,  5 May.  Medium-sized  with  relative  short  bill  and  tail,  dark  brown  eye,  glossy 
bluish-purple  head  and  throat,  and  contrasting  glossy  greenish  lower  breast  and  belly. 
First  record  for  Benin  and  westernmost  to  date.  Uncommon  resident  in  Nigeria 
(Elgood  et  al  1994),  but  not  recorded  in  Togo,  where  it  is  replaced  by  Copper-tailed 
Glossy  Starling  L.  cupreocauda  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 

Ploceidae 

Pioceus  cucuUatus  Village  Weaver.  C. 

P.  nigerrimus  castaneofuscus  Vieillot’s  Black  Weaver.  C.  Large  colony  occupied 
Apr-May. 

*P.  tricolor  Yellow-mantled  Weaver.  One  in  a mixed  flock,  26  Apr,  showed  the 

yellow  triangle  on  its  back  and  the  chestnut  underparts,  as  it  climbed  through  the 
branches  of  a low  mid-storey  tree.  First  record  for  Benin.  Not  uncommon  forest 
resident  in  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al  1994);  common  in  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996). 
Malimbus  nitens  Blue-billed  Weaver.  One  netted,  29  Apr. 

M.  rubricollis  Red-headed  Malimbe.  F.  Small  colony  in  Apr-May. 

Quelea  erythrops  Red-headed  Quelea.  C. 

Estrildidae 

Nigrita  canicapilla  Grey-headed  Negro  -Finch.  F. 

*Spermophaga  haematina  Bluebill.  A female  with  a large  brood  patch,  mist-netted  29 
April.  While  handling  the  bird,  the  short  repeated  metallic  call  of  a second  bird  was 
heard  in  the  nearby  undergrowth.  First  record  for  Benin.  Uncommon  forest  resident  in 
Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996);  common  in  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994). 

Estrilda  melpoda  Orange-cheeked  Waxbill.  F. 

Lonchura  cucullata  Bronze  Mannikin.  A. 

L.  bicolor  Black  and  White  Mannikin.  Two  records  along  the  road  in  company  of  L. 
cucullata,  27  and  30  Apr. 

Viduidae 

Vidua  macroura  Pin-tailed  Whydah.  C. 


Discussion 

One  hundred  and  six  species  were  recorded,  of  which  15  appear  to  be  hitherto 
unreported  in  Benin.  These  are:  Eurystomus  gularis,  Campephaga  quiscalina, 
Andropadus  curvirostris,  A.  gracilirostris,  Bleda  syndactyla,  Stiphrornis 
erythrothorax,  Hylia  prasina,  Apalis  rufogularis,  Fraseria  ocreata,  Megabyas 


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91 


flammulatus,  lUadopsis  puveli,  Oriolus  brachyrhynchus,  Lamprotornis  purpureiceps, 
Ploceus  tricolor,  Spermophaga  haemaiina.  All  these  and  about  50  others,  that  is, 
nearly  half  of  the  total  number,  can  be  considered  as  resident  forest  species.  As  the 
area  is  perhaps  the  largest  natural  forest  remnant  in  southern  Benin  and  had  not  been 
visited  by  ornithologists  previously,  this  result  is  not  surprising.  It  is  probable  that 
more  forest  species  will  be  reported  from  the  area. 

Although  former  shifting  cultivation  has  produced  a mosaic  of  forest  and  non- 
forest  habitats,  the  overall  ecological  conditions  of  the  Noyau  Central  still  seem  to 
meet  the  requirements  of  forest  species,  or  at  least  of  the  smaller  ones.  The  forest 
patches  within  the  Noyau  Central  do  not  show  obvious  damage  e.g,  from  logging. 
They  join  each  other  and  extend  over  several  hundreds  of  meters,  so  that  most 
individuals  of  the  forest  species  may  be  able  to  have  their  entire  home  ranges  within 
these  areas.  However,  the  overall  surface  of  forest  is  reduced  to  such  an  extent  that 
larger  species  such  as  White-crested  Hornbill  Tropicranus  aibocristatus  or  Crested 
Guineafowl  Guttera  pucherani,  must  have  already  been  reduced  to  very  small 
populations.  For  these  two  species,  the  Noyau  Central  may  be  a crucial  site  in  the 
country,  as  other  forest  remnants  in  the  region  are  considerably  smaller.  Very  large 
forest  species,  such  as  the  Ceratogymna  hombills,  were  not  recorded.  As  a whole,  the 
guild  of  frugivore  species  seems  not  to  be  well  represented.  This  is  illustrated  by  the 
low  densities  or  absence  of  Green  Pigeons  Treron  calva  and  various  barbets 
Capitonidae,  which  could  otherwise  be  expected  to  occur  in  good  numbers  {cf. 
Claffey  1995).  The  availability  of  fruits  is  probably  much  reduced  due  to  the  low  tree 
species  richness. 


Acknowledgments 

The  Kreditanstalt  fiir  Wiederaufbau  (KfW)  and  the  Deutsche  Gesellschaft  für 
Technische  Zusammenarbeit  (GTZ)  initiated  and  supported  this  project.  We  thank 
Michel  Louette  for  helping  with  literature,  Roland  Hilbert,  Ron  Demey,  R.A.  Cheke 
and  Patrick  Claffey  for  their  comments  on  the  manuscript  and  for  identifying  birds 
from  tape  recordings.  Brice  Sinsin,  Maarten  Van  den  Akker,  Jacques  Adjakpa  and 
Patient  Coubeou  gave  other  useful  information. 


References 

Anciaux,  M.R.  (1996)  Aperçu  de  Favifaune  dans  différents  milieux  de  Fintérieur  des 
terres  du  Sud-Benin.  Plateau  d’Ailada  et  sud  de  la  dépression  de  la  Lama.  Cahiers 
d’ Ethologie  16:  79-98. 

Brunel,  J.  (1958)  Observations  sur  les  oiseaux  du  Bas-Dahomey.  Oiseaux  Rev.  fr. 
Orn.  28:  1-38. 


92 


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Malimbus  21 


Cheke,  R.A.  (1996)  Historical  records  of  birds  from  the  Republic  of  Benin.  Malimbus 
18:  58-59. 

Cheke,  R.A.  & Walsh,  J.F.  (1996)  The  Birds  of  Togo.  Checklist  14,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Claffey,  P.M.  (1995)  Notes  on  the  avifauna  of  the  Bétérou  area,  Borgou  Province, 
Republic  of  Benin.  Malimbus  17:  63-84. 

Claffey,  P.M.  (1998)  The  status  of  Black  Cuckoo  Cuculus  clamosus  and  Red- 
chested Cuckoo  C.  solitarius  in  Benin.  Malimbus  20:  56-57. 

Dowsett,  R.J.  & Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.  (1993)  A Contribution  to  the  Distribution 

and  Taxonomy  of  Afrotropical  and  Malagasy  Birds.  Res.  Rep.  5,  Tauraco  Press, 
Liège. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4 (2nd  ed.).  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring, 

Green,  A. A.  & Sayer,  J.A.  (1977)  La  Conservation  des  Ecosystèmes  Forestiers  de  la 
Région  des  Monts  Kouffé.  Unpubl.  rep.,  FAO/PNUD. 

Keith, 'S.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Fry,  C.H.  (1992^  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  4.  Academie 
Press,  London. 

Morel,  G. J.  & Tye,  A.  (1995)  Guidelines  for  avifaunal  papers  in  Malimbus. 
Malimbus  17:  35-37. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (1997)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  5.  Academie 
Press,  London. 


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Preliminary  check-list  of  the  birds  of  the  Bossematié  area, 

Ivory  Coast 

by  Matthias  Waltertb  K.H.  Yaokokore~Beibro2,  M.  Miihlenbergi  & W.E. 

Waitkuwait2 

iZentrum  fiir  Naturschutz  (Abt.  I),  Universitat  Gottingen, 
Von-Siebold“StraBe  2,  37075  Gottingen,  Germany 
2University  of  Abidjan/Cocody,  Dept  of  Zoology,  B.P.  368,  Abidjan  22,  Ivory  Coast 
^Coopération  Allemande  au  Développement  (GTZ), 

Quartier  de  la  Policlinique  des  Deux  Plateaux,  01  B.P.  7172  Abidjan,  Ivory  Coast 

Received  1 1 March  1999;  revised  8 July  1999 
Summary 

A species  list  is  given  of  the  previously  undescribed  bird  fauna  of  the 
Bossematié  area,  SE  Ivory  Coast,  which  consists  mainly  of  heavily  logged 
forest  and  surrounding  farmland.  During  13  months  of  fieldwork  between 
April  1995  and  August  1997,  235  species  were  identified,  including  five 
species  of  conservation  concern:  Green-tailed  Bristlebill  Bleda  eximia 
(Vulnerable),  the  Near-Threatened  species  Brown-cheeked  Hornbill 
Ceratogymna  cylindricus,  Yellow-casqued  Wattled  Hornbill  C.  elata  and 
Rufous-winged  Illadopsis  Illadopsis  rufescens,  and  the  restricted-range 
species  Sharpe’s  Apalis  Apalis  sharpii.  White-breasted  Guineafowl  Agelastes 
meleagrides,  previously  occurring  in  the  forest,  seems  to  have  become 
extinct.  Marsh  Owl  Asio  capensis  was  recorded  for  the  first  time  in  Ivory 
Coast. 


Résumé 

On  donne  id  une  liste  de  I’avifaune  encore  non  décrite  de  la  région  de 
Bossematié,  SE  de  la  Côte  d’ivoire,  qui  consiste  surtout  en  forêt  fortement 
exploitée  et  en  terrains  de  cultures  avoisinants.  Au  cours  des  13  mois  de 
travail  de  terrain  entre  avril  1995  et  août  1997,  235  espèces  furent  identifiées, 
dont  cinq  aux  risques  d’extinction  inquiétants:  le  Bulbul  à queue  verte  Bleda 
eximia  (Vulnérable),  le  Calao  à joues  brunes  Ceratogymana  cylindricus 
espèce  Quasi-menacée,  le  Calao  à casque  jaune  C.  elata  et  l’Akalat  à ailes 
rousses  Illadopsis  rufescens,  et  l’espèce  à distribution  circonscrite  l’ Apalis  de 
Sharpe  Apalis  sharpii.  La  Pintade  à poitrine  blanche  Agelastes  melagrides, 
que  l’on  rencontrait  naguère  dans  la  forêt,  semble  avoir  disparu.  Le  Hibou  du 
Cap  Asio  capensis  fut  observé  pour  la  première  fois  en  Côte  d’ivoire. 


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Introduction 

Timber  exploitation  and  the  continuing  conversion  of  forest  into  farmland  have  led  in 
the  last  20  years  to  a dramatic  decrease  of  forest  cover  in  Ivory  Coast.  Recent 
activities  by  the  government  aim  to  stop  uncontrolled  exploitation  on  public  land  and 
include  it  in  controlled  land-use  planning  and  management.  In  eastern  Ivory  Coast 
seven  forest  areas  have  been  re-classified  as  state  forests  (Forêts  Classées)  and  are 
now  the  subject  of  a rehabilitation  programme  of  SODEFOR  (Société  de 
Développement  des  Forêts)  in  co-operation  with  the  German  aid  agency  GTZ. 
Faunistically,  the  best  studied  of  these  is  the  Bossematié  Forest.  In  the  present  paper 
we  present  current  knowledge  about  its  avifauna  and  compare  the  results  with  known 
bird  distribution  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1 985a, b,  Demey  & Fishpool  1991,  1994, 
Gartshore  et  al.  1995),  Ghana  (Grimes  1987)  and  Liberia  (Gatter  1998).  Our  data 
from  the  moist  semi-deciduous  forest  zone  may  fill  in  a north-south  data  gap,  as  most 
studies  on  Ivory  Coast’s  forest  avifauna  have  been  undertaken  in  wet  forests  or 
savanna.  Nevertheless,  it  has  to  be  remembered  that  the  original  species  composition 
and  abundance  of  forest  species  have  been  altered  in  the  area  due  to  intensive  logging 
and  forest  fragmentation. 


The  Bossematié  Forest  and  surrounding  area 

Bossematié  Forest  forms  part  of  the  proposed  trans-national  Bia-Bossematié  network 
area,  which  contains  the  six  areas  in  eastern  Ivory  Coast  and  western  Ghana,  where 
the  African  Forest  Elephant  Loxodonta  africana  cyclotis  still  occurs  (Parren  & de 
Graaf  1995).  The  22,200  ha  forest  is  located  40  km  south  of  Abengourou  (6°35'- 
6°20'N  and  3°35'-3°20'W).  To  the  north,  a 6-km  strip  of  cultivated  land  separates 
the  Bossematié  from  the  neighbouring  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Beki.  To  the  east  it  is 
bordered  by  the  Abengourou-Bettié  road,  to  the  south  by  the  Comoé  River  and  to  the 
west  by  the  small  Bossematié  River  (Fig.  1).  Several  villages  are  situated  in  its 
immediate  vicinity  and  the  forest  block  is  totally  surrounded  by  farmland. 

The  area  has  an  altitude  of  140-240  m and  is  slightly  hilly,  with  humid  valleys, 
dry  ridges,  no  permanent  water  but  several  small  streams  in  the  rainy  season.  It 
receives  an  average  annual  rainfall  of  1400  mm  and  belongs  to  the  moist  semi- 
deciduous  forest  zone  (Hall  & Swaine  1976).  Characteristic  tree  species  are 
Triplochiton  scleroxylon  and  Celtis  spp.  in  the  north,  and  Khaya  ivorensis  and 
Piptadeniastrum  africanum  in  the  south.  The  Bossematié  has  been  selectively  logged 
five  or  six  times  between  the  early  1960s  and  1990,  when  timber  exploitation 
stopped.  Existing  banana  and  cocoa  plantations  were  abandoned  with  the  beginning 
of  the  project  in  1990.  What  is  left  is  a forest  with  a canopy  cover  of  not  more  than 
40%  and  extremely  patchy  vegetation.  The  valleys  have  a very  open  character  and 
differ  from  the  hills  in  having  an  understorey  that  is  largely  dominated  by  the 


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95 


agressive  introduced  herb  Chromolaena  odorata,  and  a less  well  developed 
midstorey.  However,  the  drier  hills  are  also  characterized  by  a dense  understorey 
under  an  open  midstorey  and  canopy;  many  clearings  contribute  to  the  open 
character. 


Figure  1.  Ivory  Coast,  Bossematié  area.  Observations  made  in  the  Forêt  Classée  de 
la  Beki  are  not  included  in  this  paper. 


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Poaching  was  reduced  in  the  first  years  of  the  project,  but  has  since  increased 
again  and  is  still  high.  In  addition  to  the  Forest  Elephant,  the  mammal  fauna  includes 
Chimpanzee  Pan  troglodytes  verus.  About  300  butterfly  species  have  been  found  and 
some  500  are  expected  to  occur  (Larsen  unpubl.,  DalFAsta  & Fermon  unpubL). 

Since  1990,  the  following  management  activities  have  been  begun:  establishment 
of  plantations  of  Triplochiton  scleroxylon  and  Terminalia  spp.  in  former  cocoa 
plantations  and  deforested  areas  (1076  ha),  enrichment  planting  of  potential  crop  trees 
in  very  degraded  areas  (2034  ha),  and  the  free  cutting  of  selected  trees  to  reduce  liana 
cover  and  minimize  competition  from  trees  of  secondary  interest  (9522  ha).  Three 
strict  biological  reserves  have  been  established  within  the  forest  borders,  containing 
one  third  of  the  total  forest  area  (7404  ha).  The  planned  management  activities  will  be 
conducted  until  2014.  Controlled  timber  exploitation  has  been  proposed  for  2005- 
2014  on  c.  4515  ha  with  an  intensity  of  1.3  trees  per  ha  (SODEFOR  1994).  In  order 
to  monitor  possible  effects  of  management  activities,  a programme  using  30  bird  and 
20  mammal  species  as  biological  indicators  was  started  in  1992.  The  animals’  densities 
are  assessed  from  16  permanent  2-km  transects  inside  the  forest.  Fieldwork  is  carried 
out  by  teams  recruited  from  villagers  around  the  forest,  mainly  experienced  hunters. 
For  more  background  information  see  Waitkuwait  1992,  Mühlenberg  et  al.  1995. 

The  area  surrounding  the  Forêt  Classée  is  largely  dominated  by  cocoa  and  coffee 
plantations.  Small  patches  of  logged  forest  exist,  with  the  understorey  slightly 
regenerated,  as  well  as  overgrown  former  plantations,  but  their  size  is  not  significant 
and  their  surface  is  declining  due  to  the  continuing  planting  of  cocoa  and  coffee. 
Several  small  ponds  are  used  for  pisciculture  and  there  is  a large  water  reservoir  near 
Abengourou.  There  are  also  many  ricefields,  which  are  used  as  occasional  resting 
places  by  waterbirds.  Fishing,  hunting  and  farming  activities  prevent  these  wetlands 
from  being  suitable  as  breeding  sites  for  waterbirds. 


Methods 

Ornithological  fieldwork  was  carried  out  between  Apr  1995  and  Aug  1997  (181 
days).  Of  these,  52  days  were  in  the  dry  season  (Dec  1995  to  Mar  1996,  Dec  1996) 
and  129  in  the  rainy  months  (Apr-Jul  1995,  Sep-Oct  1996,  Jun-Aug  1997).  The 
number  of  observation  days  in  the  Bossematié  Forest  was  161,  while  observations  in 
the  surrounding  farmland  were  only  made  during  38  days  (including  days  with  visits 
in  both  habitats).  Field  work  between  Apr  and  Jul  1995  was  carried  out  mainly  along 
16  permanent  2-km  transects,  which  are  used  in  the  Bossematié  forest  for  biological 
monitoring  (see  Waitkuwait  1992).  A 110  ha  plot  with  a 100  x 100  m grid  of 
footpaths,  established  in  the  northern  part  of  the  forest,  has  been  surveyed  six  times 
from  Jun  to  Aug  1997.  An  additional  mark-recapture  study  on  understorey  birds  was 
carried  out  on  this  plot  using  three  mist-netting  phases  (Feb-Mar  1996,  Sep-Oct  1996 
and  Jul-Aug  1997),  which  produced  1282  captures  of  746  individuals.  In  addition, 


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97 


mist-netting  has  been  done  in  a small  forest  patch  of  c.  4 ha,  c.  5 km  from  the, Forêt 
Classée,  in  Jun  1995  (56  captures). 


Results 

In  total,  235  bird  species  were  recorded.  One  species,  Asia  capensis  (English  names 
in  systematic  list,  below),  seems  to  be  recorded  for  the  first  time  in  Ivory  Coast.  In  the 
Bossematié  Forest  158  species  were  identified,  of  which  109  (70%)  were  observed 
only  within  the  forest  borders.  In  the  surrounding  farmland  122  species  were  counted. 

In  the  heavily  logged  Forêt  Classée  many  of  the  “primary  forest  species”  {sensu 
Thiollay  1985b)  were  present.  Five  forest  species  are  classified  as  species  of 
conservation  concern  or  restricted-range  species  (Collar  et  ah  1994,  Stattersfield  et  al. 
1998).  These  are  Bleda  eximia  (Vulnerable)  and  the  Near-Threatened  Ceratogymna 
cylindricus,  C.  elata  and  Illadopsis  rufescens.  The  restricted  range  species  Apaiis 
sharpii  was  also  found.  However,  several  of  the  characteristic  forest  species  were  rare 
or  uncommon  and  it  is  questionable  whether  the  conditions  in  the  remaining  forest  are 
suitable  for  their  survival.  Agelastes  meleagrides  (Vulnerable),  whose  former 
presence  was  reported  by  locals,  now  seems  to  be  completely  absent,  although  it  still 
occurs  c.  30  km  south  of  the  Bossematié  area,  in  the  less  exploited  Mabi  Forest  (pers. 
obs.).The  populations  of  some  of  the  forest  birds,  especially  the  Ceratogymna 
hornbills,  are  very  small  and  their  situation  must  be  considered  as  critical.  On  the 
other  hand,  several  species  that  are  uncommon  in  undisturbed  forest  seem  to  profit 
from  the  secondary  character  of  the  Forêt  Classée,  e,g.  Francolmus  ahantensis, 
Tockus  semifasciatus,  Gymnobucco  peli,  Pogoniuius  scolopaceus  and  Trachyphonus 
purpuratus.  In  the  understorey,  Nectarinia  olivacea,  Andropadus  latirosiris,  Bleda 
canicapilla  and  Alethe  diademata  are  the  most  dominant  species  in  mistnet  samples, 
followed  by  Hylia  prasina,  Phyllastrephus  albigularis  and  Andropadus  virens. 
Abundant  also  are  Chrysococcyx  cupreus  and  Dicrurus  adsimilis,  regularly  seen  in 
mixed  bird  flocks. 

The  122  species  recorded  in  the  surrounding  farmland  represent  a completely 
different  avifauna.  The  most  common  birds  include  ubiquitous  species  such  as 
Pycnonotus  barbatus  or  Corvus  albus,  and  forest  edge  species  such  as  Cisticola 
lateralis  and  several  estrildine  finches.  No  Ceratogymna  hornbills  and  only  a few 
Pycnonotidae  were  recorded  in  the  farmland.  Of  the  forest  understorey  avifauna,  only 
a few  species  remain  common  in  dense  farmbush,  for  example  Andropadus  virens  and 
Francolmus  ahantensis.  Some  forest  species,  such  as  Bleda  canicapilla  or 
Andropadus  laiirostris  can  be  found  in  small  remnant  forest  patches  in  the  farmed 
area,  but  most  of  the  48  forest  species  that  were  recorded  outside  the  forest  were  less 
common  in  farmland.  Although  most  of  the  time  was  spent  inside  the  Bossematié 
Forest  and  many  forest  species  present  in  farmland  may  have  been  missed,  the  species 
loss  that  we  observed  may  be  ecologically  significant.  Kofron  & Chapman  (1995),  in 


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Malimbus  21 


a Liberian  study,  also  found  that  70%  of  the  species  present  in  virgin  forest  could  not 
be  found  in  surrounding  farmland. 


Systematic  list 

Nomenclature  follows  Brown  et  al.  (1982),  Urban  et  al.  (1986),  Fry  et  al.  (1988), 
Keith  et  al.(  1992),  Urban  et  al.  (1997)  and  Dowsett  & Forbes-Watson  (1993).  In 
assessment  of  abundance,  we  follow  the  suggestions  of  Morel  & Tye  (1995): 

Very  abundant  (VA)  >100  may  be  seen  or  heard  in  suitable  habitat  per  day 


Abundant  (A) 
Common  (C) 
Frequent  (F) 
Uncommon  (U) 
Rare  (R) 
Vagrant  (V) 


1 1-100  may  be  seen  or  heard  in  suitable  habitat  per  day 
1-10  may  be  seen  or  heard  in  suitable  habitat  per  day 
often  seen  but  not  every  day 
several  records  per  year 
one  record  per  several  years  (resident  species) 
one  record  per  several  years  (non-residents) 

Other  abbreviations:  BF,  recorded  inside  the  Bossematié  forest;  NF,  recorded  in  areas 
surrounding  the  Bossematié  forest. 


Phalacrocoracidae 

Phalacrocorax  africanus  Long-tailed  Cormorant.  Four,  NF,  18  Jun  1995. 

Anhingidae 

Anhinga  rufa  African  Darter.  One,  NF,  Feb  1996. 

Ardeidae 

Ardeola  ralloides  Squacco  Heron.  Five,  NF,  18  Jun  1995,  One,  NF,  14  Mar  1996. 
Bubulcus  ibis  Cattle  Egret.  C,  NF. 

Butorides  striatus  Green  Heron.  F,  NF. 

Egretta  garzetta  Little  Egret.  U,  NF. 

E.  intermedia  Yellow-billed  Egret.  F,  NF. 

Ardea  purpurea  Purple  Heron.  R,  NF 
A.  cinerea  Grey  Heron.  F,  NF. 

Scopidae 

Scopus  umbretta  Hamerkop.  One,  NF,  9 Mar  1996. 

Acdptridae 

Pandion  haliaetus  Osprey.  One,  NF,  25  Dec  1995. 

Aviceda  cuculoides  African  Cuckoo  Falcon.  F,  BF. 

Pernis  apivorus  Honey  Buzzard.  One,  NF,  Mar  1 996. 

Elanus  caeruleus  Black-shouldered  Kite.  R,  NF,  18  Jun  1995. 

Milvus  migrans  Black  Kite.  C,  NF. 

Gypohierax  angolensis  Palm-nut  Vulture.  C,  NF;  C,  BF. 

Necrosyrtes  monachus  Hooded  Vulture.  C,  NF. 

Circaetus  cinerascens  Smaller  Banded  Snake-Eagle.  One,  NF,  2 Jun  1995;  one,  BF,  6 
Feb  1996. 

Polyboroides  typus  Harrier  Hawk.  C,  NF;  C,  BF, 


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Accipiter  tachiro  African  Goshawk.  C,  NF,  C,  BF. 

A.  badius  Shikra.  One,  NF,  10  Apr  1995. 

A.  erythropus  Red-thighed  Sparrowhawk.  F,  BF. 

A.  melanoleucos  Black  Sparrowhawk.  U,  BF. 

Urotriorchis  macrourus  Long-tailed  Hawk.  F,  BF. 

Aquiia  wahibergi  Wahlberg’s  Eagle.  One,  BF,  7 Feb  1996. 

Stephanoaetus  coronatus  Crowned  Eagle.  F,  BF. 

Hieraaetus  ayresii  Ayres’s  Hawk  Eagle.  One,  BF,  19  Aug  1997. 

Falconidae 

Falco  ardosiaceus  Grey  Kestrel.  One,  NF,  7 Feb  1996. 

F.  biarmicus  Banner  Falcon.  C,  NF;  Two  juveniles,  21  Mar  1996. 

F.  tinnunculus  Common  Kestrel.  One,  NF,  10  Apr  1995. 

Phasianidae 

Guttera  pucherani  Crested  Guineafowl.  C,  BF. 

Fmncolinus  lathami  Latham’s  Forest  Francolin.  C,  BF. 

F.  ahantensis  Ahanta  Francolin.  C,  BF;  C,  NF. 

F.  bicalcaratus  Double-spurred  Francolin.  U,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Rallidae 

Himantornis  haematopus  Nkulengu  Rail.  F,  BF. 

Sarothrura  pulchra  White-spotted  Flufftail.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Amaurornis  flavirostris  Black  Crake.  C,  NF. 

Crex  egregia  African  Crake.  Two,  NF,  2 Aug  1997. 

Jacanidae 

Acîophilornis  africana  African  Jacana.  C,  NF. 

Glareoiidae 

Giareola  nuchalis  Rock  Pratincole.  F,  NF. 

Charadriidae 

Tringa  ochropus  Green  Sandpiper.  Two,  NF,  25  Dec  1995. 

T.  giareola  Wood  Sandpiper.  One,  NF,  14  Mar  1996. 

Acîitis  hypoleucos  Common  Sandpiper.  Two,  NF,  25  Dec  1995  and  16  Mar  1996. 

Columbidae 

Treron  calva  African  Green  Pigeon.  A,  BF;  A,  NF. 

Turtur  brehmeri  Blue-headed  Wood  Dove.  F,  BF. 

T.  tympanistria  Tambourine  Dove.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

T.  afer  Blue-spotted  Wood  Dove.  F,  BF;  C,  NF. 

Oena  capensis  Namaqua  Dove.  One,  NF,  Feb  1996. 

Columba  iriditorques  Western  Bronze-naped  Pigeon.  C,  BF. 

C.  unicincta  Afep  Pigeon.  F,  BF. 

Streptopelia  semitorquata  Red-eyed  Dove.  C,  BF;  C,  NF. 

S.  senegalensis  Laughing  Dove.  C,  NF. 

Psittacidae 

Psittacus  e.  erithacus  Grey  Parrot.  F,  BF. 


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Poicephalus  gulielmi  Red-fronted  Parrot.  C,  BF,  with  flocks  up  to  15.  One  sighting  of 
ten  over-flying  birds,  NF.  Rare  and  local  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985a,  Demey  & 
Fishpool  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

Poicephalus  senegalus  Senegal  Parrot.  One,  NF,  8 Jun  1997. 

Musophagidae 

Corythaeola  cristata  Great  Blue  Turaco.  C,  BF. 

Tauraco  macrorhynchus  Yellow-billed  Turaco.  C,  BF;  R,  NF. 

Crinifer  piscator  Western  Grey  Plantain-eater.  F,  NF. 

Cuculidae 

Oxylophus  levaillantii  African  Striped  Cuckoo.  One,  NF,  7 Feb  1996. 

Cuculus  solitarius  Red-chested  Cuckoo.  F,  BF. 

C clamosus  Black  Cuckoo.  F,  BF. 

Cercococcyx  mechowi  Dusky  Long-tailed  Cuckoo.  One,  BF,  13  May  1995. 

C.  olivinus  Olive  Long-tailed  Cuckoo.  F,  BF. 

Chrysococcyx  Emerald  Cuckoo.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

C.  klaas  Klaas’s  Cuckoo.  C,  BF;  C,  NF. 

C.  caprius  Diederik  Cuckoo.  C,  NF. 

Ceuthmochares  aereus  Yellowbill.  F,  BF. 

Centropus  leucogaster  Black-throated  Coucal.  C,  BF;  U,  NF. 

C.  senegalensis  Senegal  Coucal.  F,  BF;  C,  NF. 

Tytonidae 

Tyto  alba  Barn  Owl.  C,  NF. 

Strigidae 

Bubo  poensis  Fraser’s  Eagle  Owl.  A captive  immature  was  photographed  in 
Abengourou,  7 Jun  1997.  Calling  Bubo  owls  commonly  heard  inside  Bossematié 
Forest  were  probably  this  species.  Common  in  Yapo  Forest  (Demey  & Fishpool 
1994).  Said  to  be  well  adapted  to  logged  forest  in  Liberia  (Gatter  1998). 

Glaucidium  tephronotum  Red-chested  Owlet.  Tape-recorded  song,  2 May  1995,  con- 
firmed as  this  species  by  C.  Chappuis  {in  litt.).  Previously  recorded  in  Tai,  Yapo  and  a 
few  other  forest  areas  (Thiollay  1985a,  Demey  & Fishpool  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 
Strix  woodfordii  African  Wood  Owl.  C,  BF;  F,  NF.  An  immature,  7.  Jun  1997. 

Otus  icterorhynchus  Sandy  Scops  Owl.  One,  BF,  21  Jun  1997,  observed  flying  off 
after  being  mobbed  by  several  small  birds.  Recognised  from  size  and  sandy, 
unmarked  plumage.  We  were  familiar  with  this  species  from  a mist-netted  individual 
in  the  Nimba  area  in  Jun  1997  (Yaokokore-Beibro  & Waltert  unpubl.).  A drawn-out 
whistle,  emitted  by  us  after  our  observation,  again  caused  mobbing  by  Macrosphenus 
kempi  and  Malimbus  nitens.  Previously  known  from  very  few  locations  (Thiollay 
1985a,  Demey  & Fishpool  1994). 

Asio  capensis  Marsh  Owl.  One  roosting  in  a tree  in  a park-like  area  near  ricefields  in 
the  vicinity  of  Abengourou,  8 June  1997.  It  was  being  mobbed  by  several  Pycnonotus 
barbatus.  It  was  a pale  brown  owl,  size  and  general  appearance  of  an  Asio,  with  dark 
eyes  and  no  visible  ear  tufts,  which  sat  in  an  almost  horizontal  position  while  staring 


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101 


at  the  observer.  When  approached,  it  flew  off  low,  showing  pale  buff  patches  on  the 
primaries.  The  wings  appeared  longer  than  in  A.  flammeus.  First  record  for  Ivory 
Coast.  In  West  Africa,  resident  in  grassy  valleys  and  swamps  in  arid  regions,  e.g.  in 
Senegambia,  Mali,  Benin,  Burkina  Faso,  Nigeria  and  Niger  (Fry  et  ai.  1992).  Not 
recorded  in  Ghana  or  Liberia  (Grimes  1987,  Gatter  1998),  but  reported  as  far  south  as 
Lagos,  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994). 

Caprimulgidae 

Caprimulgus  inornatus  Plain  Nightjar.  One,  NF,  18  Jan  1996. 

Macrodipteryx  longipennis  Standard- winged  Nightjar.  U,  NF. 

Apodidae 

Telacanthura  melanopygia  Black  Spinetail.  Four,  BF,  16  Jul  1997. 

T.  ussheri  Mottled  Spinetail.  Ten,  BF,  14  Jun  1997. 

Neafrapus  cassini  Cassin’s  Spinetail.  Two,  NF,  12  Jun  1997. 

Cypsiurus  parvus  African  Palm  Swift.  C,  NF. 

Apus  pallidus  Pallid  Swift.  Fifteen,  NF,  14  Mar  1996. 

A.  affinis  Little  Swift.  C,  NF. 

Trogonidae 

Apaloderma  narina  Narina’s  Trogon.  F,  BF. 

Alcedinidae 

Halcyon  badia  Chocolate-backed  Kingfisher.  F,  BF. 

H.  malimbica  Blue-breasted  Kingfisher.  One,  BF,  17  Jun  1995. 

H.  senegalensis  Woodland  Kingfisher.  C,  BF;  C,  NF. 

Ceyx  lecontei  Dwarf  Kingfisher.  One,  BF,  12  Sep  1996. 

C.  picta  Pygmy  Kingfisher.  F,  NF. 

Corythornis  cristata  Malachite  Kingfisher.  One,  NF,  2 May  1995. 

Aicedo  quadribrachys  Shining  Blue  Kingfisher.  One,  NF,  18  Jun  1995. 

Meropidae 

Merops  muelleri  Blue-headed  Bee-eater.  Three  observations  in  the  southern  part  of 
the  Bossematié  Forest.  Known  from  Tai  and  Yapo  (Thiollay  1985a,  Demey  & 
Fishpool  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

M gularis  Black  Bee-eater.  F,  BF;  U,  NF. 

M pusillus  Little  Bee-eater.  F,  NF. 

M albicollis  White-throated  Bee-eater.  F,  NF. 

Coracidae 

Eurystomus  gularis  Blue-throated  Roller.  C,  BF. 

Phoeniculidae 

Phoeniculus  castaneiceps  Forest  Wood-Hoopoe.  F,  BF. 

P.  bollei  White-headed  Wood-Hoopoe.  F,  BF. 

Bucerotidae 

Tockus  albocristatus  White-crested  Hornbill.  C,  BF;  U,  NF. 

T.  hartlaubi  Black  Dwarf  Hornbill.  F,  BF. 

T.  camurus  Red-billed  Dwarf  Hornbill.  F,  BF. 


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T.  fasciatus  African  Pied  Hornbill.  A,  BF;  A,  NF. 

Ceratogymna  fistulator  Piping  Hornbill.  F,  BF;  U,  NF. 

C.  subcylindricus  Black-and-white-casqued  Hornbill.  Only  two  observations,  BF: 
Ten,  6 Jan  and  four,  7 Feb  1996.  The  dry  season  occurrence  in  the  Bossematié  area 
strongly  suggests  seasonal  movements. 

C.  cylindricus  Brown-cheeked  Hornbill.  F,  BF.  A pair  with  one  young,  9 Feb  1996.  A 
group  of  six,  16  Mar  1996.  All  other  groups  comprised  only  2-3  birds.  As  in  Ghana 
(Grimes  1987),  the  local  population  has  declined  seriously  (reported  by  hunters). 
Near-threatened  (Collar  et  al.  1994). 

C.  atrata  Black-casqued  Wattled  Hornbill.  Three  observations,  BF:  a flock  of  eight, 
11  Apr  1995;  two,  21  Dec  1995;  a single  male,  9 Feb  1996.  The  main  distribution 
may  be  wet  evergreen  rain  forest,  (see  Thiollay  1985a),  but  according  to  locals,  it  was 
previously  much  more  common  in  the  area.  Contrary  to  the  situation  in  the 
Bossematié  area,  this  species  is  more  numerous  than  C.  elata  in  Bia  National  Park 
(Grimes  1987).  This  may  suggest  that  atrata  may  be  more  vulnerable  than  elata. 

C.  elata  Yellow-casqued  Wattled  Hornbill.  F,  BF.  Groups  of  up  to  ten.  A juvenile  in 
company  of  nine  adults  de-barking  branches  of  a tall  tree,  17  Jun  1997.  The  higher 
abundance  of  this  species  in  comparison  to  C.  atrata  is  in  accordance  with  J.-M. 
Thiollay  {in  litt.),  who  considers  it  more  a species  of  gallery  forest  and  more 
adaptable  to  secondary  habitats.  Near-threatened  (Collar  et  al.  1994). 

Capitonidae 

Gymnobucco  peli  Bristle-nosed  Barbet.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

G.  calvus  Naked-faced  Barbet.  F,  BF;  C,  NF. 

Pogoniulus  scolopaceus  Speckled  Tinkerbird.  C,  BF;  C,  NF. 

P.  atroflavus  Red-rumped  Tinkerbird.  F,  BF. 

P.  subsulphureus  Yellow-throated  Tinkerbird.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

P.  bilineatus  Yellow-rumped  Tinkerbird.  F,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Tricholaema  hirsuta  Hairy-breasted  Barbet.  C,  BF;  U,  NF. 

Lybius  vieilloti  Vieillot’s  Barbet.  U,  NF. 

Trachyphonus  purpuratus  Yellow-billed  Barbet.  C,  BF. 

Indicatoridae 

Indicator  exilis  Least  Honeyguide.  An  adult  in  fresh  plumage  mist-netted,  BF,  21  Feb 
1996.  Identification  confirmed  on  the  basis  of  photographs  by  M.  Louette  and  R. 
Demey.  Forest  edge  and  galleries  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985a).  Rare  resident  in 
Ghana  (Grimes  1987);  locally  not  uncommon  in  Liberia,  where  recorded  along 
logging  roads  (Gatter  1998). 

I.  conirostris  Thick-billed  Honeyguide.  Recorded  once,  BF,  11  Aug  1997,  perching 
quietly  in  a tree  in  a clearing  near  a colony  of  Gymnobucco  peli,  considered  to  be  its 
principal  host  in  Ghana  (Grimes  1987).  Recorded  in  Tai  and  Yapo  (Demey  & 
Fishpool  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

Picidae 

Campethera  nivosa  Buff-spotted  Woodpecker.  C,  BF. 


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Dendropicos  gabomnsis  Gabon  Woodpecker.  F,  BF. 

D.  pyrrhogaster  Fire-bellied  Woodpecker.  C,  BF. 

Euryiaimidae 

Smithornis  rufoiaîeraiis  Rufous-sided  BroadbiîL  F,  BF. 

Pittidae 

Pitta  angoiemis  African  Pitta,  A displaying  individual,  BF,  27  Dec  1995,  seen  well 
while  perching  on  a low  tree.  It  produced  a purring  noise  with  its  wings  and  emitted 
repeatedly  the  curious  froglike  call.  Uncommon  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985a, 
Gartshore  et  ai.  1995). 

Hirundinidae 

Hirundo  abyssinica  Lesser  Striped  Swallow.  A,  NF. 

H.  nigrita  White-throated  Blue  Swallow.  U,  NF. 

H.  daurica  Red-rumped  Swallow.  Two,  NF,  21  Jun  1997. 

H.  aethiopica  Ethiopian  Swallow,  C in  villages  Apr-Oct.  Mud-collecting  individuals, 
21  Jun  1997.  Considered  very  local  in  Ivory  Coast  and  Ghana  (Thiollay  1985a, 
Grimes  1987),  but  our  records  confirm  continuing  westward  range-extension  (see 
Grimes  1987,  Demey  & Fishpool  1991). 

H.  rustica  Barn  Swallow.  F,  BF;  F,  NF. 

H.  semirufa  Rufous-chested  Swallow.  C,  NF. 

Motadlîidae 

Motacilla  flava  thunbergi  Yellow  Wagtail  One,  NF,  14  Mar  1996. 

M aguimp  African  Pied  Wagtail  F,  NF. 

Anthus  leucophrys  Plain-backed  Pipit.  U,  NF. 

Campephagidae 

Coracina  pectoralis  White-breasted  Cukoo-Shrike.  Two  chasing  each  other  in  a tree 
in  farmland,  10  Jun  1995.  Seems  to  be  the  third  record  in  Ivory  Coast  south  of  8°N 
(Thiollay  1985a,  Demey  & Fishpool  1991).  Southernmost  record  in  western  Ghana 
seems  to  be  Bole  (9°3''N)  (Grimes  1987). 

C.  azurea  Blue  Cuckoo-Shrike.  F,  BF. 

Pycnoiiotidae 

Andropadus  virens  Little  Greenbul  A,  BF;  A;  NF. 

A.  gracilis  Little  Grey  Greenbul  F,  BF. 

A.  ansorgei  Ansorge’s  Greenbul  F,  BF. 

A.  curvirostris  Plain  Greenbul.  C,  BF. 

A.  gracilirostris  Slender-billed  Greenbul  C,  BF. 

A.  latirostris  Yellow- whiskered  Greenbul  A,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Calyptocichla  serina  Golden  Bulbul  U,  BF. 

Baeopogon  indicator  Honeyguide  Bulbul  C,  BF. 

Ixonotus  guttatus  Spotted  Bulbul.  U,  BF. 

Chiorocichia  simplex  Simple  Greenbul.  F,  NF. 

Thesceiocichia  ieucopieura  Swamp  Palm  Bulbul  F,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Phyllastrephus  icterinus  Icterine  Greenbul  U,  BF. 


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P.  albigularis  White-throated  Greenbul.  C,  BF;  U,  NF. 

Bleda  syndactyla  Red-tailed  Bristlebiil.  C,  BF. 

B.  eximia  Green-tailed  Bristlebiil.  F,  BF.  Seven  mist-netted.  Primary  moult  10  Feb 

1996,  12  Sep  1996  and  12  Aug  1997.  A female  with  large  brood  patch,  29  Jul  1997. 
The  stomach  of  a male  with  enlarged  testes,  killed  in  a mist-net  by  an  Accipiter 
tachiro,  27  Sep  1996,  contained  remains  of  two  caterpillars,  c.  five  diplopods  and  one 
spider.  Vulnerable  (Collar  et  al.  1994).  Rarely  observed  in  Ivory  Coast,  mainly  in  wet 
evergreen  forest  (Thiollay  1985a,  Demey  & Fishpool  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

B.  canicapilla  Grey-headed  Bristlebiil.  A,  BF;  U,  NF. 

Criniger  barbatus  Western  bearded  Bulbul.  F,  BF. 

C calurus  Red-tailed  Bulbul.  C,  BF. 

Pycnonotus  barbatus  Common  Bulbul.  C,  BF;  A,  NF. 

Turdidae 

Stiphrornis  erythrothorax  Forest  Robin.  F,  BF. 

Alethe  diademata  Fire-crested  Alethe.  C,  BF. 

Neocossyphus poensis  White-tailed  Ant-Thrush.  F,  BF. 

N.fmschii  Finsch’s  Flycatcher-Thrush.  F,  BF. 

Sylviidae 

Cisticola  lateralis  Whistling  Cisticola.  A,  NF. 

Prinia  subflava  Tawny-flanked  Prinia.  F,  NF. 

Apalis  sharpii  Sharpe’s  Apalis.  C,  BF;  most  often  encountered  in  mixed  flocks. 
Rarely  seen,  but  song  regularly  heard.  A.  nigriceps  has  not  been  recorded.  Both 
species  are  common  in  Yapo  (Demey  and  Fishpool  1994). 

Camaroptera  brachyura  Bleating  Warbler.  U,  BF;  C,  NF. 

C.  superciliaris  Yellow-browed  Camaroptera.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

C.  chloronata  Olive-green  Camaroptera.  C,  BF. 

Macrosphenus  kempi  Kemp’s  Longbill.  C,  BF. 

M.  concolor  Grey  Longbill.  C,  BF. 

Eremomela  badiceps  Rufous-crowned  Eremomela.  F,  BF. 

Sylvietta  virens  Green  Crombec.  C,  BF;  C,  NF. 

Hyliota  violacea  Violet-backed  Hyliota.  U,  BF. 

Hylia  prasina  Green  Hylia.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Muscicapidae 

Fraseria  ocreata  Fraser’s  Forest  Flycatcher.  C,  BF. 

Muscicapa  striata  Spotted  Flycatcher.  One,  NF,  9 Mar  1996. 

M.  caerulescens  Ashy  Flycatcher.  Observed  twice  along  a road,  BF,  8 and  20  Aug 

1997.  Not  uncommon  in  forest  clearings  at  the  northern  edge  of  the  forest  zone 
(Thiollay  1985a),  but  observed  in  Tai  as  well  (Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

M.  epulata  Little  Grey  Flycatcher.  Two  observations  and  eight  mist-netted,  BF. 
Individuals  with  large  brood  patches,  19  Feb  1996  and  11  Aug  1997.  An  immature 
with  spots  on  secondary  coverts,  20  Mar  1996.  Identification  confirmed  from  photo- 
graphs, by  M.  Louette.  Field  characters  included:  grey  feet,  lower  mandible  black 


Î999 


Birds  of  Bossematié 


105 


with  whitish  base,  feathers  of  forehead  and  crown  with  blackish  centres,  washed-out 
greyish  streaks  on  the  flanks.  A captured  male  sang  when  handled.  Song,  similar  to 
Stiphrornis  erythrothorax,  a thin  dee-dee-didi-dee~di,  answered  by  a second  bird  (the 
female?)  with  a soft  huit.  Few  records  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985a,  Demey  & 
Fishpool  1991,  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995).  Uncommon  in  Ghana  and  Liberia 
(Grimes  1987,  Gatter  1998)  and  said  to  occur  mainly  in  primary  forest  (Gatter  1998). 
Demey  & Fishpool  (1994)  observed  the  bird  in  midstorey,  whereas  Gatter  (1998)  and 
Gartshore  et  al.  (1995)  recorded  it  in  canopy.  However,  our  mist-net  records  suggest, 
that  the  species  visits  undergrowth  as  well,  as  suggested  by  Grimes  (1987). 

M.  ussheri  Ussher’s  Flycatcher.  F,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Monarchidae 

Erythrocercus  mccallii  Chestnut-capped  Flycatcher.  C,  BF. 

Trochocercus  nitens  Blue-headed  Crested  Flycatcher.  C,  BF. 

Terpsiphone  rufiventer  Red-bellied  Paradise-Flycatcher.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Platysteiridae 

Bias  musicus  Black-and-white  Flycatcher.  One,  NF,  10  Jun  1995. 

Dyaphorophyia  castanea  Chestnut  Wattle-eye.  C,  BF. 

D.  blissetti  Red-cheeked  Wattle-eye.  A pair  mist-netted,  NF,  3 May  1995. 

Timaiiidae 

Illadopsis  fulvescens  Brown  Illadopsis.  C,  BF. 

/.  rufipennis  Pale-breasted  Illadopsis.  F,  BF. 

/.  cleaveri  Blackcap  Illadopsis.  F,  BF. 

/.  rufescens  Rufous-winged  Illadopsis.  Song  recorded  at  three  locations,  only  inside 

the  forest.  An  immature  bird  with  yellowish  gape-edges  mist-netted,  28  Jul  1997. 
Near-threatened  (Collar  & Stuart  1985,  Collar  et  al.  1994),  and  known  from  very  few 

localities  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985,  Demey  & Fishpool  1991,  1994,  Gartshore  et 

al.  1995). 

Remizidae 

PhoUdornis  rushiae  Tit-hylia.  One  observation  of  five  individuals  perching  together 
in  a low  tree,  NF,  10  Jun  1995.  Few  localities  in  Thiollay  (1985).  Recorded  in  canopy 
(Gartshore  et  al.  1995),  observed  in  degraded  habitats  (Demey  & Fishpool  1991, 
1994). 

Paridae 

Parus  funereus  Dusky  Tit.  Five  records  of  singing  individuals,  of  which  one  seen,  4 
Aug  1997,  c.  25  m up  in  an  isolated  tree  above  degraded  understorey,  BF.  Not 
recorded  in  Yapo  (Demey  & Fishpool  1994);  generally  rare  and  local  (Thiollay 
1985a,  Grimes  1987,  Gatter  1998,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

Nectariniidae 

Anthreptes  fraseri  Fraser's  Sunbird,  C,  BF. 

A.  rectirostris  Yellow-chinned  Sunbird.  One,  BF,  9 Aug  1997. 

A.  collaris  Collared  Sunbird.  C,  BF. 

Nectarinia  seimundi  Little  Green  Sunbird.  U,  BF. 


106 


M.  Waltert  et  al. 


Malimbus  21 


N.  olivacea  Olive  Sunbird.  A,  BF;  F,  NF. 

N.  adelberti  Buff-throated  Sunbird.  F,  BF. 

N.  senegalensis  Scarlet-breasted  Sunbird.  One,  NF,  20  Jul  1997. 

N.  coccinigaster  Splendid  Sunbird.  U,  NF. 

N.  venusta  Yellow-bellied  Sunbird.  One,  BF,  1 1 Dec  1996. 

N.  cyanolaema  Blue-throated  Sunbird.  U,  BF. 

N.  chloropygia  Olive-bellied  Sunbird.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

Zosteropidae 

Zosterops  senegalensis  Yellow  White-eye.  F,  NF. 

Oriolidae 

Oriolus  auratus  African  Golden  Oriole.  One,  BF,  12  Apr  1995, 

O.  brachyrhynchus  Western  Black-headed  Oriole.  F,  BF. 

O.  nigripennis  Black-winged  Oriole.  U,  BF. 

Lanlidae 

Lanius  collaris  Fiscal  Shrike.  A pair,  NF,  21  May  1995. 

L.  senator  Woodchat  Shrike.  One,  NF,  4 Feb  1996. 

Malaconotidae 

Dryoscopus  sabini  Sabine's  Puffback,  F,  BF. 

Nicator  chloris  Western  Nicator.  C,  BF. 

Prionopidae 

Prionops  caniceps  Northern  Red-billed  Helmet  Shrike.  F,  BF. 

P.  plumatus  Straight-crested  Helmet  Shrike.  Five,  BF,  7 May  1995. 

Dicruridae 

Dicrurus  atripennis  Shining  Drongo.  F,  BF. 

D.  adsimilis  Fork-tailed  Drongo.  C,  BF. 

Corvidae 

Corvus  albus  Pied  Crow.  C,  NF. 

Sturnidae 

Poeoptera  lugubris  Narrow-tailed  Starling.  A flock  of  c.  70  birds  roosting  in  a tall 
tree,  BF,  8 Feb  1996.  Already  mentioned  for  Abengourou  by  Thiollay  (1985),  few 
observations  in  Tai  (Gartshore  et  al.  1995)  and  Yapo  (Demey  & Fishpool  1994). 
Onychognathus  fulgidus  Forest  Chestnut-winged  Starling.  Three  records,  BF.  A pair 
occupying  a nest  hole  in  a tree  at  a road,  24  Mar  1996.  Habitat  considered  to  be 
humid  savannah  by  Thiollay  (1985),  but  known  to  occur  in  the  forest  zone  in  Ghana 
and  Ivory  Coast  (Grimes  1987,  Demey  & Fishpool  1994,  Gartshore  et  al.  1995),  and 
in  Liberia,  where  it  profits  from  logging  (Gatter  1998). 

Passeridae 

Passer  griseus  Grey-headed  Sparrow.  A,  NF. 

Fringiilidae 

Serinus  mozambicus  Yellow-fronted  Canary.  One,  NF,  6 May  1995. 

Ploceidae 

Ploceus  nigerrimus  Vieillot’s  Black  Weaver.  A,  NF. 


1999 


Birds  of  Bossematié 


107 


P.  cucuUatus  Village  Weaver.  A,  NF. 

P,  nigricolUs  Spectacled  Weaver.  A male  with  nesting  material,  NF,  21  Jun  1997. 

P.  tricolor  Yellow-mantled  Weaver.  F,  BF. 

P.  aibinucha  Maxwell’s  Black  Weaver.  F,  BF. 

P.  preussi  Preuss’s  Weaver.  One,  BF,  9 Aug  1997. 

Malimbus  nitem  Blee-billed  Malimbe.  C,  BF;  F,  NF. 

M maiimbicus  Crested  Malimbe.  F,  BF. 

M scutatus  Red-vented  Malimbe.  F,  BF, 

M.  rubricoliis  Red-headed  Malimbe.  C,  BF. 

Ambfyospiza  albifrons  Thick-billed  Weaver.  F,  BF;  U,  NF. 

Estrildidae 

Nigrita  canicapilla  Grey-crowned  Negrofmch.  C,  BF. 

N.  bicolor  Chestnut-breasted  Negrofmch.  C,  BF. 

N.  fusconota  White-breasted  Negrofmch.  F,  BF. 

Pyrenestes  sanguineus  Crimson  Seed-cracker.  U,  BF. 

Spermophaga  haematina  BluebilL  C,  BF. 

Mandingoa  nitidula  Green  Twinspot.  Three  males  mist-netted,  BF,  28  Feb,  1 Mar  and 
16  Sep  1996,  the  last  with  a large  brood  patch.  In  Ivory  Coast,  mainly  in  secondary 
forest  in  the  wettest  parts  of  the  forest  zone  (Thiollay  1985a),  but  recorded  at  northern 
border  of  Tai  National  Park  (Gartshore  et  al.  1995). 

Estrilda  melpoda  Orange-cheeked  Waxbill.  C,  NF. 

E.  astriid  Common  Waxbill.  U,  NF. 

Lonchura  cucuilata  Bronze  Mannikin.  A,  NF. 

Viduidae 

Vidua  macroura  Pin-tailed  Widow.  C,  NF. 


Acknowledgments 

The  Kreditanstait  fiir  Wiederaufbau  (KfW)  and  the  Gesellschaft  für  Technische 
Zusammenarbeit  (GTZ)  supported  this  project.  For  technical  help  and  for  solving 
identification  problems  we  thank  M.  Louette,  C.  Chappuis,  R.  Demey  and  L.D.C. 
Fishpool.  J.  Slowik.  F.  Hetzel,  A.  Fane,  T.  Kouablan  helped  in  the  field  and  gave 
valuable  information  on  the  occurrence  of  some  birds. 


References 

Broww,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 
Academic  Press,  London. 

Collar,  N.I,  Crosby,  M.I  & Stattersfîeld,A.J.  (1994)  Birds  to  Watch  2.  The 
world  list  of  threatened  birds.  Birdlife  International,  Cambridge. 


108 


M.  Waltert  et  ai 


Malimbus  21 


Demey,  R & Fishpool,  L.D.C.  (1991)  Additions  and  annotations  to  the  avifauna  of 
Côte  d’Ivoire.  Malimbus  12;  61-86. 

Demey,  R & Fishpool,  L.D.C.  (1994)  The  birds  of  the  Yapo  forest.  Ivory  Coast. 
Malimbus  16:  100-122. 

Dowsett,  R.J.  & Forbes-Watson,  A.D.  (1993)  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  Afrotropical 
and  Malagasy  Regions.  Tauraco  Press,  Liège. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4,  2nd  ed.,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Fry,  C.H.  Keith,  S.  & Urban,  E.K.  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  3.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Gartshore,  me.,  Taylor,  P.D.  & Francis,  I.S.  (1995)  Forest  Birds  in  Côte 
d'Ivoire.  A survey  of  Tai  National  Park  and  other  forests  and  forestry 
plantations,  1989-1991.  Study  report  58,  Birdlife  International,  Cambridge. 

Gatter,  W.  (1998)  Birds  of  Liberia.  Pica  Press,  Mountfield. 

Grimes,  L.G.  (1987)  The  Birds  of  Ghana.  Checklist  9,  British  Ornithologists’  Union, 
London. 

Hall,  J.B.  & Swaine,  M.D.  (1976)  Classification  and  ecology  of  closed-canopy 
forest  in  Ghana.  J.  Ecol.  64:  913-951. 

Keith,  S.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Fry,  C.H.  (19929  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  4.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Kofron,  C.P.  & Chapman,  A.  (1995)  Deforestation  and  bird  species  composition  in 
Liberia,  West  Africa.  Trop.  Zool.  8:  239-256. 

Morel,  G.J.  & Tye,  A.  (1995)  Guidelines  for  avifaunal  papers  in  Malimbus. 
Malimbus  17:  35-37. 

MÜHLENBERG,  M.,  Slowik,  J.,  Woll,  H.  & Waitkuwait,  W.E.  (1995)  Strategies  for 
restoration  of  tropical  forests  that  incorporate  wildlife  protection:  an  example 
from  the  Ivory  Coast,  West  Africa.  Pp.  413-417  in  Bissonette,  J.A.  & 
Krausman,  P.R.  (eds)  Integrating  People  and  Wildlife  for  a Sustainable  Future. 
Proc.  1st  Internat.  Wildl.  Management  Congr.,  The  Wildlife  Society,  Bethesda. 

Parren,  M.P.E.  & DE  Graaf,  N.R.  (1995)  The  Quest  for  Natural  Forest  Management 
in  Ghana,  Côte  d’Ivoire  and  Liberia.  Tropenbos  Series  13,  Wageningen. 

SODEFOR  (1994)  Plan  d’ Amenagement  de  la  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Bossematié. 
Unpubl.  rep.  for  SODEFOR/GTZ/KfW,  Abengourou. 

Stattersfield,  A.J.,  Crosby,  N.  J.,  Long,  A. G.  & Wege,  D.C.  (1998)  Priorities  for 
Bird  Bonservation.  Birdlife  International,  Cambridge. 

Thiollay,  J.-M.  (1985a)  The  birds  of  the  Ivory  Coast:  status  and  distribution. 
Malimbus  7:  1—59. 

Thiollay,  J.-M.  (1985b)  The  West  African  forest  avifauna:  a review.  Pp.  171-186  in 
Diamond,  A.W.  & Lovejoy,  T.E.  (eds)  Conservation  of  Tropical  Forest  Birds. 
Tech.  Publ.  4,  International  Council  for  Bird  Preservation,  Cambridge. 


1999 


Birds  of  Bossematié 


109 


Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (1986)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  2.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (1997)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  5.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Waitkuwait,  W.E.  (1992)  Restauration  d’un  écosystème  forestier:  contribution  de 
l’aménagement  de  la  faune.  Pp.  203-214  in  Vooren,  A. P.,  Schork,  W.A.  & 

Spijkerman,  A.J.C.  (eds)  Compte  Rendu  Séminaire  sur  l’Aménagement  Intégré 
des  Forêts  Denses  Humides  et  des  Zones  Agricoles  Périphériques.  Tropenbos 
Series  1,  Wageningen. 


no 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 


First  record  of  Scaly-fronted  Warbler  Spiloptila  damans  in  Cameroon 

On  21  December  1996,  in  an  area  of  dry,  open  scrub  c.  65  km  north  of  Maroua, 
northern  Cameroon  (14°9'0"N,  1 1°2'24”E),  Jürgen  Lehnert  drew  attention  to  a party 
of  six  small  passerines  that  were  flitting  from  bush  to  bush.  They  were  identified  as 
Scaly-fronted  Warblers  Spiloptila  damans  by  their  small  size,  buffy-brown  backs, 
black  and  white  foreheads  and  wing  coverts,  and  very  mobile  tails  with  white  tips  and 
black  subterminal  bands.  Nik  Borrow,  a member  of  the  party,  was  familiar  with  this 
species  in  Senegal.  This  record,  which  has  already  been  briefly  mentioned  but  not 
fully  documented  by  Robertson  (1996)  and  Urban  et  al.  (1997),  is  the  first  for  the 
species  in  Cameroon. 

1 thank  Nik  Borrow  for  his  valuable  comments  and  companionship. 

References 

Robertson,  I.  (1996)  Recent  Reports.  Bull.  Afr.  Bird  Club  3:  60-63. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (1997)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  5.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Received  12  October  1998  Mark  van  Beirs 

Revised  6 May  1999  Hertooiebos  36,  9052  Zwijnaarde,  Belgium 


Perrin’s  Bush-Shrike  Telophorus  viridis^  new  to  Gabon 

Perrin’s  Bush-Shrike  Telophorus  viridis  is  found  in  dense  habitats,  from  coastal 
thickets  and  overgrown  clearings  to  montane  forests,  from  extreme  southern  coastal 
Congo-Brazzaville  at  Pointe  Noire  south  through  SW  and  south-central  Congo- 
Kinshasa,  NW  Zambia  to  central  Angola  (Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  1963,  Dowsett 
& Forbes-Watson  1993,  Dowsett-Lemaire  et  al.  1993).  We  saw  a male  of  this  species 
in  April  1995  on  the  Bateke  Plateau  east  of  Leconi  in  SE  Gabon.  This  is  the  first 
known  sighting  of  this  species  for  Gabon. 

The  bird  was  heard  singing  naturally  from  a dense  thicket  at  the  edge  of  an 
isolated  forest  patch  in  the  grassland  that  covers  the  Plateau.  We  made  tape  recordings 
of  its  natural  song,  as  well  as  calls  given  in  response  to  playback  of  its  own  song. 
These  recordings  are  archived  at  the  Library  of  Natural  Sounds,  Cornell  Laboratory  of 
Ornithology. 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


111 


The  bird  continued  to  sing  as  it  was  approached.  In  response  to  playback  of  its 
own  song,  it  continued  giving  the  same  song,  but  it  did  not  move  and  stayed  low  in 
the  dense  thicket.  After  continuing  to  call  for  20  min.,  it  moved  to  another  location, 
still  staying  low  in  the  densest  part  of  the  thicket.  At  this  time,  in  response  to 
playback,  it  moved  to  a height  of  5 m in  a small  tree  in  the  thicket  and  continued  to 
sing  from  that  perch  for  10  min.,  looking  around  aggressively  before  flying  back 
down  into  the  dense  bushes. 

The  individual,  which  was  seen  very  well,  had  the  top  of  the  head  to  the  upper 
tail-coverts  green,  with  wing-coverts  and  edges  of  the  flight  feathers  also  green.  The 
tail  was  black.  The  throat  was  scarlet,  with  a wide  black  breast-band  and,  below  that,  a 
narrower  scarlet  band.  The  belly  was  a paler  green  and  the  under  tail-coverts  bright 
maroon. 

Many  thanks  to  Françoise  Dowsett-Lemaire,  Stuart  Keith,  Mary  LeCroy,  R.  Ranft, 
and  D.A.  Turner  for  their  comments. 

References 

Dowsett,  R.J.  & Forbes- Watson,  A.D.  (1993)  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  Afrotropical 
and  Malagasy  Regions,  vol.  1.  Tauraco  Press,  Liege. 

Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.,  Dowsett,  R.J.  & Bulens,  P.  (1993)  Additions  and 
corrections  to  the  avifauna  of  Congo.  Malimbus  15:  68-80. 

Mackworth-Praed,  C.W.  & Grant,  C.H.B.  (1963)  Birds  of  West  Central  and 
Western  Africa,  vol.  2.  Longman,  New  York. 

Received  31  December  1998 

Revised  16  January  1999  Linda  Macaulay'  & J.C.  Sinclair^ 

'Library  of  Natural  Sounds,  Cornell  Laboratory  of  Ornithology 
7 Hill  Road,  Greenwich,  CT  06830,  U.S.A. 
^20  Pleasant  Place,  Pineland,  Cape  Town  7405,  Republic  of  South  Africa 


First  Nigerian  record  of  Red-fronted  Parrot  Poicephalus  gulielmi,  and 
other  notable  records  from  SE  Nigeria 

During  widespread  field  expeditions  in  the  mangrove  areas  of  Cross  River  estuary  and 
the  lowland  rain  forests  of  Oban  Hills,  from  1984-90,  we  collected  information  about 
the  region’s  avifauna.  Some  of  these  observations  refer  to  species  that  hitherto  have 
not  been  recorded  in  SE  Nigeria,  and  one,  the  Red-fronted  Parrot  Poicephalus 
gulielmi,  is  new  for  the  country.  In  the  following  accounts,  the  status  of  these  species 
as  given  by  Elgood  et  al.  (1994)  is  cited  in  brackets  at  the  end  of  each  account. 


112 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


Anhinga  rufa  Darter.  Seven  records:  a total  of  21  birds  at  a pond  (in  farming  area  c.  2 
km  north  of  the  periphery  of  Calabar),  between  Nov  1986  and  Feb  1990,  all  in  the 
months  Nov-Feb.  [No  sightings  in  the  last  20  years.] 

Ixobrychus  sturmii  Dwarf  Bittern.  Two  birds,  Nov  86,  near  Akamkpa,  c.  40  km  north 
of  Calabar.  [In  southeast  recorded  only  at  Owerri.] 

Ardeola  ralloides  Squacco  Heron.  Eight  records:  17  birds  at  pond  north  of  Calabar 
(see  Anhinga  rufa),  and  one  at  a pond  in  forest  area  c.  10  km  south  of  Oban.  All 
records  in  the  months  Nov-Feb,  between  Jan  1986  and  Feb  1990.  [Unreported  from 
southeast.] 

Anastomus  lamelligerus  Openbill  Stork.  Flock  of  five  flying  south  along  Great  Qua 
River  near  Calabar,  Jan  1989.  [Unrecorded  in  southeast.] 

Nettapus  auritus  Pygmy  Goose.  Eight  records:  30  birds  at  pond  north  of  Calabar  (see 
Anhinga  rufa),  between  Oct  1986  and  Feb  1990,  all  in  the  months  Oct-Feb.  [Only  one 
record  from  southeast,  Afikpo.] 

Rynchops  flavirostris  African  Skimmer.  One  flock  of  c.  300,  hunting  in  Cross  River 
estuary,  Feb  1987.  Perhaps  the  same  population  as  in  Rio  del  Rey  (see  Green  1996). 
[No  recent  records  until  Sep  1989,  single  bird  at  IITA,  Ibadan.] 

Poicephalus  gulielmi  Red-fronted  Parrot.  Three  birds  in  Oban  Hills  near  Aking,  1 Sep 
1990.  Before  we  saw  these  parrots  we  heard  the  characteristic  screeching  calls,  quite 
different  from  the  calls  of  Grey  Parrots  Psittacus  erithacus,  which  we  often  heard 
during  our  frequent  visits  to  the  Oban  Hills.  We  soon  spotted  the  three  parrots  sitting 
quite  high  up  in  a tree  canopy  and  identified  them  as  P.  gulielmi  by  the  greenish  body, 
the  contrasting  colours  of  the  mandibles  (lower  black,  upper  pale  horn),  the  orange- 
red  crown,  forehead  and  leading  edge  of  wings.  The  only  other  large  rain  forest  parrot 
in  SE  Nigeria  and  adjacent  Cameroon  is  the  Grey  Parrot  (Fry  et  al.  1988).  First 
Nigerian  record.  Not  unexpected,  as  it  is  known  from  Just  over  the  border  in 
Cameroon,  in  Korup  (Rodewald  et  al.  1994)  and  Rio  del  Rey  (Thomas  1995). 

Bubo  poensis  Fraser’s  Eagle  Owl.  In  1989  calling  quite  often  in  the  evening  around 
Palm-Oil  Club,  20  km  north  of  Calabar.  Call  identified  using  Chappuis  1978.  [Few 
records,  Bonny  to  Ibadan,  one  heard  in  Oban  West.] 

Jynx  torquilla  European  Wryneck.  One,  resting  on  a concrete  pole  close  to  our 
compound  in  Calabar,  Dec  1987.  [Few  southerly  records.] 

Fraseria  cinerascens  White-browed  Forest  Flycatcher.  One  along  a river  bank  in 
Akampka-Nsan  forest  area,  Jan  1988.  Known  from  just  over  the  border  in  Korup 
National  Park,  Cameroon  (Rodewald  et  al.  1994).  [Two  records  for  southeast: 
Mberubu  and  Nindam.] 

Erythrocercus  mccallii  Chestnut-capped  .Flycatcher.  One,  north  Oban,  Jan  1987. 
Known  from  just  over  the  border  in  Korup  National  Park,  Cameroon  (Rodewald  et  al. 
1994).  [One  record  from  southeast.] 

Anthreptes  gabonicus  Brown  Sunbird.  One  in  mangrove  area  near  Inua  Abasi  in  the 
Cross  River  estuary,  Dec  1987.  A “female  coloured”  sunbird  showing  whitish 
underparts  and  grey-brown  upperparts,  it  was  identified  by  its  white  stripe  above  the 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


113 


eye  and  a thicker  white  stripe  under  the  eye.  [Common  resident  in  mangroves  from 
Badagri  to  Port  Harcourt  (and  probably  Calabar).] 

Nectarinia  fuliginosa  Carmelite  Sunbird.  One  near  înua  Abasi  in  Cross  River  estuary, 
Dec  1987.  Known  from  just  over  the  border  in  Korup  National  Park,  Cameroon 
(Rodewald  et  ai.  1994),  Could  only  be  mistaken  for  N.  adelberti  (relatively  common 
in  gardens  around  Calabar),  from  which  it  was  distinguished  by  its  metallic  violet 
throat.  [Not  yet  noted  in  extreme  southeast.] 

We  express  our  sincere  gratitude  to  R.J.  Dowsett  for  reviewing  the  paper  and  giving 
very  valuable  advice. 

References 

Chappuis,  C.  (1978)  Illustration  sonore  de  problèmes  bioacoustiques  posés  par  les 
oiseaux  de  la  zone  éthiopienne.  Alauda  46:  327-355. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N. J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4 (2nd  ed.),  British 
Ornithologists'  Union,  Tring. 

Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.  & Urban,  E.K.  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  3.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Green,  A. A.  (1996)  More  bird  records  from  Rio  del  Rey  estuary,  Cameroon. 
Malimbus  18:  112-121. 

Rodewald,  P.G.,  Dejaefve,  P.-A.  & Green,  A. A.  (1994)  The  birds  of  Korup 
National  Park  and  Korup  project  area,  Southwest  Province,  Cameroon.  Bird 
Conserv.  Inî.  4:  1-^8. 

Thomas,  J.  (1995).  Birds  of  the  Rio  del  Rey  estuary,  Cameroon.  Malimbus  17:  7-18. 

Received  26  January  1998  T.  Künzeî  & S.  Künzel 

Revised  1 April  1999  Schrevenbornerweg  28,  24226  Heikendorf,  Germany 


Réaction  du  Petit  Cossyphe  à tête  blanche  Cossypha  niveicapilla  au  cri 
d’alarme  de  FEcureuil  de  Gambie  flelimciums  gambianus 

La  dernière  semaine  de  juin  1998,  je  prospectais  dans  le  lit  complètement  asséché 
d’un  marigot,  à une  dizaine  de  kilomètres  au  sud  de  Toubakouta,  dans  le  centre-ouest 
sénégalais.  Il  n’était  tombé  qu’une  seule  faible  pluie,  n’empêche  que  nombre  de 
migrateurs  intra-africains  étaient  présents.  Parmi  eux,  un  Petit  Cossyphe  à tête  blanche 
Cossypha  niveicapilla,  caché  au  plus  dense  du  feuillage  d’un  arbuste  formant  parasol 
au-dessus  d’une  vieille  termitière,  imitait  avec  insistance  le  Merle  africain  Turdus 
peiios,  conformément  à l’habitude  de  l’espèce.  Je  m’approchai  à quelques  mètres  de 
lui,  sans  l’effaroucher,  avec  l’espoir  de  répertorier  le  maximum  de  voix  pouvant  être 


114 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


contrefaites.  Soudain,  j’entendis,  émis  d’un  arbre  qui  me  surplombait  par  derrière,  un 
cri  en  cascade  d’un  Ecureuil  de  Gambie  Heliosciurus  gambianus.  Agrippé  à un 
rameau,  tête  vers  le  bas,  à 6 m de  hauteur,  le  rongeur  alarmait  avec  entêtement  chaque 
fois  que  je  me  déplaçais.  Le  cossyphe  a interrompu  ses  ritournelles,  dès  le  premier 
signal,  pour  alarmer  à son  tour,  en  réponse  manifeste  à l’écureuil.  Les  cris  évoquaient, 
en  moins  fort,  ceux  du  Choucador  à longue  queue  Lamprotomis  caudatus  et  durèrent 
jusqu’à  ce  que,  las  d’attendre  en  vain,  je  renonce  à l’écoute,  au  bout  d’une  dizaine  de 
minutes. 

La  compréhension  des  cris  d’alarme  d’un  oiseau  par  un  mammifère,  ou 
réciproquement,  a au  moins  été  rapportée  pour  le  Calao  à huppe  blanche  Tockus 
albocristatus,  qui  prévient  les  singes  de  l’approche  d’un  danger  (Fry  et  al.  1988),  et 
pour  les  indicateurs  Indicator,  qui  guident  le  Ratel  Mellivora  capensis  vers  une  ruche. 

Bibliographie 

Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S,  & Urban,  E.K.  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  3.  Academie 
Press,  London. 

Reçu  2 décembre  1998  Babacar  Ndao 

c/o  Moustapha  Sow  Baïdy,  Léona,  Kaolack,  Sénégal 


Observation  de  la  Bernache  cravant  Eranta  bernicla  au  Sénégal 

Les  20  et  21  février  1997,  YR  observa  et  photographia  deux  Bemaches  cravants  au 
cap  Skirring,  à l’extrémité  sud  du  pays,  à la  frontière  de  la  Guinée  portugaise.  Les 
deux  clichés  permettent  sans  aucun  doute  possible,  non  seulement  d’authentifier 
l’identification  mais  de  préciser  la  race  de  ces  deux  bemaches:  la  partie  antérieure  des 
oiseaux  est  sombre  et  les  désigne  comme  appartenant  à la  race  bernicla  qui  niche  en 
Russie  septentrionale  et  en  Sibérie  orientale  et  hiverne  sur  tout  le  littoral  de  la  Manche 
et  de  l’Atlantique.  Ces  deux  sujets  se  tenaient  à faible  distance  de  la  plage  et  venaient 
se  nourrir  sur  le  sable. 

La  présence  de  cette  espèce  est  rare  et  accidentelle  au  Maroc  (Brown  et  al.  1982); 
elle  n’a  été  trouvée  ni  en  Sénégambie  (Barlow  & Waeher  1997),  ni  au  Mali  (La- 
marche 1980),  ni  au  Niger  (Giraudoux  et  al  1986).  En  Mauritanie,  Trotignon  (1980, 
par  erreur  1978  in  Lamarche  1988)  relate  l’observation  de  cette  espèce  dans  la  baie  de 
l’Etoile  le  27  décembre  1978,  la  seule  observation  en  Mauritanie  (B.  Lamarche  corn, 
pers).  La  présence  de  ces  bemaches  à cette  latitude  est  donc  tout  à fait  exceptionnelle. 

Nous  remercions  G.  Jarry  (Centre  de  Recherches  sur  la  Biologie  des  Populations 
d’Oiseaux,  Muséum  National  d’Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris)  de  nous  avoir  communiqué 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


1Î5 


Tunique  observation  de  J.  Trotignon  ainsi  que  ses  commentaires  sur  Tabsence  de 
données  pour  la  Mauritanie. 

Bibliographie 

Barlow,  C.  & Wacher,  T.  (1997)  A Field  Guide  to  Birds  of  The  Gambia  and 
Senegal.  Pica  Press,  Mountfieîd. 

Brown,  L.H.,  Urban  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  2. 
Academic  Press,  Londres. 

Giraudoux,  P.,  Degauquier,  R.,  Jones,  PJ.,  Weigel,  J.  & îsenmann,  P.  (1988). 

Avifaune  du  Niger:  état  des  connaissances  en  1986.  Malimbus  10:  1-140. 
Lamarche,  B.  (1980)  Liste  commentée  des  oiseaux  du  Mali,  îère  partie:  Non- 
passereaux.  Maiimbus  2:  121-158. 

Lamarche,  B.  (1988)  Liste  commentée  des  oiseaux  de  Mauritanie.  Étud.  Sahariennes 
Ouest-afr.  1(4):  1-162. 

Reçu  22  avril  1999  Thierry  Printemps',  Yves  Rouillon^  & Gérard  J.  Morel-^ 

Revu  9 juin  1999  '93  rue  des  Varennes,  49590  Fontevraud-i ’Abbaye,  France 

^20  Cité  du  Lac  Lacune,  37420  Avoine,  France 
N route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  BrévilIe-les-Monts,  France 


First  observations  on  the  territorial  song  and  display  of  the  Kupe  Bush 
Shrike  Malaconotus  kupeemis 

The  Kupe  Bush  Shrike  Malaconotus  kupeensis  was  discovered  on  Mt  Kupe  in  western 
Cameroon  in  1949  (Serle  1951)  and,  given  the  exiguity  of  its  range,  is  considered 
Critically  Endangered  (Collar  et  al.  1994).  Its  presence  was,  however,  recently 
confirmed  from  the  nearby  Bakossi  Mts,  where  the  area  of  suitable  forest  is  about 
eight  times  that  on  Kupe  (Dowsett-Lemaire  & Dowsett  1 998).  Despite  the  increase  in 
ornithological  activity  on  Kupe  in  the  1990s  associated  with  the  Mt  Kupe  Forest 
Project,  only  20-30  ornithologists  have  seen  the  bird  and  almost  nothing  is  known  of 
its  biology  and  behaviour.  Two  types  of  vocalization  have  been  described:  a series  of 
three  whistles  (noted  by  the  collector,  Serle  1951)  and  a quiet,  “continuous  insect-like 
grating”  (Bowden  & Andrews  1994).  The  whistles  are  clearly  detached  and  ascend  in 
pitch,  they  also  sound  somewhat  out  of  tune  (I.  Faucher  pers.  comm.).  This  type  of 
call  seems  to  be  given  very  rarely:  S.M.  Andrews  and  P.  Hayman,  who  studied  the 
bird  for  several  months  on  Kupe  in  1990,  heard  it  only  a couple  of  times  (S.M. 
Andrews  pers.  comm.).  1.  Faucher  heard  one  individual  whistle  persistently  for  two 
days  near  Edib  (Bakossi)  in  late  Mar  1998,  but  the  bird  had  shut  up  by  the  time  I 
visited  the  area  about  12  days  later. 


116 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


On  9 Apr  1998  I saw  a Kupe  Bush  Shrike  in  a mixed  bird  party  in  primary  forest 
in  the  Bakossi  Mts,  along  the  path  from  Edib  to  Messaka  (4°57'N,  9°39'E)  at  1150- 
1200  m.  The  bird  was  followed  on  and  off  from  10h30  to  13h00,  when  heavy  rain 
interrupted  the  observation.  The  party  consisted  of  noisy  groups  of  White-throated 
Mountain  Babbler  Kupeornis  gilberti  and  Grey-headed  Greenbul  Phyllasîrephus 
poliocephalus,  with  also  Elliot’s  Woodpecker  Mesopicos  elliotii,  Xavier’s  Greenbul 
P.  xavieri,  Black-capped  Woodland  Warbler  Phylloscopus  herberti.  Green  Hylia 
Hylia  prasina.  Buff-throated  Apalis  Apalis  rufogularis.  Yellow-bellied  Wattle-eye 
Dyaphorophyia  concreta.  Red-bellied  Paradise  Flycatcher  Terpsiphone  rufiventer. 
Pink-footed  Puffback  Dryoscopus  angolensis  and  Dark-backed  Weaver  Ploceus 
bicolor.  The  Kupe  Bush  Shrike  (apparently  a male,  with  thin  black  line  between  throat 
and  breast,  and  bright  yellow  vent,  as  described  by  S.M.  Andrews  pers.  comm,  and 
unpubl.)  joined  the  party  shortly  after  it  started  to  get  going,  flying  into  the  middle  of 
it  in  the  mid-stratum  and  starting  to  call  immediately,  a loud,  babbler-like  short 
introductory  chatter  {thec-thec,  kh-kh~kh)  followed  by  3-4  tchrraa-tchrraa-tchrraa, 
repeated  at  the  rate  of  two  tchrraa  per  s.  Several  of  these  spontaneous  songs  were 
tape-recorded  and  one  then  played  back:  the  bird  responded  by  flying  over  the 
observer  noisily  snapping  its  wings  like  a big  puffback  Dryoscopus  sp..  It  then  sang 
again  several  times,  at  first  starting  to  sing  just  before  landing  and  later  more 
leisurely,  when  feeding  in  the  mid-stratum.  In  reaction  to  playback,  the  introductory 
chatter  was  faster  and  the  series  of  tchrraa  longer  and  louder,  up  to  21  in  a row.  After 
10  min.  of  silence,  a brief  tape  playback  was  answered  in  the  same  manner,  then  the 
bird  sang  intermittently  while  moving  up  the  escarpment  with  the  party.  Tape 
playback  was  tried  again  at  1 lh20  with  similar  results,  after  which  the  party  started  to 
dissolve  away  from  the  path.  The  bush  shrike  was  lost,  but  after  40  min.  of  silence, 
tape  playback  again  brought  the  bird  overhead,  wing-beating  and  calling.  When  R.J. 
Dowsett  joined  me  at  13h00,  the  procedure  was  repeated  once  more,  bringing  the  bird 
back  from  some  distance  away  on  the  hill  in  less  than  10  s.  It  flew  noisily  overhead 
and  sang  a faster  series  of  25  tchrraa  (three  per  s)  and  another  of  29  notes.  At  all 
times  the  bird  was  difficult  to  see  as  it  moved  in  dense  foliage  in  the  mid-stratum 
(usually  above  10  m).  A territorial  meaning  of  this  type  of  song  is  suggested  from  the 
reactions  to  playback,  as  already  suspected  when  R.J.  Dowsett  and  I heard  two  birds 
call  repeatedly  to  each  other  (this  same  vocalization)  on  Kupe  (950  m,  31  Mar  1997) 
for  more  than  10  min.  Those  two  were  hidden  in  thick  vegetation  just  above  10  m 
high  and  were  about  20  m apart.  Eventually  one  bird  (which  was  never  seen)  stopped 
and  the  other  emerged  from  the  thicket,  called  a few  more  times  (it  was  also 
apparently  a male)  before  starting  to  look  for  food.  More  recently,  in  Mar  1999,  N. 
Borrow  (pers.  comm.)  was  able  to  call  up  a Kupe  Bush  Shrike  at  Kupe  by  playing  a 
copy  of  my  tape:  it  responded  with  similar  vocalizations. 

It  is  odd  that  such  loud  vocalizations  had  not  been  reported  previously  for  this 
species,  whereas  the  quiet,  insect-like  gratings  mentioned  by  Bowden  & Andrews 
(1994)  were  never  heard  by  me  in  some  3 h of  direct  observation.  Another  noteworthy 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


117 


aspect  of  Kupe  Bush  Shrike  behaviour  is  the  wing-beats  of  angry  birds  (produced  in 
series  of  4-6),  as  it  is  possible  this  has  never  been  recorded  previously  in  a 
Malaconotus  shrike,  whereas  it  is  frequently  seen  in  Dryoscopus  species  of  the  same 
family.  I have  never  managed  to  provoke  a wing-beat  display  during  prolonged 
playback  experiments  with  Green-breasted  Bush  Shrike  M.  gladiator.  Fiery-breasted 
Bush  Shrike  M cruentus  nor  Many-coloured  Bush  Shrike  M multicolor.  Harris  & 
Arnott  (1988),  report  a “wing-fripping”  display  in  Grey-headed  Bush  Shrike  M. 
blanchoti:  but  this  is  a different  type  of  wing-noise  (more  Buttery;  T.  Harris  pers. 
comm.)  given  apparently  as  a courtship  display. 

The  field  trip  to  Bakossi  was  in  part  supported  by  WWF-Cameroon.  I thank  S.M. 
Andrews,  C.G.R.  Bowden,  T.  Gullick,  P.  Hayman  and  T.  Harris  for  having  read  a 
draft  of  the  note,  and  L.D.C.  Fishpool  and  the  editor  for  their  constructive  comments. 

References 

Bowden,  C.G.R.  & Andrews  S.M.  (1994)  Mt  Kupe  and  its  birds.  Bull.  Afr.  Bird 
Club  1:  13-17. 

Collar,  N.J.,  Crosby,  M.J.  & Stattersfield,  A.J.  (1994)  Birds  to  Watch  2.  The 
World  List  of  Threatened  Birds.  Birdlife  International,  Cambridge. 
Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.  & Dowsett,  R.J.  (1998)  Zoological  survey  of  small  mammals, 
birds,  frogs  and  butterflies  in  the  Bakossi  and  Kupe  Mts,  Cameroon.  Unpubl.  rep. 
to  WWF-Cameroon  (also  deposited  at  BirdLife,  Cambridge). 

Harris,  T.  & Arnott,  G.  (1988)  Shrikes  of  Southern  Africa.  Struik,  Winchester. 
Seule,  W.  (1951)  A new  species  of  shrike  and  a new  race  of  apalis  from  West  Africa. 
Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club  71:  41-43. 

Received  28  October  1998  Françoise  Dowsett-Lemaire 

Revised  1 June  1999  Rue  des  Lavandes  12,  F-34190  Ganges,  France 

email:  dowsett@aol.com 


New  tape  recordings  of  three  West  African  birds 

Based  on  observations  in  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivory  Coast,  we  describe  here  some 
calls  of  three  common  bird  species,  which  are  apparently  unknown  or  have  never  been 
recorded  before,  and  comment  on  their  possible  function.  We  present  sonograms  and 
oscillograms  of  these  calls  and  measurements  of  the  most  important  acoustic  features. 

Ardea  goliath  Goliath  Heron.  A “song”  of  a Goliath  Heron  was  recorded  on  3 Apr 
1996.  It  contained  one  deep  krooo  call  followed  by  5-7  deep  grunts  (total  duration  3.2 
± 0.3  s,  n=2.  Fig.  1).  The  krooo  calls  had  an  average  (n=2)  of  21 9±  18  ms  and  a 


118 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


dominant  frequency  of  517±0  Hz,  whereas  grunts  (n=12)  had  an  average  duration  of 
110±14  ms  and  a dominant  frequency  of  380±25  Hz.  Intervals  between  grunts 
averaged  185±39  ms  (n=10).  The  call  was  a courtship  display,  a heron  in  upright 
position  stretched  itself  slowly  upwards;  at  the  maximum  stretched  position,  with  the 
tip  of  the  bill  pointing  upwards,  it  gave  the  krooo  call,  then  slowly  crouched.  After 
about  1.5  seconds,  when  the  bird  had  moved  its  head  to  about  body  level  with  the 
neck  kinked,  it  gave  a repeated  series  of  grunts.  This  song  was  only  heard  at  the 
beginning  of  the  rainy  season  in  March  and  April.  It  was  audible  mainly  in  the  early 
morning  hours,  sometimes  at  night.  Although  described  by  Urban  et  al.  (1982)  it 
seems  that  the  song  of  this  species  has  never  been  tape  recorded. 


10  “ 


Figure  1.  “Song”  of  Goliath  Heron  Ardea  goliath. 


Cuculus  solitarius  Red-chested  Cuckoo.  Calls  of  an  immature  Red-chested  Cuckoo 

were  recorded  on  10  Oct  1995.  The  bird  was  seen  calling  at  a height  of  2.5-3  m on  the 
lower  branches  of  a tree  in  a densely  vegetated  area  of  the  riparian  forest  near  the 
Comoé  River.  While  calling  it  remained  motionless.  It  was  identified  by  its  size  and 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


119 


dark  appearance,  with  dark  upperparts  and  throat,  and  black  and  white  barring  on 
breast  and  belly.  The  call  is  an  insect-like  buzz,  repeated  monotonously  for  several 
minutes  (Fig.  2).  The  calls  (n=5)  had  an  average  duration  of  306±26  ms  and  a 
dominant  frequency  of  6.34±0.21  KHz;  they  were  slightly  downward  frequency 
modulated  by  on  average  412±169  Hz.  No  calls  of  immature  birds  have  previously 
been  recorded  (Irwin  1988,  C.  Chappuis,  pers.  comm.,  A.  Priori  pers.  comm.;  K.-H. 
Frommolt  pers  comm.,  P.  Duck  pers.  comm.). 


10 


N 


O 

fi 

OJ 

3 

O" 

S-4 

PU 


8 


OJ 

3 

e 

3 
0) 
. ^ 

cd 


r 

0 100  200  300 

Time  (ms) 

Figure  2.  Calls  of  an  immature  Red-chested  Cuckoo  Cuculus  solitarius. 


Cossypha  niveicapilla  Snowy-crowned  Robin-Chat  The  alarm  call  of  a Snowy- 
crowned  Robin-Chat  was  recorded  on  18  Nov  1995.  The  call  (Fig.  3)  is  a repeated 
churr.  It  is  pulsative,  with  an  average  (n=5)  of  27±5  pulses/call,  an  average  duration 
of  616  ±146  ms  and  an  average  dominant  frequency  of  1.89±0. 1 1 KHz.  A description 
of  what  appears  to  be  this  call  is  given  by  Oatley  et  al.  (1992):  “Alarm  note  a guttural, 


120 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


ratchet-like  churr,  ...  heard  especially  at  dusk”.  We  heard  this  call  almost  exclusively 
at  dusk,  for  a relatively  short  time;  often  several  birds  called  at  the  same  time.  One 
bird  gave  this  call  when  it  was  taken  out  of  a mist  net. 


20- 


r_ — — I I I — I 

0 0.5  1.0  1.5  2.0 

Time  (s) 

Figure  3.  Alarm  call  of  Snovi^-crow^ned  Robin-Chat  niveicapilla. 

We  wish  to  thank  C.  Chappuis,  P.  Duck  (National  Sound  Archive,  London),  K.-H. 
Frommolt  (Tierstimmenarchiv,  Humboldt-Universitat,  Berlin),  A.  Priori  (Library  of 
Natural  Sounds)  and  A.J.  van  Zyl  (Transvaal  Museum  of  Natural  History)  for  their 
useful  information,  the  Ministère  des  Eaux  et  Forêts  in  Ivory  Coast  for  permission  to 
work  in  Comoé  National  Park,  and  K.E.  Linsenmair  for  allowing  us  to  use  the 
infrastructure  of  the  field  camp  of  the  University  of  Würzburg,  Germany.  F.  Bairlein 
and  P.H.  Becker  gave  useful  comments  on  early  drafts  of  this  paper. 

References 

Oatley,  T.B.,  Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.,  & Tye,  A.  (1992)  Snowy-crowned  Robin-Chat. 
Pp.  437-438  in  Keith,  S.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Fry,  C.H.  (Eds),  The  Birds  of  Africa, 
vol.  4.  Academic  Press,  London. 

Irwin,  M.P.S.  (1988)  Red-chested  Cuckoo.  Pp.  69-71  \n  Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.  & 
Urban,  E.K.  (Eds),  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  2.  Academic  Press,  London. 


1999 


Notes  Courtes 


121 


Urban,  E.K.  (1982)  Goliath  Heron.  Pp.  167-168  \n  Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & 
Newman,  K.  (Eds),  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1.  Academie  Press,  London. 

Received  17  July  1998  Volker  Salewski’  and  T.  Ulmar  Grafe^ 

Revised  21  May  1999  ‘Institut  fiir  Vogelforschung,  “Vogeiwarte  Helgoland”, 

An  der  Vogeiwarte  21,  26386  Wilhelmshaven,  Germany 
^Theodor-Boveri-Institut  für  Biowissenschaften  der  Universitât  Würzburg, 

Am  Hubland,  97074  Würzburg,  Germany 


A southern  record  of  Cinnamon-breasted  Rock  Bunting  Emberiza  tahapisi 
in  Lamto,  Ivory  Coast 

The  Cinnamon-breasted  Rock  Bunting  Emberiza  tahapisi  ranges  in  West  Africa  from 
Senegal  to  Nigeria  and  the  Central  African  Republic.  It  has  a strong  affinity  to  rocky 
ground  but  is  also  found  in  any  kind  of  open  habitat,  especially  on  dry  patches  where 
it  feeds  mainly  on  seeds  (Mackworth-Praed  & Grant  1973).  In  Ivory  Coast  it  was 
reported  by  Thiollay  (1985)  from  Korhogo  (9°22'N)  and  Niangbo  (8°49'N); 
additionally  Demey  & Fishpooi  (1991)  observed  it  in  Comoe  National  Parc  (between 
8°30'N  and  9°30'N). 

During  a stay  in  Lamto  (6°13'N)  one  Cinnamon-breasted  Rock  Bunting  was 
observed  on  2 Dec  1998.  It  was  identified  by  its  black  and  white  striped  head,  and 
reddish-brown  body  with  dark  streaks  on  the  back.  When  the  bird  was  discovered  by 
VS  it  was  foraging  on  the  road;  after  a while  it  flew  into  a tree  where  it  was  lost. 
When  returning  together  with  EG  after  about  15  min.,  the  bird  was  observed  again  at 
almost  exactly  the  same  place  on  the  road  and  we  watched  it  for  some  minutes  again 
before  it  took  off 

This  is  probably  the  first  observation  of  the  species  in  Lamto;  no  record  has  been 
published  so  far  (Thiollay  1970,  1971)  and  it  was  not  observed  there  by  L.D.C. 
Fishpooi  (pers.  comm.).  It  is  also  the  southernmost  record  for  the  Ivory  Coast,  which 
means  a range  extension  of  more  than  2°  latitude.  In  other  West  African  Countries 
like  Guinea  (Walsh  1987),  Ghana  (Grimes  1987)  and  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1996), 
all  localities  where  the  species  is  recorded  lie  well  north  of  the  latitude  of  Lamto.  In 
Liberia  it  is  recorded  as  rare  by  Gatter  (1988,  1998),  who  gives  no  locality.  The  only 
country  where  it  is  recorded  in  comparable  latitudes  is  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al.  1994), 
with  records  at  7°50'  (Kabba),  7°30'  (Mambilla),  6°38'  (Obudu)  and  6°20'  (Enugu). 
Records  from  coastal  cities  that  lie  further  south  than  Lamto  include  Lagos,  Burutu 
and  Port  Harcourt;  however,  it  is  speculated  that  these  might  be  escapes  because  the 
species  is  a popular  cage  bird  there  (Elgood  et  al.  1994).  As  this  is  not  the  case  in 
Ivory  Coast,  the  observed  bird  in  Lamto  could  be  the  southernmost  record  of  the 
species  in  West  Africa. 


122 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  21 


References 

Cheke,  R. a.  & Walsh,  F.  (1996)  The  Birds  of  Togo.  Checklist  14,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring, 

Demey,  R.  & Fishpool,  L.D.C.  (1991)  Additions  and  annotations  to  the  avifauna  of 
Côte  d’Ivoire.  Malimbus  12:  61-86. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4 (2nd  ed.),  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Gatter,  W.  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Liberia  (West  Africa).  Verb.  Ornithol.  Ges.  Bayern 
24:  689-723. 

Gatter,  W.  (1998)  Birds  of  Liberia.  Pica  Press,  Mountfield. 

Grimes,  L.G.  (1987)  The  Birds  of  Ghana.  Checklist  9,  British  Ornithologists’  Union, 
London. 

Mackworth-Praed,  C.W.  & Grant,  C.H.B.  (1973)  Birds  of  West  Central  and 
Western  Africa.  Longman,  London. 

Thiollay,  J.-M.  (1970)  Recherches  écologiques  dans  la  savanne  de  Lamto  (Cote 
d’ivoire):  le  peuplement  avien.  Essai  d’étude  quantitative.  Terre  Vie  24:  108-144. 
Thiollay,  J.-M.  (1971)  L’avifaune  de  la  région  de  Lamto  (Moyenne  Côte  d’ivoire). 

Ann.  Univ.  Abidjan,  sér.  E.  Ecologie  4(1):  5-132. 

Thiollay,  J.-M.  (1985)  The  birds  of  Ivory  Coast:  status  and  distribution.  Malimbus  7: 
1-59. 

Walsh,  J.F.  (1987)  Records  of  birds  seen  in  north  eastern  Guinea  in  1984-1985. 
Malimbus  9'.  105—122. 


Received  7 February  1999 
Revised  19  May  1999 


Volker  Salewski  & Frank  Goken 
Institut  fur  Vogelforschung  “Voglwarte  Helgoland” 
An  der  Vogelwarte  21,  26386  Wilhelmshaven,  Germany 


1999 


123 


Corrigenda 


Composition  et  évolution  saisonnière  d’un  peuplement  d’oiseau%  au  nord 
du  Burkina  Faso  (nord-Yatenga).  (G.  Balança  & M.N.  de  Visscher  1997, 
Malimbus  19:  68-94) 

Le  nom  scientifique  du  Ganga  à ventre  châtain  n’est  pas  P ter  odes  Senegal  lus,  comme 
il  est  écrit  dans  l’Annexe  de  cet  article  (p.  89,  ligne  8),  mais  P.  exustus,  et  la  mention 
de  "'Pterodes  senegallus'"  p.  80,  lignes  2-3  du  bas,  doit  être  attribuée  à P.  exustus.  De 
même  p.  80,  lignes  3-4  du  bas,  il  faut  lire  ''Eremopteryx’"  et  non  ''Eremopterix'\ 

Je  remercie  M.  Babacar  Ndao  d’avoir  attiré  mon  attention  sur  ces  inexactitudes. 

Alan  Tye 


Book  review:  The  Birds  of  Liberia  (1999,  Malimbus  21:  66-67) 

I should  like  to  apologize  to  G.D.  Field  for  the  unfortunate  omission  of  his  name  as 
the  author  of  this  review. 

Alan  Tye 


News  & Letters  — Nouvelles  & Lettres 


Request  for  information:  ringed  Fire-crowned  AXethe  Alethe  diademata 

I have  failed  to  find  anyone  who  has  details  of  a ringed  adult  male  Alethe  diademata, 

which  I controlled  on  17  Apr  1999,  at  Lobéké,  SE  Cameroon.  The  ring  unfortunately 
bears  no  address,  just  the  number  1779.  It  is  similar  to  others  I have  controlled  in  SW 
Cameroon,  which  had  been  used  by  the  team  working  under  Prof  Tom  Smith.  But  he 
has  told  me  it  is  not  one  of  their  birds,  and  that  the  series  is  not  theirs.  Approaches  to 
several  people  who  might  have  ringed  it  originally  (including  WWF,  WCS  and  San 
Francisco  University  workers  in  Cameroon  and  neighbouring  countries)  have  drawn  a 
blank.  Surely  someone  can  claim  to  have  ringed  this  bird?  I would  much  appreciate 
banding  data  in  due  course,  in  particular  exact  locality  and  coordinates  of  ringing  site. 

R.J.  Dowsett 

12  rue  des  Lavandes,  Ganges  F-34190,  France  (e-mail:  dowsett@aol.com) 


124 


Malimbus  21 


Reviews  — Revues 


The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  5.  Ed.  by  E.K.  Urban,  C.H.  Fry  & S.  Keith,  1997.  669  pp., 
32  col.  plates.  Academic  Press,  London.  ISBN  0-12-137305-3.  £99. 

This  volume  covers  those  thrushes  not  already  dealt  with,  all  warblers,  including 
cisticolas,  and  the  various  species  loosely  called  flycatchers:  not  many  families  but 
amounting  to  an  extremely  heavy  tome.  A major  improvement  in  this  volume  is  that 
breeding  ranges  are  shown  in  red  on  the  maps. 

Naturally,  anyone  seriously  interested  in  African  birds  should  own  this  book. 
Regional  guides  continue  to  proliferate  and  are  essential  for  short  trips,  but  only  when 
all  species  of  a genus  are  gathered  together  can  one  see  the  full  picture.  Take  the 
cisticolas,  that  most  challenging  of  genera  to  the  newcomer  to  Africa;  43  species  are 
described  here  and  more  are  being  discovered  all  the  time.  Among  others,  two 
Tanzanian  species  are  still  officially  undescribed  and  not  mentioned  here  (one 
wonders  why  — they  have  been  known  for  over  ten  years,  have  English  names  and 
are  easy  to  find  and  identify  by  sight  and  voice  in  their  flood-plain  environment). 
Much  classification  recently  has  turned  on  acoustics:  Cisticola  dorsti  of  N Nigeria, 
Cameroon  and  Chad  is  known  only  from  breeding  males,  when  they  sing  and  can  be 
distinguished  from  C.  ruficeps;  females  and  non-breeders  are  undescribed.  Similarly, 
Prinia  fluviatilis  would  be  dismissed  as  P.  subjlava  were  it  not  for  its  voice  and,  as  is 
now  known,  its  waterside  habitat. 

In  taxonomy,  Birds  of  Africa  generally  belongs  to  the  lumping  school,  with 
occasional  innovative  exceptions:  interesting  examples  here  are  Hyliota  usambarae 
split  from  H.  australis  and  Cisticola  cinnamomeus  from  C.  brunnescens.  Much 
depends  on  an  author’s  whim.  Several  forms  once  afforded  species  rank  might 
justifiably  be  resurrected,  e.g.  the  Cameroon  montane  Cisticola  discolor  split  from  E 
African  C.  chubbi  and  C.  emini  from  southern  C.  aberrans  (where  they  approach  in 
Tanzania,  each  is  instantly  recognizable  by  voice).  The  wattle-eye  Diaphorophyia 
blissetti  is  often  split  into  three,  with  the  wholly  black-headed  chalybaea  intervening 
between  two  red-cheeked  forms.  Incidentally,  why  change  the  old  name  of 
“Blissetfs”  Wattle-eye  to  “Red-cheeked”  when  you  include  a form  without  red 
cheeks? 

Martin  Woodcock’s  plates  are  always  justly  praised  and  most  of  these  abundantly 
live  up  to  his  meticulous  standards  with,  for  example,  admirable  depictions  of  the 
look-alike  Acrocephalus  spp.  and  a splendid  series  of  races  of  the  Turdus 
olivaceus/pelios  complex.  But  I fear  that  something  has  gone  wrong  with  the 
cisticolas.  I don’t  think  he  had  enough  guidance  from  the  authors,  and  at  times  the 
jizz  has  eluded  him.  When  recently  I saw  C.  angusticauda  for  the  first  time,  with  one 
glance  at  the  plate  in  Birds  of  Kenya  and  Northern  Tanzania  (Zimmerman,  D.A., 
Turner,  D.A.  & Pearson,  D.J.  1996,  Helm,  London)  I exclaimed  “That’s  it!”;  I could 


1999 


Revues 


125 


not  have  done  that  with  Birds  of  Africa.  C.  dorsti  differs  morphologically  from  C 
ruficeps  virtually  only  on  the  under  tail-coverts  and  tail;  should  not  the  authors  have 
insisted  on  a plate  showing  the  underside  of  the  species? 

Lastly  a local  grumble:  although  The  Conservation  of  the  Birds  of  Gola  Forest, 
Sierra  Leone  (Allport,  G.,  Ausden,  M.,  Hayman,  P.V.,  Robertson,  P.  & Wood,  P. 
1989,  ICBP,  Cambridge)  is  mentioned  in  the  bibliography,  curiously  little  account  of 
it  has  been  taken.  Hyliota  violacea,  Muscicapa  olivascens,  M.  epulata  and  Myioparus 
griseigularis  are  all  documented  there  (as  I can  corroborate  myself)  yet  all  are  ignored 
here.  These  omissions  could  be  important:  ornithologists  are  unlikely  to  be  able  to 
visit  eastern  Sierra  Leone  in  the  foreseeable  future  and  by  then  the  Gola  Forest  may 
have  ceased  to  exist. 

The  enormous  value  of  this  work  is  incontrovertible  and,  if  I have  mentioned 
certain  weaknesses,  this  is  because  the  better  the  book,  the  higher  the  standards  by 
which  it  should  be  judged. 

G.D.  Field 


Etude  Initiale.  La  Réserve  Naturelle  Nationale  de  PAïr  et  du  Ténéré  (Niger).  Ed. 
by  F.  Giazzi,  1996.  678  pp.,  52  plates,  numerous  figures  and  tables.  lUCN,  Gland. 
ISBN  2-8317-0249-6.  Paperback,  £17.50. 

This  new,  comprehensive  study,  of  a recently-established  (1988)  reserve,  comes 
nearly  50  years  after  a volume  in  the  famous  IFAN  series  (1950,  Contribution  à 
Fétude  de  FAïr.  Mém.  Inst.  fr.  Afr.  noire  10),  which  covered  much  the  same  area  but 
with  a rather  different  emphasis.  The  IFAN  studies  had  a more  biological  and 
anthropological  focus,  whereas  this  new  work  aims  to  study  the  effect  of  man  on  the 
environment  and  assist  in  the  formulation  of  a management  plan.  The  chapters  of  the 
present  book  include  studies  of  rainfall,  hydrology,  aquifers,  geomorphology,  erosion 
processes,  vegetation,  animals,  archaeology,  human  history,  anthropology,  human 
population,  economic  activities,  tourism,  and  the  institutional  and  legal  bases  for 
conservation. 

The  book  contains  a wealth  of  fascinating  detail.  The  rainfall  studies  clarify  the 
relatively  wet  period  in  the  Sahel  from  1920  to  1965,  before  and  after  which  the 
climate  was  drier,  at  least  up  to  1 990,  which  seems  to  be  the  cut-off  date  for  most  of 
the  studies  included  in  the  volume.  The  research,  as  well  as  development  of  the 
reserve,  was  curtailed  by  political  unrest  shortly  thereafter.  The  vegetation  chapters 
(by  Pierre  Poilecot)  include  a thorough  biogeographic  analysis,  discussing  the  various 
habitat  types  and  vegetation  zones  with  their  characteristic  species,  endemics  and 
geographic  affinities.  There  is  an  excellent  set  of  floristic  appendices. 


126 


Reviews 


Malimbus  21 


The  faunal  chapters,  also  by  Poilecot,  are  less  satisfying.  Only  birds  and  large 
mammals  are  included,  in  marked  contrast  to  the  typically  comprehensive  IFAN 
studies,  from  which  this  book  claims  lineage.  It  seems  that  most  of  the  research 
carried  out  during  the  project  was  devoted  to  the  large  mammals,  the  Ostrich  Struthio 
camelus  and  the  Nubian  Bustard  Neotis  nuba.  Perhaps  the  most  disappointing  aspect 
of  the  whole  volume  is  the  lack  of  information  on  other  animals,  and  the  poor  quality 
(or  at  least  poor  presentation)  of  the  bird  work.  Appendix  54  of  Chapter  4 presents  a 
bird  list  by  habitat,  but  with  no  indication  of  how  the  information  was  obtained, 
whether  from  previous  publications  or  new  survey  work,  and  if  the  latter,  by  whom. 
The  statistical  presentation  is  not  especially  rigorous:  the  multiplicity  of  appendices 
on  the  Nubian  Bustard  and  Ostrich  include  many  {e.g.  55)  that  could  have  been  better 
presented  as  a few  numbers  in  one  sentence  of  text;  several  others  (e.g.  60-64  on 
Ostrich  group  size)  show  nothing  significant  and  could  be  replaced  by  a simple 
statement  that  no  significant  variation  was  observed. 

The  book  suffers  throughout  from  poor  cross-referencing.  The  appendices,  which 
contain  much  valuable  information,  are  not  numbered  consecutively  as  a whole  but 
by  chapter,  which  makes  it  not  very  straightforward  to  find  the  right  one.  The  huge 
bibliography  is  confusingly  split  into  two  sections,  with  no  indication  of  this  at  the 
beginning,  so  that  one  can  gain  the  impression  that  many  references  have  been 
mistakenly  omitted.  In  fact  some,  including  some  of  the  most  important,  indeed  are 
omitted:  Magin  1990a  and  1990b  are  represented  in  the  bibliography  only  by  one 
“Magin  1990”;  Dragesco-Joffé  1993  is  (perhaps)  represented  there,  but  by  two 
references  to  “Dragesco”  1993  (no  a or  b);  Newby  1990  (one  of  the  most  frequently- 
cited  references  in  the  bird  chapters  and  throughout  the  book)  is  omitted  entirely.  The 
bibliography  is  also  full  of  typographical  errors;  for  instance  various  volumes  of  The 
Birds  of  Africa  are  listed  as:  “Urban  E.K.,  Hylari  Fry  C.,  Stuart  K.  1986”,  “Brown 
H.L.  ...  1982”,  “Urban  K.E.  ...” 

These  faults  detract  from  what  is  otherwise  an  extremely  useful  work.  If  one 
accepts  the  change  of  focus  from  those  wonderful  earlier  IFAN  volumes  (while 
perhaps  lamenting  it),  then  the  studies  included  in  the  present  volume  seem  to  achieve 
their  stated  aim.  At  the  relatively  low  price,  the  book  is  a bargain,  but  hopefully 
lUCN  will  improve  editorial  standards  in  similar  publications  in  the  future:  essential 
if  they  are  to  achieve  the  same  reputation  as  those  old  IFAN  studies. 


Alan  Tye 


1999 


127 


Society  Notices  — Informations  de  la  Société 


Notice  nécrologique:  John  Hamel  Elgood  1909-1998  (translation  of 
obituary  that  appeared  in  Malimbus  21:  74-75) 

John  Elgood  est  né  à Dulwich  le  16  juin  1909.  Il  fit  ses  études  à Whitgift  Middle 
School  et  à St  Catherine  College  de  Cambridge.  Il  enseigna  à Regent  Street 
Polytechnic  et  c’est  de  là  qu’il  fut  recruté  pour  la  nouvelle  université  d’Ibadan.  Il 
s’intéressa  d’abord  à la  biologie  marine  mais  réalisa  bientôt  l’intérêt  de  l’ornithologie 
et  organisa  des  sorties  sur  les  oiseaux  et  des  conférences  sur  ce  thème.  Il  conclut  une 
sorte  de  pacte  avec  Ronald  Keay  (à  l’époque  Chief  Conservator  of  Forests)  aux 
termes  duquel  il  lui  apprendrait  les  oiseaux  en  échange  de  leçons  sur  les  plantes. 

Il  sentit  le  besoin  d’un  petit  manuel  sur  les  oiseaux  et  en  1960  publia  ses  Birds  of 
the-  West  African  Town  and  Garden.  Cela  suscita  l’intérêt  pour  les  oiseaux  et  en  1964 
naquit  la  Nigerian  Ornithologists’  Society  avec  John  comme  Secrétaire,  Hilary  Fry 
comme  Rédacteur  du  Bulletin  et  moi-même  comme  Trésorier.  John  demeura  à ce 
poste  et  nous  avons  édité  le  bulletin  régulièrement  jusqu’en  1989  quand  la  société  se 
métamorphosa  en  Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain  et  John  en  fut  nommé 
Vice-Président. 

John  découvrit  et  décrivit  une  nouvelle  espèce  de  Malimbus  (ibadanensis),  une 
partie  de  la  recherche  étant  d’ailleurs  faite  dans  son  propre  jardin.  Il  publia  une  liste 
The  Birds  of  Nigeria  en  1964  (British  Ornithologists’  Union,  London)  et  quand  le 
tirage  fut  épuisé  il  réunit  une  équipe  pour  sortir  une  seconde  édition  en  1994  (BOU, 
Tring).  Le  premier  livre  imprimé  par  Ibadan  University  Press  fut  Animal 
Classification  de  Joe  Webb  et  John  Elgood  et  en  1964  John  publia  Certificate  Biology 
for  Tropical  Schools. 

John  et  sa  femme  Peggy  faisaient  des  tournées  fréquentes  au  Nigeria  et 
séjournèrent  souvent  chez  nous  à Kano.  En  1962  il  alla  avec  une  équipe  au  Bornou 
étudier  le  problème  Quelea.  Il  aimait  raconter  comment,  au  cours  d’une  expédition 
pour  trouver  un  certain  oiseau,  il  avait  bien  eu  l’oiseau  mais  y avait  laissé  son 
pantalon.  Il  avait  un  immense  sens  de  l’humour  et  était  très  populaire  parmi  ses 
étudiants;  il  garda  longtemps  des  relations  avec  quelques-uns  d’entre  eux  (maintenant 
eux-mêmes  professeurs). 

John  rentra  en  Angleterre  en  1965  et  enseigna  à Goldsmiths’  College  et  à 
F American  University  au  Sussex.  On  le  réclama  au  Nigeria  et  il  resta  quelque  temps  à 
l’université  Ahmadou  Bello  (Zaria)  et  à l’université  de  Lagos.  A deux  reprises  il 
apporta  son  concours  pour  des  examens  en  Rhodésie  et  enseigna  six  mois  en 
Papouasie  Nouvelle-Guinée.  Il  en  revint  pour  venir  chez  moi  à Kano  en  1976  et 
rédigea  un  rapport  sur  les  zones  humides  situées  entre  Hadejia  et  Nguru  pour  le 


128 


Society  Notices 


Malimbus  21 


Département  de  l’Agriculture  de  l’État  de  Kano.  Cela  aboutit  à l’inauguration 
officielle  comme  Réserve  de  Zone  humide  par  le  Prince  Bernhard  des  Pays-Bas. 

John  était  un  membre  actif  de  la  British  Ornithologists’  Union  et  du  British 
Ornithologists’  Club  où  il  servit  dans  les  Conseils  des  deux  sociétés.  Il  était  aussi  un 
conférencier  habituel  de  la  Bournemouth  Science  Society. 

John  aurait  totalement  approuvé  le  service  funèbre  de  la  Highcliffe  Methodist 
Church.  C’est  au  son  de  chants  d’oiseaux  enregistrés  (une  de  ses  filles  nous  menaça 
d’un  questionnaire  à la  fin  de  l’office)  que  nous  sommes  entrés  au  temple  et  le  feuillet 
liturgique  était  bordé  d’oiseaux  exotiques  tenant  un  verre  de  vin.  Nous  avons  tous 
perdu  un  grand  ami. 


R.E.  Sharland 


Obituary:  Roy  Parker 

Roy  Parker  died  peacefully  on  New  Year’s  Day  1999,  after  a long  fight  with  cancer. 
Long-time  members  will  remember  the  days  in  the  1960s,  when  Malimbus  was  the 
pink-covered,  foolscap,  stencilled  Bull.  Niger.  Orn.  Soc.,  which  would  probably  have 
collapsed  if  Roy  had  not  kept  it  going.  I wonder  if  there  is  a full  set  anywhere!  Roy’s 
enthusiasm  and  persuasiveness  — “Surely  you’ve  got  something  for  the  next  issue?” 
— kept  the  journal,  and  thereby  perhaps  the  Society,  alive  in  the  early  post- 
independence days  and  through  the  Nigerian  civil  war.  In  1967  he  met  my  wife  and 
me  from  the  Apapa  and  was  the  first  to  show  us  Africa  as  we  drove  to  Ibadan  via  egg 
butties  at  — where  was  that  place?  — seeing  bulbuls  and  vultures  for  the  first  time. 
Then  again,  when  we  were  to  move  to  Merseyside  in  1973,  it  was  Roy,  who  came 
from  Upton  on  the  Wirral  and  was  home  on  leave,  who  gave  us  a guided  tour  that 
eventually  led  to  our  setting  up  house  beside  the  mud  over  which  I look  now.  Roy  is 
mourned  by  so  many  close  family  and  friends  that  it  is  clear  he  had  interests  in  more 
than  just  birds.  His  Scouse  wit  had  an  answer  for  any  occasion,  defused  any 
aggravation,  and  deflated  any  pomposity.  It’s  a long  time  now  since  we  last  met,  in 
Nairobi,  but  Roy  will  long  be  remembered. 


Dick  Ashford 


Instructions  aux  Auteurs  < 


Malimbus  publie  des  Articles,  des  Notes  Courtes,  des  Revues  de  Livres,  des  Informations,  des 
Nouvelles  & Lettres  et  des  illustrations  traitant  de  l’ornithologie  ouest-africaine.  Les  Articles  et  les 
Notes  Courtes  doivent  être  des  apports  originaux;  ceux  déjà  publiés  ailleurs,  en  partie  ou  en  totalité, 
seront  normalement  refusés.  Les  Notes  Courtes  sont  des  articles  de  moins  de  1000  mots  (références 
comprises)  ou  de  deux  pages  imprimées.  Autant  que  possible,  les  manuscrits  auront  été  auparavant 
soumis  au  moins  à un  ornithologue  ou  biologiste  pour  un  examen  minutieux.  Les  manuscrits  seront 
envoyés  pour  critique  à au  moins  un  lecteur  compétent.  Les  textes  des  Nouvelles  & Lettres  ne 
devraient  dépasser  1000  mots. 

Les  textes  sont  acceptés  en  anglais  et  en  français;  la  Rédaction  pourra  aider  les  auteurs  dont  la 
langue  maternelle  n’est  pas  l’une  de  celles-ci.  Les  textes  soumis  seront  t^és  en  deux  exemplaires, 
d’un  seul  côté  de  la  page,  double  interligne  et  avec  larges  marges.  Les  tirages  sur  imprimante 
matricielle  ne  seront  acceptés  que  s’ils  ont  la  “qualité-courrier”.  Les  articles  soumis  par  courrier 
électronique  ne  seront  pas  acceptés.  Les  auteurs  ne  doivent  pas  envoyer  un  double  de  leur  disquette 
en  même  temps  que  l’article  qu’ils  soumettent,  mais  sont  priés  d'indiquer  s’ils  peuvent  le  faire  dans 
le  cas  où  leur  article  serait  accepté.  Les  disquettes  seront  retournées  aux  auteurs.  Consultez  l’Editeur 
pour  des  détails  supplémentaires,  c’est-à-dire  les  programmes  de  texte  compatibles. 

Les  conventions  concernant  les  tableaux,  les  chiffres,  le  système  métrique,  les  références,  etc. 
peuvent  être  trouvées  dans  ce  numéro  et  doivent  être  soigneusement  suivies.  Notez  en  particulier 
que  les  dates  s ’abrégeront  comme  2 fév  1990  mais  dans  un  texte  pourront  s’écrire  en  entier;  que  les 
heures  s’écriront  comme  6h45,  17h00;  que  les  coordonnées  s’écriront  comme  7°46'N,  16°4'W;  que 
les  nombres  jusqu’à  dix  s’écriront  en  entier,  excepté  devant  une  unité  de  mesure  (p.  ex.  6 m),  que 
les  nombres  à partir  de  1 1 s’écriront  en  chiffres  sauf  au  début  d’une  phrase.  Toute  référence  citée 
dans  l’article,  et  aucune  autre,  doit  figurer  dans  la  bibliographie. 

Les  articles  d’avifaune  doivent  comprendre  une  carte  ou  une  liste  des  localités  citées.  Ils 
devraient  donner  quelques  détails  sur  le  climat,  la  topographie,  la  végétation  et  l’environnement  (y 
compris  les  événements  inhabituels)  avant  ou  durant  l’étude  (p.  ex.  pluies  tardives,  etc.).  Les  listes 
d’espèces  ne  devraient  contenir  que  des  données  importantes:  les  listes  complètes  ne  sont  justifiées 
que  pour  les  régions  encore  non  étudiées  ou  délaissées  pendant  longtemps.  Autrement,  ne  citer  que 
les  espèces  sur  lesquelles  l’étude  fournit  de  nouveaux  faits  sur  la  répartition,  la  période  de  séjour,  la 
reproduction,  etc.  Pour  chaque  espèce,  indiquer  le  statut  migratoire,  la  période  de  séjour  (telle 
qu’elle  ressort  de  l’étude),  l’extension  de  l’aire,  une  estimation  d’abondance  {Malimbus  17:  38)  et 
les  données  datées  sur  la  reproduction.  Eventuellement,  replacez  les  faits  dans  le  contexte  en  les 
comparant  brièvement  avec  une  liste  régionale  de  référence.  Les  longues  listes  d’espèces  devraient 
être  sous  forme  de  tableaux  (p.  ex.  Malimbus  12:  39-51,  1:  22-28,  ou  1:  49-54)  ou  sous  forme  de 
texte  des  derniers  numéros  (p.  ex.  Malimbus  12:  19-24,  12:  61-86,  13:  49-66,  16:  10-29).  La 
séquence  taxonomique  et  les  noms  scientifiques  (et  de  préférence  aussi  les  noms  vernaculaires) 
devraient  suivre  Dowsett  & Forbes-Watson  (1993,  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  AJrotropical  and 
Malagasy  Regions,  Tauraco  Press,  Liège)  ou  The  Birds  of  Africa  (Brown  et  al.  1982,  Urban  et 
a/.  1986,  1997,  Fry  et  al.  1988,  Keith  et  al.  1992,  Academic  Press,  London),  à moins  de  dormer  les 
raisons  de  s’écarter  de  ces  auteurs.  Un  guide  plus  complet  aux  auteurs  d’articles  sur  l’avifaune, 
comprenant  une  notation  d’abondance  des  espèces  la  plus  conseillée,  est  publié  dans  Malimbus  17: 
35-39.  On  peut  en  obtenir  une  copie  de  la  Rédaction,  qui  se  fera  aussi  un  plaisir  d’offrir  ses  conseils 
sur  la  présentation  de  ce  genre  d’études. 

Les  figures  doivent  être  préparées  pour  une  reproduction  directe,  permettant  une  réduction  de 
20-50%;  on  se  servira  d’encre  de  chine  sur  papier  blanc  de  bonne  qualité  ou  calque  épais  et  de 
caractères  Letraset  (ou  équivalent)  selon  le  cas.  Les  diagrammes  obtenus  par  programmes 
informatisés  autres  que  logiciels  graphiques  et  sur  imprimantes  autres  que  laser  sont  rarement  de 
qualité  acceptable.  Pour  le  dessin  des  Figures,  tenir  compte  du  format  de  Malimbus. 

Tous  les  Articles  (mais  non  les  Notes  Courtes)  comporteront  un  Résumé,  n’excédant  pas  5% 
de  la  longeur  totale.  Le  Résumé  mentionnera  brièvement  les  principaux  résultats  et  conclusions  de 
l’Article  et  ne  sera  pas  un  simple  compte  rendu  du  travail.  Les  résumés  seront  publiés  à la  fois  en 
anglais  et  en  français  et  seront  traduits  au  mieux  par  la  Rédaction. 

Dix  tirés-à-part  des  Articles  (mais  non  des  Notes  courtes)  seront  envoyés  gratis  à l’auteur  ou  à 
l’auteur  principal.  Les  tirés-à-part  ne  seront  ni  agrafés,  ni  reliés  ou  recouverts;  ce  sont  de  simples 
extraits  de  la  revue. 


Malimbus  21(2)  September  1999 
Contents  — Table  des  Matières 


La  Spatule  blanche  Platalea  leucorodia  hivernant  dans  le  delta 
du  Fleuve  Sénégal. 

P.  Triplet  & P.  Yésou  77-81 

Notes  on  the  avifauna  of  the  Noyau  Central,  Forêt  Classée  de  la  Lama, 

Republic  of  Benin. 

M.  Waltert  & M.  Mühlenberg  82-92 

Preliminary  check-list  of  the  birds  of  the  Bossematié  area.  Ivory  Coast. 

M.  Waltert,  K.H.  Yaokokore-Beibro,  M.  Mühlenberg  & 

W.E.  Waitkuwait  93-109 

Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes  '' 

First  record  of  Scaly-fronted  Warbler  Spiloptila  damans  in  Cameroon. 

M.  van  Beirs  110 

Perrin’s  Bush-Shrike  Telophorus  viridis,  new  to  Gabon. 

L.  Macaulay  & J.C.  Sinclair  110-111 

First  Nigerian  record  of  Red-fronted  Farrot  Poicephalus  gulielmi^ 
and  other  notable  records  from  S£  Nigeria. 

T.  Künzel  & S.  Künzel  111-113 

Réaction  du  Petit  Cossyphe  à tête  blanche  Cossypha  niveicapilla  au 
cri  d’alarme  de  l’Ecureuil  de  Gambie  Heliosdurus  gambianus. 

B.  Ndao  113-114 

Observation  de  la  Bernache  cravant  Branla  bernida  au  Sénégal. 

T.  Printemps,  Y.  Rouillon  & G. J.  Morel  114-115 

First  observations  on  the  territorial  song  and  display  of  the 
Kupe  Bush  Shrike  Malaconotus  kupeensis. 

F.  Dowsett-Lemaire  115-117 

New  tape  recordings  of  three  West  African  birds. 

V.  Salewski  and  T.U.  Grafe  117-121 

A southern  record  of  Cinnamon-breasted  Rock  Bunting 
Emberiza  tahapisi  in  Lamto,  Ivory  Coast. 

V.  Salewski  & F.  Goken  121-122 

Corrigenda 

Composition  et  évolution  saisonnière  d’un  peuplement  d’oiseaux 
au  nord  du  Burkina  Faso  (nord-Yatenga). 

(G.  Balança  & M.N.  de  Visscher  1997,  Malimbus  19:  68-94)  123 

Book  review:  The  Birds  of  Liberia  (1999,  Malimbus  21:  66-67)  123 

News  & Letters  — Nouvelles  et  Lettres  123 

Reviews  — Revues  124-126 

Society  Notices  — Informations  de  la  Société  127-128 


3 9088  00997  6697 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


Membership  List,  1 January  2000 


2 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Société  d’ Ornithologie  de  FOuest  Africain 


Membership  List,  1 January  2000 


Would  members  please  check  their  entries  and  notify  any  mistakes  or  changes  to  the 
Treasurer  and  Membership  Secretary,  R.E.  Sharland,  1 Fisher’s  Heron,  East  Mills, 
Fordingbridge,  Hants  SP6  2JR,  U.K. 

Members  are  invited  to  send  their  e-mail  addresses,  which  will,  on  request,  be 
included  in  future  editions  of  this  list. 

Country  names  in  square  brackets  indicate  country  of  residence  and  do  not  form 

part  of  the  postal  address. 


1.  Ordinary  Members 

Adjakpa,  B.J.,  B.P.  03  1323,  Cotonou,  Republic  of  Benin. 

Aidley,  Dr  D.,  School  of  Biological  Scienes,  University  of  East  Anglia,  Norwich, 
Norfolk  NR4  7TJ,  U.K. 

Ajlexander-Marrack,  P.D.,  Ovre  Stokkavei  141,  N-4022  Stavanger,  Norway. 
Allport,  G.,  48  Marshall  Road,  Cambridge  CBl  4TV,  U.K. 

Ambagis,  J.,  B.P.  10537,  Niamey,  Niger. 

Anciaux,  M.,  Quai  van  Benenden  22,  B 4020,  Liège,  Belgium. 

Ashford,  R.W.,  Dept  of  Parasitology,  Liverpool  School  of  Tropical  Medicine, 
Liverpool  L3  5QA,  U.K. 

Baelleul,  P.,  Chez  M.  Bouche,  Impasse  H Fabre,  83600  Fréjus,  France. 

Baker,  N.,  PO  Box  9601,  Moshi,  Tanzania. 

Bakyono,  E.,  BP  4697,  Ougadougou,  C.I.,  Burkina  Faso. 

Balança,  G.,  Le  Travers,  34570  Vailhauques,  France. 

Balchin,  C.S.,  24  Juniper  Close,  Towcester,  Northants  NN12  7XP,  U.K. 

Bara,  T.,  Chemin  de  TAlzine,  Château-Roussillon,  66000  Perpignan,  France. 
Barker,  J.C.,89  Firsdrive,  Hedge  End,  Southampton,  Hampshire  SO30  4QQ,  U.K. 
Barlow,  C.,  Atlantic  Hotel,  POB  296,  Banjul,  The  Gambia 
Barnes,  Miss  G.P.,  BP  111,  Ferkessédougou,  Ivory  Coast. 

Beaman,  M.,  Two  Jays,  Kemple  End,  Birdy  Brow,  Stonyhurst,  Lancashire  BB6  9QY,  U.K 
Beecroft,  R.,  2 Fen  Cottage,  Creeting  St  Mary,  Ipswich  IP6  8QE,  U.K. 

Bebro,  Y.K.H.,  Dépt  Zoologie,  Université  d’Abidjan,  22  BP  582,  Ivory  Coast. 
Belman,  P. J.,  2 School  Passage,  Southall,  London  UBl  2DR,  U.K. 


3 


Bengtsson,  K.,  Grônvagen  5B,  S-23232  Arlôv,  Sweden. 

Blackwell,  K.,  4i  Charnwood  Avenue,  Northampton,  U.K. 

Blasdale,  P.,  Springfield,  Seed  Howe,  Staveley,  Kendal,  Cumbria  LA8  9PP,  U.K. 
Borrow,  N.,  Fiat  5,  63/7  St  George’s  Drive,  Pimlico,  London  SWIV  4DD,  U.K. 
Bowden,  C.G.R.,  Field  House,  Thedwastre  Road,  Thirston,  Bury  St  Edmunds,  Suffolk,  U.K. 
BOYi,  M.G.,  Hadejia-Nguru  Wetland  Project  [Nigeria],  RSPB,  The  Lodge,  Sandy, 
Bedfordshire  SGI 9 2DL,  U.K. 

Bright,  E.,  Badeggi  Rice  Research  Project,  PMB  8,  Bida,  Nigeria. 

Broadbridge,  M.H.,  23 A Westfield  Road,  Barton-on-Humber,  Humberside  DN18 
5AA,  U.K. 

Brouwer,  J.,  Wildekamp  32,  672 ID  Bennehorn,  Netherlands. 

Browne,  P.W.P.,  115  Crichton  Street,  Ottawa,  Ontario  KIM  1V8,  Canada. 
Bruce-Lockhart,  Mrs  F.,  Westwick,  Lodge  Road,  Walberswick  IP18  6UP,  U.K. 
Brusamolino,  Dr  E.,  Via  G.  Cardano  8,  27100  Pavia,  Italy. 

Buckingham,  D.,  West  End,  Stoke  Road,  Westbury-sub-Mendip,  Wells,  Somerset 
BA5  IHD,  U.K. 

Bulens,  j..  Rue  du  Centre,  Poudenas,  47170  Mezin,  France. 

Carter,  C.,  PO  Box  296,  Simonstown,  Cape  7995,  South  Africa. 

Catterall,  M.,  94  Alkincoats  Road,  Colne,  Lancashire,  U.K. 

Cayol,  F.,  Apt  37,  1 1 rue  Pauly,  75014  Paris,  France. 

Catry,  P.X.,  26G  Winton  Drive,  Glasgow  G 12,  U.K. 

Cazzola,  M.,  Piazza  Belli  9,  27100  Pavia,  Italy. 

Chappuis,  Dr  C.,  Les  Chardonnerets,  10  Vallon  du  Fer  à Cheval,  76530  La  Bouille, 
France. 

Cheke,  Dr  R. A.,  NRI,  Central  Avenue,  Chatham,  Kent  ME4  4TB,  U.K, 

Christy,  P.(1),  B.P.  2240,  Libreville,  Gabon. 

Christy,  P.(2),  rue  de  Promenade,  79500  Melle,  France. 

Claffey,  P.M.,  8 Teignmouth  Road,  London  NW2  4HN,  U.K. 

Cochrane,  J.M.,  Chaconia,  Balmoral  Wynd,  Stewarton,  Ayrshire  KA3  5JL,  U.K. 
Collins,  I.D.,  Bryher,  10  Row  Lane,  Seend  Cleeve,  Melksham  SN12  6PR,  U.K. 
Cook,  A.W.,  6 Hazel  Avenue,  Thame,  Oxon  0X9  2AW,  U.K. 

Coulter,  Dr  M.,  PO  Box  48,  Chocorua,  New  Hampshire  03817,  U.S.A. 

Crick,  Dr  H.Q.P.,  B.T.O.,  The  Nunnery,  Thetford,  Norfolk  IP24  2PU,  U.K. 

Daramani,  D.,  Ghana  Wildlife  Society  [Ghana],  R.S.P.B.,  The  Lodge,  Sandy,  Beds 
SG19  2DL,  U.K. 

Davidson,  Dr  N.C.,  English  Nature,  Northminster  House,  Peterborough,  PEI  lUA  U.K. 
Davies,  G.,  30  Powell  Road,  Morningside,  Durban  4001,  Republic  of  South  Africa. 
Davies,  M.G.,  Summerleas,  Crapstone  Road,  Yelverton,  Devon  PL20  6BT,  U.K. 
Degauquier,  R.,  298  rue  Jean  Jaurès,  59920  Quièvrechain,  France. 

Demey,  R.,  Grute  Peperstraat  52,  B9100,  StNiklaas,  Belgium. 


4 


Dowsett,  R.,  12  Rue  des  Lavandes,  34190  Ganges,  France. 

Dyer,  Dr  M.,  Levalsa  Moor  Cottage,  London  Apprentice,  Cornwall  PL25  7AW,  U.K. 
Eccles,  S.D.,  8904  Narem  Place,  Annandale,  Virginia  22003,  U.S.A. 

Elliot,  Sir  C.C.H.,  Bt,  PhD.,  FAO/UNDP  Crop  Protection  Project,  PO  Box  30470, 
Nairobi,  Kenya. 

Elliott,  A.,  Sardeiiya  476  Ent  30,  08025  Barcelona,  Spain. 

ERRJTZ0E,  J.,  Taps  Old  Rectory,  DK6070  Christiansfeld,  Denmark. 

Ezealor,  Dr  A.,  Dept  of  Biological  Sciences,  Ahmadu  Bello  University,  Zaria,  Nigeria. 

Fanshawe,  J.,  Birdlife  International,  Wellbrook  Court,  Girton  Road,  Cambridge  CB3 
ONA,  U.K.  birdlife@birdlife.org.uk 

Farnsworth,  S.J.,  Hammerkop,  Frogmill,  Hurley,  Maidenhead  SL6  5NL,  U.K. 
Faucher,  I,  IITA  Ibadan,  W.  Lambourne  & Co.,  Carolyn  House,  26  Dingwall  Road, 
Croydon  CR9  3EE,  U.K. 

Field,  G.D.,  37  Milton  Grove,  New  Milton,  Hampshire  BH25  6HB,  U.K. 

Fishpool,  Dr  L.D.C.,  12  Mountain  Street,  Chilham,  Canterbuiy,  Kent  CT4  8DQ,  U.K. 
Fossé,  A.,  63  bis  rue  Barra,  49100  Angers,  France. 

Fotso,  R.C.,  Labo.  de  Zoologie,  Faculté  des  Science,  BP  812,  Yaoundé,  Cameroon. 
Fry,  Dr  C.H.,  Bridge  End  House,  Kentmere,  Staveley,  Cumbria,  U.K. 

Gallner,  J.Q.,  St  Pierre  de  Beaujeu,  04420  La  Javie,  France. 

Gardiner,  S.,  16  Lansdowne  Crescent,  London  W1 1 2NJ,  U.K. 

Gartshore,  M.E.,  RRl,  Walsingham,  Ontario,  NOE  1X0,  Canada. 

Gatter,  W.,  Rossgasse  20,  D-73252  Ober  Lenningen,  Germany. 

Germain,  Dr  M.,  44  rue  Cluseret,  92150  Suresnes,  France. 

Gething,  C.,  Turnpike  Lodge,  Cromer  Road,  Heveringham,  Norwich  NRIO  5AD,  U.K. 
Gilston,  H.,  Ch.  des  Mouettes,  1007  Lausanne,  Switzerland. 

Giraudoux,  P,,  5A  rue  des  Vergers,  25480,  Miserey-Salines,  France. 

Gladwin;  Rev  T.W.,  99  Warren  Way,  Digswell,  Welwyn,  Herts  AL6  ODL,  U.K. 
Gore,  CBE,  5 St  Mary's  Close,  Fetcham,  Surrey  KT22  9HE,  U.K, 

Graham,  A.M,,  Gull’s  Reach,  1 1 Armada  Drive,  Teignmouth  TQ14  9NF,  U.K. 
Grant,  A.C.,  Inverquharity  Castle,  Kirriemuir,  Angus,  Scotland. 

Gray,  H.,  2173  Shoshone  Avenue,  Chico,  California  95926,  U.S.A. 

Green,  A. A.,  78  Reynold’s  Road,  Shelburne  Falls,  MA  01370,  U.S.A. 

Griffin,  D.,  51a  Palace  Road,  East  Moiesey,  Surrey  KT8  9DN,  U.K. 

Grünewald,  Dr  J.,  Inst,  of  Tropical  Medicine,  WilhelmstraBe  27,  72074  Tübingen, 
Germany. 

Guitard,  J.J.,  Quartier  Dandarelet,  83460  Les  Arcs/Argens,  France. 

Gunningham,  Dr  F.J.,  220  Russet  Avenue,  Lynden,  WA  98264,  U.S.A, 

Guellou,  J.L,  35  rue  des  Iris,  44700  Omault,  France. 

Gullick,  T.,  Mrs  M Parker,  5 Tile  Barn  Close,  Farnborough,  Hampshire,  U.K. 


5 


Hall,  P.,  N.C.F=,  A.G.  Leveetis  Ltd.,  W.A.  House,  Hangar  Lane,  Ealing,  London,  U.K. 
Halleux,  D.B.P.,  294  Aetsiraeana  201,  Madagascar. 

Handke,  C.,  GoetelstraBe  71,  13595  Berlin,  Germany. 

Hardwick,  J.H.,  Cardenal  Cienfuegos  10/35,  33007  Oviedo,  Spain. 

Harris,  Dr  B.I,  22  Warrender  Park  Terrace,  Edinburgh  EH9  lEF,  U.K. 

Harvey,  M.S.,23  Birchfield  Lane,  Milbarton,  Norwich  NR  14  8BZ,  U.K. 

Heaton,  A.,  19  Rydal  Gardens,  Ashby  de  la  Zouche,  Leicestershire  LE65  ÎFJ,  U.K. 
Heigham,  J.B.,  5 Chapel  Close,  Bratton,  Westbury,  Wiltshire  BA  13  4RA,  U.K. 
Helsens,  T.,  32  bis  rue  Richard  Lenoir,  35000  Rennes,  France. 

Higgleton,  P.,  17  Kielett  Close,  Highwoods,  Colchester  C04  4UE,  U.K. 

Hjovt,  Dr  C.,  Hessle  Munkarp,  S 24391  Hoor,  Sweden. 

Hopkins,  M.,  T.C.N.N.,  PO  Box  64,  Bukuru,  Plateau  State,  Nigeria. 

Horwood,  M.T.,  2 Church  Close,  Benson,  Oxford  0X9  6TA,  U.K. 

Howe,  S.,  Alma  House,  Torphins-by-Banchoiy,  Aberdeen  AB3  4SR,  U.K. 

Jensen,  F.P.,  Raveekrogen  9,  3500  Værlose,  Denmark. 

John,  A.W.G.,  Brock  Cottage,  Sampford  Spinney,  Yelverton  PL20  7QX,  U.K. 

Jones,  Dr  PJ.,  Dept  of  Forestry  & Natural  Resources,  King’s  Buildings,  Edinburgh 
EH9  3JU,  U.K, 

Jones,  Ms  R.M.,  51  Lee  Terrace,  Blackheath,  London  SE3  9TA,  U.K. 

JuLLiARD,  J.P.,  146  chemin  de  Palama,  130 13  Marseilles,  France. 

Keith,  S.,  19356  Lee  View  Lane,  Redding,  California  96003,  U.S.A. 

Kelly,  Rev.  M.,  Sonkwala,  PO  Box  170,  Obudu,  Cross  River  State,  Nigeria. 

King,  J.M.B.,  Stonehaven,  16  March  Road,  Rode,  Bath  BA3  6PE,  U.K. 

Kreulen,  D.A.,  Multatulilaan  58,  9752  EE  Haren,  Netherlands. 

Kuhn,  L,  JohannisstraBe  39,  99974  Mulhausen,  Germany. 

Lamarche,  B.,  BP  431 1,  Nouakchott,  Mauritania. 

Lang,  J.R.,  Merrywood,  76  New  Forest  Drive,  Brockenhurst  S042  7QW,  U.K. 

Law,  Dr  J.,  10  Frogstone  Terrace,  Edinburgh  EH  10  7AD,  U.K. 

Le  Gal,  P.Y.,  74  allée  des  Peupliers,  34980  St  Gely  du  Fesc,  France. 

Leventis,  A.P.,  19  Ilchester  Place,  London  WÎ4  8AA,  U.K. 

Macaulay,  Mrs  L.,  7 Hill  Road,  Greenwich,  CT  06830,  U.S.A. 

Mackenzie,  J.,  27  St  Margaret’s,  Rottingdean,  Brighton  BN2  7HS,  U.K. 

Manners,  G.,  WARDA  ADRAO  01,  BP  2551,  Bouaké,  Ivory  Coast. 

Manvell,  A.,  22  Cheston  Avenue,  Shirley,  Croydon  CRO  8DA,  U.K. 

Marchesani,  D.,  233  boulevard  Jean  Jaurès,  92100  Boulogne,  France. 

Martins,  R.,  6 Connaught  Road,  Norwich  NR2  3BP,  U.K, 

Masterton,  A.N.B.,  PO  Box  2093,  Harare,  Zimbabwe. 

Meininger,  P.L.,  Lisztlaan  5,  4384  KM  Vlissingen,  Netherlands. 


6 


Meyburg,  b. U.,  Herbertstr  14,  1000  Berlin  33,  Germany. 

Mikkola,  Dr  H. J.,  FAO,  PMB  10,  Banjul,  The  Gambia. 

Mdcoko,  I.J.,  BP  2522  Brazzaville,  Congo. 

Mills,  T.R.,Cruglas,  Swyddffynnon  Ystrad,  Meurig,  Ceredigion  SY25  6AN,  U.K. 
Monk,  Dr  J.F.,  Bridge  Cottage,  High  Street,  Goring,  Reading,  Berks  RG8  9AN,  U.K. 
Moore,  A.M.,  1 Uppingham  Road,  Oakham,  Rutland,  LE  15  6JB  U.K. 

peter@mooreandmoore.netline.net.uk 
Morel,  Dr  G.J.,  1 route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Breville-les-Monts,  France. 
gmorel@mail.cpod.fr 

Morel,  Dr  M.-Y.,  1 route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Bréville-les-Monts,  France. 

Mullié,  W.C.,  FAO  Project  Locustox,  BP  3300,  Dakar,  Senegal. 

Mundy,  P.,  Box  FM  424,  Famona,  Bulawayo,  Zimbabwe. 

Nap,  J.,  Henry  Dunantstraat  7,  8264  AB  Kampen,  Netherlands. 

Nason,  Col.  I.E.&  Mrs  A.,  Mount  Sorrel  Farm,  Broadchalke,  Wiltshire  SP5  5HQ,  U.K. 
Naurois,  Abbé  R.  de,  2 allée  des  Daims,  91800  Brunoy,  France. 

Ndao,  b.,  c/o  Moustapha  Sow,  Baïdy  Leona,  Kaolack,  Senegal. 

Neuenschwander,  Dr  P.,  I.A.T.A.,  BP  08.0932  Cotonou,  Benin  Republic. 
Ntiamoa-Baidu,  Dr  Y.,  University  of  Ghana  [Ghana],  RSPB,  The  Lodge,  Sandy, 
Beds  SG19  2DL,  U.K. 

Nuoh,  a..  Zoology  Dept.,  Legon  [Ghana],  RSPB,  The  Lodge,  Sandy,  Beds  SG  19  2DL,  U.K 
Nyame,  s.,  Ghana  Wildlife  Society  [P.O.Box  13252,  Accra,  Ghana],  RSPB,  The 
Lodge,  Sandy,  Beds,  SG  19  2DL,  U.K.  wildsoc@ighmail.com 

Park,  P.O.,  45  Hills  Road,  Cambridge  CB2  INZ,  U.K. 

Payne,  Dr  R.B.,  Museum  of  Zoology,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan 
48104,  U.S.A. 

Pearson,  D.J.,  Browses,  Sibton,  Saxmundham,  Suffolk  IP  17  2JH,  U.K. 

Pilcher,  E.J.,  Parkers  Cottage,  Tyegreen,  Wimbish,  Saffron  Walden,  Essex,  U.K. 
Porter,  Dr  D.,  60  Stanley  Road,  Hillmorton,  Rugby  CV21  3UE,  U.K. 

Quantrill,  W.,  Tor  House,  36  Newtown,  Bradford-on- Avon,  Wiltshire  BA  15  INF,  U.K. 

Rainey,  H.,  S.I.F.C.A.,  01  BP  1289,  Abidjan,  Ivory  Coast. 

Randall,  G.,  33  Park  Crescent,  Twickenham,  TW2  6NS,  U.K. 

Robert,  V.,  ORSTOM,  BP  1386,  Dakar,  Senegal. 

Robertson,  I.,  Laurelbank,  Exnaboe,  Virkie,  Shetland  ZE3  9JG,  U.K. 

Robin,  N.,  35  rue  Bonaparte,  75006  Paris,  France. 

Rodewald,  P.,  School  of  Forest  Resources,  302  Forest  Resources  Lab.,  Pennsylvania 
State  University  Park,  PA  16802,  U.S.A. 

Rodwell,  S.,  53  Stratton  Road,  Princes  Risborough,  Bucks  HP17  9BH,  U.K. 
Rondeau,  G.,  Project  W.W.F.  Cl  0004,  Parc  National  de  Taï,  BP  4,  Taï,  Ivory  Coast. 


7 


Roux,  F.,  La  Riverolle,  49390  Mooliherne,  France. 

Rumsey,  s.,  Elms  Farm,  Pett  Lane,  Icklesham,  Wincheslea,  E.  Sussex  TN36  4AH,  U.K. 

Sala,  A.H.,  10  Cité  Verte,  BP  185,  Yaoundé,  Cameroon. 

Salewski,  V.,  Vogelwarte  Helgoland  21,  26386,  Wilhelmshaven,  Germany. 
SCHIFTER,  H.,  Schautagasse  62,  1 100  Wien,  Austria. 

SCHOLTE,  P.T.,  Koeriersdienst  (Yaoundé),  POB  20061,  2500  EB  The  Hague, 

Netherlands. 

Shalders,  High  Fen,  Lower  Road,  Stuntney,  Ely,  Cambs,  U.K. 

Sharland,  R.E.,  1 Fishers  Heron,  East  Mills,  Fordingbridge,  Hants  SP6  2JR,  U.K. 
Sharp,  L.,  BP  111,  Ferkéssédougou,  Ivory  Coast. 

Short,  Dr  L.,  P.M.B.  Nanyuki,  Kenya. 

Skilleter,  M.,  12  Westcliffe  Road,  Roker,  Sunderland,  U.K. 

Skinner,  Dr  N.J.,  60  Gunton  Drive,  Lowestoft,  Suffolk  NR32  4QB,  U.K. 

Smalley,  Dr  M.E.,  International  Livestock  Centre  for  Africa,  PO  Box  5689,  Addis 
Ababa,  Ethiopia. 

Smith,  D.T.,  18  Edinburgh  Place,  Earls  Avenue,  Folkestone,  U.K. 

Smith,  J.C.,  Pubjoy  Mint  Ltd.,  92  Oldfields  Road,  Sutton,  Surrey  SMI  2NW,  U.K. 
Smith,  V.W.,  1 Karrakatta  Road,  Goode  Beach,  Albany,  Western  Australia  6330, 
Australia. 

Sonne,  Miss  A.,  Nyrandsvej  13,  4470  Svebolle,  Denmark. 

Spierenberg,  P.,  bp  30,  Bougouni,  Mali. 

Stevenson,  T.,  POB  1051,  Nakuru,  Kenya. 

Stone,  N.H.F.,  64  Trinity  Road,  Old  Wolverton,  Milton  Keynes  MK12  5PB,  U.K. 
Stuart,  Dr  S.N.,  lUCN,  rue  Mauvemey  28,  1 196  Gland,  Switzerland. 

Syvertsen,  P.O.,  Bentsebrugata  25C,  0469  Oslo,  Norway. 

Tamungang,  A.S.,  BP  285,  Dschane,  W.  Province,  Cameroon. 

Taylor,  Mrs  J.B.,  3701  N 27th  Street,  Arlington,  VA  22207,  U.S.A. 

Taylor,  M.,  512-66  Pacific  Avenue,  Toronto,  Ontario  M6P  2P4,  Canada. 

Taylor,  P.B.,  Zoology  Dept,  University  of  Natal,  PB  XOl,  Scotsville  3209,  South 

Africa. 

Thiede,  Dr  W.,  An  der  Ronne  184,  50859  Koln  40,  Germany. 

Thiollay,  Dr  J.-M.,  Labo.  d’Ecologie,  ENS,  46  rue  d’Ulm,  75230  Paris  Cedex  5, 
France. 

Thomas,  Mrs  J.M.,  c/o  Mrs  M.  McCauley,  1831  Hawthorne  Place,  Corvallis,  Oregon 
97330,  U.S.A. 

Thompson,  H.,  G.E.F,  Programme  Africa  Division,  BirdLife  International,  Wellbrook 
Court,  Girton  Road,  Cambridge,  CB3  ONA,  U.K.  hazell.thompson@birdlife.org.uk 
Todd,  A.J.,  46a  Box  Lane,  Boxmoor,  Herts  HP3  ODT,  U.K. 

Tréca,  Dr  B.,  2 allée  des  Bruyères,  78310  Maurepas,  France. 

Turner,  D.A.,  PO  Box  48019,  Nairobi,  Kenya. 


8 


Tye,  Dr  A.,  Charles  Darwin  Research  Station,  Casilla  17-01”3891,  Quito,  Ecuador. 
atye@fcdarwin.org.ec 

Urban,  E.K.,  Dept  of  Biology,  Augusta  College,  Augusta,  Georgia  30910,  U.S.A. 

Van  Biers,  M.,  Hertooiebos  36,  9052  Zwijnaarde,  Belgium. 

Van  Gastel,  Dr  A.J.G.,  GTZ  Office,  FOB  9698  Kotoka  Int.  Airport,  Accra,  Ghana. 
Van  Woersen,  W.,  Genevestraat  43,  1334  EJ  Almere,  Netherlands. 
Vernon-Roberts,  Mrs  N.,  Guinness  Peat  International,  Box  442,  32  St  Mary’s  at 
Hill,  London  EC3P  3AJ,  U.K. 

Vivms,  Y.M.  de,  17  rue  Maurice  Chevalier,  97480  St  Joseph,  La  Réunion,  France. 

Wacher,  Dr  T.,  3 School  Lane,  West  Horsley,  Surrey  KT24  6BQ,  U.K. 

Wall,  J.D.R.,  19  Hathaway  Court,  The  Esplanade,  Rochester,  Kent  MEl  IQX,  U.K. 
Wall,  J.W.,  19  Tisdale  Road,  Scarsdale  Road,  New  York,  NY  10563-5613,  U.S.A. 
Wallace,  J.P.,  50  Cherrybum  Gardens,  Fenham,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  NE4  9UQ,  U.K. 
Walsh,  J.F.,  80  Arundel  Road,  Lytham  St  Annes,  Lancs,  U.K. 

WALTER!,  Dr  M.,  Zentrum  fiir  Naturschutz  der  Univ.  Gottingen,  Fachb.  Biologie, 
Von  Siebold  StraBe  2,  37075  Gottingen,  Germany. 

Ward,  Dr  A.R.,  5 Hawkstone  Close,  Harwood,  Bolton  BL2  3NY,  U.K. 

Warr,  Mrs  F.E.,  6 Mansion  Drive,  Tring,  Herts  HP23  5BD,  U.K. 

Waters,  Prof  W.E.,  Orchards,  Broxmore  Park,  Sherfield  English,  Romsey  S051  6FT,  U.K 
Wilkinson,  Dr  R.,  North  of  England  Zoological  Society,  Zoological  Gardens,  Upton- 
by-Chester,  Cheshire  CH2  ILH,  U.K.  r.wilkinson@chesterzoo.co.uk 
Williams,  E.,  6 Newbold  Grove,  Croxteth  Countiy  Park  Estate,  Liverpool  L12  ONS,  U.K 
Wilson,  R.T.,  Bartbridge  House,  Umberleigh,  North  Devon  EX37  9AS,  U.K 
Wood,  P.,  Global  Programmes,  International  Dept.,  R.S.P.B.,  The  Lodge,  Sandy, 
Beds  SG19  2DL,  U.K 

WOODBRIDGE,  K.,  Twinsness,  North  Ronaldsay,  Orkney  KW17  2BE,  U.K 
Woodcock,  M.,  The  Fives,  Elderden  Farm,  Staplehurst,  Kent  TNI 2 ORN,  U.K. 

ZUARINI,  S.,  Via  San  Giovanni  Bosco  1 1,  10040  Rivalta,  Italy. 


2.  Corporate  Members 

Arranged  in  alphabetical  order  of  continent  then  country. 

Africa 

Bibliothécaire,  Faculté  des  Sciences,  Université  de  Yaoundé,  Cameroon. 

Birdlife  Cameroon  Office,  W.C.S.,  BP  3055,  Messa,  Yaoundé,  Cameroon. 
Cameroon  Ornithologists’  Club,  W.C.S.,  BP  3055,  Messa,  Yaoundé,  Cameroon. 


9 


N.C.R.C.,  PO  Box  925,  Kasheshie,  Accra,  Ghana. 

Bibliothécaire,  Faculté  des  Sciences,  Lab.  Zoologie,  Université  d’Abidjan,  Ivory  Coast. 
East  African  Natural  History  Society,  Librarian,  National  Museums  of  Kenya,  PO 
Box  40658,  Nairobi,  Kenya. 

Librarian,  State  Museum,  PO  Box  1203,  Windhoek,  Namibia. 

Librarian,  Hadejia-Nguru  Wetland  Project  [Nigeria],  R.S.P.B.,  The  Lodge,  Sandy, 
Beds,  SGI 9 2DL,  U.K. 

Librarian,  Kashim  Ibrahim  Library,  Ahmadu  Bello  University,  Zaria,  Nigeria. 
Nigerian  IBA  Project,  Biology  Dept,  Ahmadu  Bello  University,  Zaria,  Nigeria. 
Bibliothécaire,  Direction  des  Parcs  Nationaux  du  Sénégal,  BP  5135,  Dakar,  Sénégal 
Bibliothécaire,  Station  d’Ornithologie,  BP  1386,  Dakar,  Sénégal. 

Bibliothécaire,  Faculté  des  Sciences,  Université  de  Dakar,  Sénégal. 

Librarian,  Durban  Natural  Histor)'  Museum,  PO  Box  4085,  Durban,  South  Africa. 
Librarian,  Nasionale  Museum,  9300  Bloemfontein,  South  Africa. 

OFSOS,  PO  Box  6614,  Bloemfontein  9300,  South  Africa. 

Librarian,  National  Museum,  PO  Box  240,  Bulawayo,  Zimbabwe 
Ornithological  Society  of  Zimbabwe,  PO  Box  8382,  Causeway,  Harare,  Zimbabwe. 

Europe 

Le  Gerfaut,  IRSNB,  31  rue  Vautier,  1040  Bruxelles,  Belgium. 

Bibliothécaire,  Département  d’Ornithologie,  Musée  Royal  de  l’Afrique  Centrale, 
1980  Tervuren,  Belgium. 

D.A.F.I.F.,  L.  Hansel,  Vesterbrogade  140,  1620  Copenhagen,  Denmark. 

Zoological  Museum  Library,  Universitetsparken  15,  2100  Kobenhavn  0,  Denmark. 
Muséum  National  d’Histoire  Naturelle,  Bibliothèque,  55  rue  de  Buffon,  75005  Paris, 
France. 

Office  National  de  la  Chasse,  C.N.E.R.  Avifaune  Migratrice,  Station  Chanteloup, 
85340  L’Ile  d’Olonne,  France. 

Bibliothécaire,  Station  Biologique  de  la  Tour  du  Valat,  Fondation  Sansouire,  Le 
Sambuc,  F- 13200  Arles,  France. 

Institut  fur  Vogelforschung,  Vogelwarte  Helgoland,  26386  Wilhelmshaven,  Rustereil, 
Germany. 

Ornithologische  Schriftenschau,  (Dr  J.  Wittenburg),  MaienstraBe  13,  D-38118 

Braunschweig,  Germany. 

Senckenbergische  Bibliotek,  Zietschriftenabteilung/DFG,  BockenheimerlandstraBe 
134/8,  60325  Frankfurt/Main,  Germany. 

Vogelwarte  Radolfzell,  (Dr  G.  Zink),  7761  Schloss  Môggingen,  Germany. 
Zoologisches  Forschungsinstitut  A.  Koenig,  Adenauerstr.  150/164,  Bonn,  Germany. 
Advances  in  Raptor  Studies  (Giovanni  Leonardi,  Editore),  Via  Santangelo  Fulci  28, 
95127  Catania,  Italy. 

The  Librarian,  Institute  Nazionale  per  la  Fauna  Selvatica,  40064  Ozzana,  Emilia 
B.O.,  Italy. 


10 


The  Librarian,  Rijksmuseum  van  Natuurlijke  Historié,  Ramsteeg  2,  Leiden, 

Netherlands. 

Polish  Academy  of  Science,  Zoology  Library,  PO  Box  1007,  Wilcza  64,  00-950 
Warsaw,  Poland. 

The  Ring,  (Prof  L Tomialojc),  Natural  History  Museum,  Siendiewicza  21,  50335 
Wroclaw,  Poland. 

Birds  of  the  World,  Passeig  de  Gracia  12,  4rt  2a,  08007  Barcelona,  Spain. 

University  of  Lund,  Dept,  of  Zoology,  The  Library,  Heigonavagen  3,  223  62  Lund, 
Sweden. 

Museum  d’Histoire  Naturelle,  Bibliothèque,  Case  Postale  434,  1211  Geneva  6, 

Switzerland. 

Swiss  Ornithological  Institute,  Library,  6204  Sempach,  Switzerland. 

African  Bird  Club,  R.  Webb,  BirdLife  International,  Wellbrook  Court,  Girton  Road, 
Cambridge  CB3  ONA,  U.K. 

Agent  for  Libraries,  Oxford/Cambridge/Scotland,  A.T.  Smail,  100  Euston  Street, 
London  NWl  2HA,  U.K, 

Mrs  J.  Thome,  Editorial  Editor,  BIOSIS  UK,  Garforth  House,  54  Micklegate,  York 
YOÎ  ILF,  U.K. 

The  Librarian,  BirdLife  International,  Wellbrook  Court,  Girton  Road,  Cambridge 
CB3  ONA,  U.K. 

British  Library  Acquisitions  Unit  (SRI 5),  British  Library,  Boston  Spa,  Wetherby 
LS23  7BQ,  U.K. 

British  Museum  Acquisitions  Section,  Dept  Library  Service,  Natural  History 
Museum,  Cromwell  Road,  London  SW7  5BD,  U.K. 

The  Librarian,  British  Trust  for  Ornithology,  The  Nunnery,  Nunnery  Place,  Thetford, 
Norfolk  IP24  2PU,  U.K. 

Librarian,  Edward  Grey  Institute,  Dept  of  Zoology,  South  Parks  Road,  Oxford  0X1 
3PS,  U.K. 

English  Nature,  Information  and  Library  Services,  Great  Britain  Headquarters, 
Northminster  House,  Peterborough,  PEI  lUA,  U.K. 

Royal  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Birds,  The  Lodge,  Sandy,  Beds  SGI  9 2DL,  U.K. 
Librarian,  Zoological  Society  of  London,  Regent’s  Park,  London  NWl  4RY,  U.K. 

North  America 

Librarian,  Royal  Ontario  Museum,  University  of  Toronto,  100  Queens  Park,  Toronto 
5,  Canada. 

COS  Exchange,  439  Calle  San  Pablo,  Camarillo,  CA  93012-8506,  U.S.A. 

San  Diego  Zoo  Library,  PO  Box  551,  San  Diego,  California,  U.S.A. 

Ornithology  Library,  Peabody  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Yale  University,  Box 
6666,  New  Haven,  Connecticut  06511,  U.S.A. 

Conservation  International  Ghana  Program,  1015  18th  Street  NW,  Suite  1000, 
Washington,  DC  20036,  U.S.A. 


11 


LF3-20258,  Library  Acquisitions,  Smithsonian  Institute,  10th  Street  and  Constitution 
Avenue  NW,  Washington,  DC  20560,  U.S.A. 

Field  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Library  Order  Division,  Roosevelt  Road  and 
Lakeshore  Drive,  Chicago,  Illinois  60605,  U.S.A* 

Librarian,  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts  02138,  U,S*A. 

Wilson  Ornithological  Society,  Museum  of  Zoology,  University  of  Michigan,  Ami 
Arbor,  Michigan  48104,  U.S.A. 

Albert  R=  Mann  Library,  Ithaca,  New  York  14850,  U.S.A. 

Librarian,  American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Central  Park  West  at  79th  Street, 
New  York,  NY  10024,  U.S.A. 

Biology  Dept.,  University  of  Wisconsin,  430  Lincoln  Drive,  Madison,  Wisconsin 
5376,  U.S.A. 

Librarian,  International  Crane  Foundation,  PH  608.356  9462,  El  1376  Shady  Lane, 
Baraboo,  Wisconsin  53913,  U.S.A, 


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Journal  of  the  West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Revue  de  la  Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Société  d’Ornithologie  de  TOuest  Africain 


T 


■ 


Council: 

President:  Dr  Gérard  J.  Morel 
Vice-president:  Prof.  C.  Hilary  Fry 
Treasurer  and  Membership  Secretary:  Robert  E.  Sharland 
Managing  Editor:  Dr  Alan  Tye 
Member  of  Council:  Dr  Max  Germain 
Secretary  to  Council:  Dr  Roger  Wilkinson 
Meetings  Secretary:  Dr  Hazell  S.S.  Thompson 

Editorial  Board:  Dr  R.A.  Cheke,  R.  Demey,  Dr  F.  Dowsett-Lemaire,  Dr  C.H.  Fry,  S. 
Keith,  Dr  G. J.  Morel,  Dr  J.F.  Walsh 

distribution:  G.D.  Field 

a 

Correspondence  should  be  addressed  as  follows: 

— to  the  Managing  Editor  (Dr  A.  Tye,  CDRS,  Casilla  17-01-3891,  Quito,  Ecuador) 
regarding  contributions  to  Malimbus,  including  incidental  photographs  or  drawings; 

— to  the  Treasurer  (1  Fisher’s  Heron,  East  Mills,  Fordingbridge,  HampshTre,  SP6 
2JR,  U.K.)  regarding  subscriptions,  financial  matters  and  back  numbers; 

— to  the  Secretary  (Zoological  Gardens,  Chester  CH2  ILH,  U.K.)  regarding 
W.A.O.S.  Research  Grants; 

— to  the  Meetings  Secretary  (Dr  H.S.S.  Thompson,  BirdLife,  Wellcome  Court, 
Girton  Road,  Cambridge  CB3  ONH,  U.K.;  e-mail  hazell.thompson@birdlife.org.uk) 
regarding  attendance  at  or  suggestions  for  meetings; 

— to  the  President  (1  Route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Bréville-les-Monts,  France;  e-mail 
gmorel@mail.cpod.fr)  regarding  policy  matters. 


f 


The  Society  grew  out  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists’  Society,  which  was  founded  in 
1964.  Its  object  is  to  promote  scientific  interest  in  the  birds  of  West  Africa  and  to 
further  the  region’s  ornithology,  mainly  by  means  of  its  Journal  Malimbus  (formerly 
the  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists  ’ Society). 

Applications  for  membership  are  welcomed.  Annual  membership  subscriptions  are 
£10  for  Ordinary  Members  (individuals)  and  £25  for  Corporate  Members  (libraries 
and  other  organisations).  Payments  may  be  made  in  £ Sterling  to  the  Treasurer,  or  in 
French  Francs  to  the  President.  Ordinary  Members  receive  Malimbus  by  surface  mail 
and  Corporate  Members  by  air  mail,  free  of  charge.  Extra  charges  are  required  for 
airmail  dispatch  to  Ordinary  Members  (enquire  of  the  Treasurer  for  rates). 

Back  Numbers:  Vols  11-14  (1975-78)  of  the  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornitholo- . 
gists  ’ Society  (the  Same  format  as  Malimbus)  are  available  at  £2  per  issue  (£4  per  vol- 
ume) or  £15  a set  Malimbus  Vols  1-9  are  available  at  £3  per  issue  (£6  per  volume) 
and  Vol.  10  onwards  at  £5  per  issue  (£10  per  volume).  A full  set  of  Malimbus  Vois 
1-21  may  be  purchased  at  the  reduced  price  of  £160.  Postage  and  packing  are  free. 
Please  enclose  payment  with  your  order,  which  should  be  addressed  to  the  Treasurer. 

W.A.O.S.  Research  Grants:  guidelines  for  applications  may  be  found  in  VoL  15(2) 
of  Malimbus  and  can  be  obtained  from  the  Secretary  to  Council  (address  above). 


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»! 

% 

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2000 


1 


The  birds  of  the  Parc  National  du  Haut  Niger,  Guinea 


by  Gerhard  Nikolaus 
Feldweg  87,  27474  Cuxhaven,  Germany 
Received  20  March  1998;  revised  16  October  1999 

Summary 

A large  woodland  in  central  Guinea-Conakry  was  surveyed  for  birds  during 
the  dry  season  in  winter  1 996-1,  as  part  of  an  investigation  for  a new  national 
park.  Abundance,  habitat  use  and  monthly  presence  within  the  park  are  given 
for  300  bird  species,  including  17  new  to  the  Guinea  list. 

Résumé 

Une  grand  étendue  de  terrain  boisé  au  centre  de  la  Guinée-Conakry  a été 
explorée  pour  les  oiseaux  pendant  la  saison  sèche  de  l’hiver  1996-"7,  dans  le 
cadre  d’une  recherche  pour  un  nouveau  parc  national  L’abondance, 
Futilisation  de  Fhabitat  et  la  présence  mensuelle  dans  le  parc  sont  données 
pour  300  espèces,  y compris  17  nouvelles  pour  la  liste  de  Guinée. 


Introduction 

Up  to  now^  studies  on  birds  in  Guinea  have  been  carried  out  only  in  the  west  along 
the  coast,  around  Conakry  and  the  Fouta  Djalon  (Richards  1982,  Demey  1995),  and 
in  the  east  along  the  border  of  Sierra  Leone  and  Liberia,  especially  Mt  Nimba  and  the 
Ziama  forest  (Morel  & Morel  1988).  The  central  part  of  the  country,  mainly  formed 
by  the  Upper  Niger  basin,  has  never  been  surveyed,  except  for  some  brief 
observations  by  Walsh  (1987)  visiting  Kouroussa  and  Beyla  in  the  northeast.  As  in 
many  other  parts  of  Africa  with  savanna  woodland,  tsetses,  blackflies  and  mosquitoes 
have  prevented  intensive  land  use. 

The  new  National  Park  of  Haut  Niger,  established  in  April  1997  and  linked  to  the 
Forêt  classée  de  la  Mafou,  protects  one  of  the  last  untouched  primary  woodlands  of 
the  West  African  Guinea  savanna  belt  and  covers  600,000  ha. 


Methods 

This  study  was  part  of  an  inventory  of  the  flora  and  fauna  for  the  Park  and  covered 
the  five  months  of  the  dry  season  from  late  November  1996  to  April  1997.  The  aim  of 


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G.  Nikolaus 


Malimbus  22 


the  study  was  to  produce  a bird  list  for  the  Park.  To  achieve  this  goal  the  following 
techniques  were  used.  First  the  available  literature  was  studied.  Field  observations  at 
regular  intervals  covered  similar  routes  in  each  study  site,  including  the  Park 
headquarters  at  Sidakoro  (10°17'N,  10°28'W),  at  Somoria  (10°30'N,  10°28'W), 
Serekoroba  (10°25'N,  10°7'W)  and  Kouroussa  (10°4rN,  9°54'W).  Also  all  casual 
observations  along  roads  were  included.  At  the  end  of  each  day  all  birds  seen  during 
the  day  were  listed  on  record  forms  by  study  site.  Mist-netting  was  carried  out  at  least 
once  a month,  with  5-15  mist  nets  placed  in  different  habitats. 

Checking  the  hunting  bags  of  hunters  at  some  villages  in  the  Park  added  a few 
large  species.  Usually  once  a week  the  markets  at  Mansiramouribaya,  Foya  and  Njako 
were  checked  for  birds  and  small  mammals  hunted  during  the  last  week.  The  hunters 
agreed  to  keep  the  heads  for  identification.  Guineafowl  were  the  most  common  birds, 
but  many  others  also  turned  up. 

Catching  birds  for  export  in  Guinea  is  a well-organised  business.  Especially  in 
autumn  often  a few  thousand  birds  a day  leave  Conakry.  Most  birds  caught  are 
granivores,  but  parrots,  tauracos,  starlings,  pigeons  and  a few  larger  species  are  also 
on  the  export  lists.  Around  Sidakoro  two  bird-catchers  were  operating.  At  that  time  in 
the  dry  season  they  were  looking  for  finches.  All  other  birds  they  caught  were  of  no 
use  for  them,  and  it  was  arranged  to  take  them  over  for  this  study.  This  enlarged  the 
list  of  passerines  and  added  some  migrants  to  the  ringing  totals. 


Habitats,  vegetation  and  bird  communities 

The  Park  was  planned  to  protect  the  large,  almost  untouched  woodland  of  the  Forêt 
classée  de  la  Mafou.  However,  several  other  small  habitats  are  included,  forming  a 
mosaic  with  the  following  proportional  areas:  savanna  woodland  88.1%;  agriculture 
4.7%;  bowals  (short  grass  patches  on  laterite  pans)  3.2%;  bowl  forest  (small  patches 
of  forest  usually  in  depressions)  2.8%;  gallery  forests  (mainly  along  the  large  rivers 
Niger  and  Mafou)  1.2%.  During  this  study  all  these  habitats  were  surveyed. 

Most  of  these  habitats  undergo  dramatic  changes  during  the  year.  In  the  rainy 
season,  with  an  average  annual  rainfall  of  1500  mm  falling  mainly  between  May  and 
August,  the  vegetation  is  luxuriant  green  and  probably  insects  are  plenty.  In  the  dry 
season,  with  about  6 months  completely  without  rain,  many  trees  lose  their  leaves,  the 
grass  and  small  rivers  dry  up.  On  the  other  hand  there  are  plenty  of  seeds,  some  trees 
flower  or  even  produce  new  leaves.  The  most  drastic  change  takes  place  in  the  second 
half  of  the  dry  season,  when  almost  all  of  the  park  gets  burned  by  bush  fires.  Most  of 
the  grass  goes,  the  trees  lose  their  leaves  and  the  face  of  the  Park  changes  completely. 

Savanna  woodland 

The  savanna  woodland  has  a few,  probably  highly  specialised  bird  species,  which 
occur  only  in  undisturbed  primary  wooded  savanna.  So  far  very  little  attention  has 


2000 


Birds  of  P.N.  Haut  Niger 


3 


been  given  to  this  habitat.  The  typical  primary  savanna  woodland  species  for  the  Park 
are  (scientific  names  of  all  birds  mentioned  in  the  text  may  be  found  in  the  Appen- 
dix): Beaudouia’s  Snake  Eagle,  Wahlberg's  Eagle,  Forbes’s  Plover,  White-crowned 
Plover,  Vinaceous  Dove,  Red-headed  Lovebird,  Violet  Tauraco,  Wood  Owl,  Fiery- 
necked  Nightjar,  Striped  Kingfisher,  Swallow-tailed  Bee-eater,  Blue-bellied  Roller, 
Vieillot’ s Barbet,  Fine-spotted  Woodpecker,  Rufous-rumped  Lark,  Grey-rumped 
Swallow,  White-breasted  Cuckoo  Shrike,  Green-backed  Eremomela,  Red-winged 
Warbler,  Pallid  Flycatcher,  Blackcap  Babbler,  White-winged  Black  Tit,  Violet- 
backed  Sunbird,  African  Golden  Oriole,  Yellow-billed  Shrike,  White  Helmet  Shrike, 
Purple  Glossy  Starling,  Chestnut-crowned  Sparrow- Weaver,  Red-headed  Weaver, 
White-cheeked  Olive-back,  Yellow-winged  Pytilia,  Cabanis’s  Bunting.  Most  of  these 
species  are  still  quite  common  in  the  Park,  but  it  is  yet  not  known  what  effects  bush 
fires  have  on  these  birds.  Bush  fires  on  a large  scale  seem  to  be  a fairly  recent  event. 

Among  the  typical  woodland  birds  are  residents,  African  migrants  and  Palaearctic 
migrants.  The  residents  have  to  cope  with  the  seasonal  changes.  It  seems  that  in  the 
non-breeding  season  they  move  around,  because  ringed  birds  were  hardly  ever 
controlled  at  the  same  site  again.  Especially  among  the  small  passerines,  some  species 
move  around  in  mixed  parties.  Resident  birds  are  expected  to  be  strongly  effected  by 
bush  fires,  because  their  habitat  changes  completely  within  hours,  but  on  the  other 
hand  they  could  benefit  from  their  good  knowledge  of  their  home  range. 

Typical  species  of  mixed  bird  parties  found  in  the  Park  were:  Golden-rumped 
Tinkerbird,  Common  Bulbul,  Green-backed  Eremomela,  Northern  Crombec,  Yellow 
White-eye,  White-winged  Black  Tit  and  Black-necked  Weaver. 

The  African  migrants  spend  either  the  dry  season  or  the  rainy  season  in  the  Park; 
Some  come  to  breed  like  Wahlberg’s  Eagle,  Rock  Pratincole,  Standard-winged 
Nightjar  and  African  Golden  Oriole.  Others  just  spend  the  non-breeding  season  and 
moult  there,  like  Grasshopper  Buzzard  and  Carmine  Bee-eater. 

A few  Palaearctic  migrants  spend  the  winter  in  the  woodland,  but  in  general  this 
is  the  least  used  habitat  by  Palaearctic  migrants  in  winter.  Only  European  Bee-eater, 
Tree  Pipit,  Nightingale,  Whinchat,  and  Pied  Flycatcher  winter  in  substantial  numbers. 
In  others,  like  Reed  Warbler,  Olivaceous  Warbler,  Willow  Warbler  and  Chiffchaff, 
only  a few  individuals  winter,  most  moving  on  to  the  forest  zone  or  wintering  further 
north.  Most  passerine  migrants,  whether  on  passage  or  wintering,  favour  secondary 
vegetation  especially  former  farmland,  which  usually  has  fairly  dense,  green  thicket 
mixed  with  open  patches.  The  number  of  Palaearctic  species  recorded  for  the  Park  is 
fairly  high,  but  some  like  Melodious  Warbler  and  Wryneck  are  only  passing  visitors 
in  autumn  or  spring.  Others,  like  Cattle  Egret  and  Night  Heron,  have  an  African 
population  likely  to  occur  there  and  are  probably  not  from  the  Palaearctic. 

Bowals 

Bowals  are  covered  with  short  grass  and  have  some  similarities  with  short  grass 
plains  in  the  Soudan  savanna.  Birds  that  appear  here  in  the  dry  season  are  mainly 


4 


G.  Nikolaus 


Malimbus  22 


African  migrants  including:  Forbes’s  Plover,  Denham’s  Bustard,  Rufous-rumped 
Lark,  Sun  Lark,  Plain-backed  Pipit,  Yellow-winged  Pytilia,  Orange-cheeked  Waxbill, 
Lavander  Waxbill  and  Black-bellied  Fire-Finch.  Two  Palaearctic  species  favour  this 
habitat  in  winter:  Tree  Pipit  and  Whinchat. 

Bowals  are  often  burned  first  and  seed  eating  birds  are  then  abundant  for  a few 
days.  There  might  be  some  advantage  of  early  fires  to  bowal  specialists.  The  grass  is 
short  and  quickly  dried  up,  and  after  the  fire  a new  low  green  vegetation  quickly 
appears.  This  provides  enough  cover  for  the  ground  nesting  birds  and  they  have  no 
risk  of  fire  for  the  rest  of  the  season. 

Swamps 

The  main  difference  from  bowals  is  in  the  rainy  season.  Swamps  are  usually  flood 
plains  of  the  larger  rivers  or  old  river  beds  and  sometimes  even  have  small  ponds 
which  remain  throughout  the  year.  In  the  dry  season,  most  grass  gets  burned  and  they 
differ  less  from  the  bowals,  except  for  the  difference  in  soil.  The  most  typical  birds  of 
swamps  are  Painted  Snipe,  African  Jacana,  Yellow-throated  Longclaw,  African 
Moustached  Warbler,  cisticolas.  Red-winged  Warbler,  Yellow-mantled  Whydah, 
Zebra  Waxbill  and  Quail  Fich.  Palaearctic  migrants  typical  for  this  habitat  are  Purple 
Heron,  Little  Egret,  Snipe,  Wood  Sandpiper  and  Yellow  Wagtail. 

Bowl  forests 

Related  to  lowland  forests,  bowl  forests  are  small  forest  patches  in  a depression  and 
often  include  a small  swamp,  lake  or  spring.  Large  green  trees,  thick  undergrowth  and 
humid  surface  throughout  the  year  are  characteristic.  The  bird  community  here  is  very 
similar  to  primary  lowland  forest.  Bowl  forests  are  often  near  to  villages  and  are 
slightly  protected,  by  being  ritual  places.  On  the  other  hand  the  big  trees  are  near  to 
the  villages  and  easily  cut.  Once  the  trees  are  gone,  they  are  attractive  for  agricultural 
use.  These  little  forest  patches  also  have  a very  distinct  population  of  small  mammals 
and  in  the  late  dry  season  with  its  bush  fires,  when  food  might  be  most  limited,  are 
probably  of  great  value  to  the  regional  fauna.  The  value  of  these  bowl  forests  within 
the  savanna  ecosystem  needs  more  research  before  they  are  gone. 

Typical  species  are:  Tambourine  Dove,  Little  Greenbul,  Grey-winged  Robin- 
Chat,  White-crowned  Robin-Chat,  Green  Crombec,  Red-faced  Cisticola,  Olive 
Sunbird,  Square-tailed  Drongo,  White-cheeked  Oliveback  and  Crimson  Seedcracker. 

River  edge  vegetation 

Along  the  two  big  rivers  Niger  and  Mafou  is  a small  fringe  which  sometimes 
continues  also  along  the  larger  tributaries.  The  green  vegetation  is  often  restricted  to 
the  river  banks.  As  with  bowl  forest,  they  are  green  throughout  the  year  and  provide 
thick  undergrowth.  African  species  that  favour  this  habitat  include:  Guinea  Tauraco, 
Blue-breasted  Kingfisher,  Shining  Blue  Kingfisher,  Giant  Kingfisher,  Buff-spotted 
Woodpecker,  Yellow-throated  Leaflove,  Oriole  Warbler,  White-browed  Forest 


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Birds  of  P.N.  Haut  Niger 


5 


Flycatcher,  Cassie’s  Flycatcher  and  Brown  Sunbird=  There  are  also  some  Palaearctic 
migrants  attracted  by  this  habitat:  Olivaceous  Warbler,  Sedge  Warbler  and  Chiffchaff 
were  only  found  here. 

Rivers  Niger  and  Mafou 

These  are  large  enough  to  attract  a variety  of  waterbirds,  including  the  Afrotropical 
Hamerkop,  African  Fish  Eagle,  Senegal  Thick-knee,  Egyptian  Plover,  Rock 
Pratincole,  White-crowned  Plover,  African  Skimmer  and  Pel’s  Fishing  Owl.  Purple 
Heron  , Black  Stork,  Osprey,  Greenshank  , Green  Sandpiper,  Wood  Sandpiper  and 
Common  Sandpiper  are  winter  visitors  from  Europe.  Most  of  the  African  species  use 
the  late  dry  season  with  a low  water  level  and  sandbanks  for  breeding;  during  the 
rainy  season,  when  the  water  level  is  high,  they  seem  to  move  down  the  river  to  Mali. 
But  this  pattern  of  migration  is  still  not  clear. 

Farmland  and  farmbush 

This  man-made  habitat  is  only  found  in  the  buffer  zone.  Around  the  villages  are  small 
fields,  most  used  only  for  a few  years  until  the  soil  is  exhausted  and  a new  plot  is 
selected.  Soon  after  a field  is  abandoned,  the  vegetation  recovers;  the  stumps  of  the 
trees,  which  were  left  in  the  ground,  grow  up  again.  After  a few  years  a habitat  with 
low  trees  and  bushes  mixed  with  open  patches  attracts  many  birds,  like  Laughing 
Dove,  Grey-backed  Camaroptera,  Western  Black  Flycatcher,  Whistling  Cisticola, 
Tawey-flanked  Prinia,  Red-billed  Firefmch  and  Yellow-fronted  Canary.  Even  though 
the  species  composition  is  different  from  primary  woodland,  these  habitats  seem  to  be 
a valuable  addition  to  the  Park.  Among  the  migrants  from,  Europe,  Nightingale, 
Whinchat  and  Willow  Warbler  show  a preference  for  this  habitat. 

Kouroussa  region: 

The  small  part  of  the  Park  next  to  Kouroussa  is  quite  different  from  the  rest  of  the 
Park.  Fairly  intensive  agriculture  over  the  last  few  hundred  years  has  influenced  the 
vegetation.  The  trees  are  much  smaller  and  the  vegetation  is  much  more  open.  The 
area  was  visited  in  January  and  March  and  the  species  recorded  from  the  Kouroussa 
region  are  presented  separately  in  the  species  list.  Future  research  should  establish 
how  marked  the  difference  really  is.  Typical  species  recorded  only  in  the  Kouroussa 
region  are:  White-backed  Vulture,  Bateleur,  Black-shouldered  Kite,  Temminck’s 
Courser,  Bronze-winged  Courser  and  Chestnut-backed  Sparrow  Lark. 


Birds  recorded 

A preliminary  visit  to  the  Park  by  Falk  Hüttmann  in  December  1995  resulted  in  a bird 
list  with  120  species  (Hüttmann  1996)  but,  due  to  inadequate  literature,  about  20  % of 
the  birds  listed  were  wrongly  identified;  therefore  the  list  was  ignored  in  this  report. 


6 


G.  Nikolaus 


Malimbus  22 


Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  (1993)  summarised  552  bird  species  so  far  recorded 
from  Guinea  and  more  were  added  by  Demey  (1995).  This  study  adds  a further  17 
species  to  the  Guinea  list,  discussed  below  and  marked  with  * in  the  systematic  list 
(Appendix),  which  includes  all  species  observed  during  the  study  (almost  all  were 
mist-netted  or  brought  in  by  hunters),  and  those  photographed  by  Udo  Lange  at 
Kouroussa. 

So  far,  300  species  of  birds  are  recorded  for  the  Park,  but  since  this  study  covered 
only  the  dry  season,  it  is  expected  that  the  final  bird  list  will  total  about  350  species. 
Considering  that  the  Park  covers  just  one  major  habitat,  the  numbers  are  surprisingly 
high. 

The  following  recorded  species  are  new  to  the  Guinea  list: 

Black  Stork.  Up  to  two  seen  on  several  occasions  around  Somoria  in  the  centre  of  the 
Park,  in  Jan. 

Ovampo  Sparrowhawk.  Two  adult  birds  appeared  in  connection  with  a bush  fire  on 
14  Dec  in  the  centre  of  the  Park  near  Somoria.  A wing  and  tail  of  another  bird  was 
received  from  hunters  in  Feb. 

Spotted  Thick-knee.  One  stayed  for  a few  days  on  a bowal  closed  to  Somoria,  in  Dec. 
The  spotted  plumage  and  the  wing  pattern  separated  it  clearly  from  Senegal  Thick- 
knee  and  European  Thick-knee  Burhinus  oedicnemus. 

Cuckoo.  Occasionally  seen  Dec-Jan  in  open  bush  country  close  to  villages  between 
Sidakoro  and  Faranah.  They  were  never  calling.  Confirmed  by  a tail  brought  in  by  a 
hunter  in  Jan.  African  Cuckoo  appeared  in  Mar  and  was  soon  commonly  seen  and 

heard  in  open  bush  country  with  large  trees. 

Pel’s  Fishing  Owl.  U.  Lange  photographed  this  owl  at  the  Niger  near  Kouroussa  in 
Oct.  In  addition  feathers  were  collected  during  this  study  at  an  exposed  tree  along  the 
Niger  near  to  Somoria  on  each  visit. 

Fiery-necked  Nightjar.  Appeared  at  the  Park  headquarters  late  Dec,  and  was  soon 
noticed  throughout  the  Park  in  tall  open  woodland. 

Wryneck.  One  caught  and  ringed  closed  to  Park  headquarters  on  8 Dec. 

Grey-winged  Robin-Chat.  Caught  and  ringed  at  Sidakoro  in  low  gallery  vegetation 
along  a small  stream. 

Red-breasted  Wheatear.  Two  seen  around  a bush  fire  on  an  open  bowal  in  Jan.  The 
darkish  red  plumage  and  small  amount  of  white  around  the  tail  made  it  clearly  this 
species. 

Chiffchaff  Commonly  caught  along  the  large  rivers  in  the  Park.  A newly  discovered 
moult  pattern  was  described  (Nikolaus  in  press.). 

Whitethroat.  Found  on  spring  passage  in  the  more  open  and  dry  part  of  the  Park  at 
Kouroussa  in  Mar.  One  was  ringed. 

Yellow-chested  Apalis.  Only  seen  in  Jan,  in  bird  parties  at  Sidakoro  Park 
headquarters. 


2000 


Birds  of  P=N.  Haut  Niger 


7 


Gambaga  Flycatcher.  Seen  twice  at  Park  headquarters  in  Dec.  This  unstreaked  grey 
flycatcher  with  the  typical  yellow  base  of  the  lower  mandible  was  very  familiar  to  me 
from  other  sites  in  E and  W Africa. 

Cassin's  Flycatcher.  At  least  two  seen  and  caught  in  Dec  and  Jan  at  a small  stream  at 
Sidakoro.  They  left  after  the  river  dried  up. 

Tropical  Boubou.  Regularly  seen  and  caught  at  Sidakoro.  It  favoured  sites  in  the  Park 
with  tall  grass  within  woodland. 

Chestnut-crowned  Sparrow- Weaver.  Often  hard  to  detect,  unless  its  call  is  known.  It 
is  typical  of  the  treetops  in  undisturbed  tall  woodland.  Only  present  Dec-Jan. 
Pale-winged  Indigobird.  At  first,  only  Village  Indigobird  was  seen  and  caught.  But  in 
Jan,  when  the  catches  of  two  bird-catchers  were  examined,  a second  type  of  adult 
male  indigobird  turned  up.  Comparing  them  with  skins  in  the  Bonn  and  Berlin 
museums,  the  second  type  was  confirmed  as  V.  wilsoni. 


References 

Demey,  R.  1995.  Notes  on  the  birds  of  the  coastal  and  Kindia  areas,  Guinea. 
Malimbus  17:  85“-99. 

Dowsett,  R.J.  & Dowsett-Lemake,  F.  (1993)  A Contribution  to  the  Distribution 
and  Taxonomy  of  Afroiropical  and  Malagasy  Birds,  Res.  Rep.  5,  Tauraco  Press, 
Liège. 

HOttmann,  F.  (1996)  A primary  report  on  the  birds  of  Parc  National  du  Haut  Niger  / 
Guinea  (West  Africa)  with  special  consideration  to  the  Palaearctic  species  and 
méthodes  of  their  research.  Unpubl.  rep.,  Direction  Nationale  des  Eaux  et  Forêts, 
Conakry. 

Morel,  G. J.  & Morel,  M.-Y.  (1988)  Liste  des  oiseaux  de  Guinea.  Malimbus  10: 
143-176. 

Nikolaus,  G.  (2000  in  press)  Eccentric  primary  moult  in  Chiffchaffs  Phylloscopus 
coilybita.  Ringing  Migration. 

Richards,  D.K.,  1982,  The  birds  of  Conakry  and  Kakulima,  Democratic  Republic  of 
Guinea.  Malimbus  4:  93“-103. 

Walsh,  J.F.  (1985)  Records  of  birds  seen  in  north-eastern  Guinea  in  1984-1985. 
Malimbus  9:  105-122. 


Appendix:  Systematic  list 

“Habitat”  presents  the  usuai  habitat  for  each  species,  with  the  main  ones  indicated  by  XX.  Habitats  are  grouped  as: 
For  = Forest:  bowl  or  relict  forests  and  gallery  forest  species. 

W = Primary  woodland  birds. 

Bu  Bushes:  species  preferring  low  bushes,  woodland  edges  or  secondary  woodland. 


G.  Nikolaus 


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22 


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23 


Nouvelles  observations  de  six  espèces  d’oiseaux  au  Mali 

par  Peter  Spierenburg 

SNV-Bhutan,  c/o  Koeriersdienst  BuZa,  Postbus  20061,  2500  EB  Den  Haag,  Pays-Bas 

Reçu  15  octobre  1998;  revu  2 octobre  1999 

Résumé 

Des  observations  sont  présentées  pour  trois  espèces  d’oiseaux  nouvelles  au  Mali 
(Inséparable  à tête  rouge  Agapornis  pullaria,  Apalis  à poitrine  jaune  Apalis 
flavida.  Martinet  marbré  Apus  equatorialis)  et  trois  espèces  peu  observées 
antérieurement  (Faucon  des  chauves-souris  Machaerhamphus  alcinus.  Martinet 
à croupion  blanc  Apus  caffer.  Martin-pêcheur  à poitrine  bleue  Halcyon 
malimbica).  Les  données  sur  le  Martin-pêcheur  représentent  une  extension 
importante  de  Faire  de  répartition. 

Summary 

Records  from  Mali  are  presented  for  three  species  new  to  the  country  (Red- 
headed Lovebird  Agapornis  pullaria.  Yellow-breasted  Apalis  Apalis  flavida. 
Mottled  Swift  Apus  equatorialis)  and  three  others  with  few  previous  records 
(Bat  Hawk  Machaerhamphus  alcinus,  White-rumped  Swift  Apus  caffer,  Blue- 
breasted Kingfisher  Halcyon  malimbica).  The  records  of  Blue-breasted 
Kingfisher  constitute  an  important  range  extension. 


Introduction 

L’avifaune  du  sud-ouest  du  Mali  paraît  avoir  été  peu  prospectée  jusqu’à  présent.  La 
référence  principale  est  la  liste  complète  des  oiseaux  du  Mali  établie  par  Lamarche 
(1980).  Cette  liste  compte  peu  de  mentions  particulières  à la  zone. 

J’ai  résidé  à Bougouni  au  sud-ouest  du  pays  (1 1°30'N,  7°30'O)  de  1994  à 1996. 
Pendant  cette  période,  j’ai  fait  une  prospection  intensive  de  la  zone  dans  un  rayon  de  10 
km  autour  de  la  ville,  ainsi  que  des  prospections  occasionnelles  ailleurs  dans  le  sud  et  le 
centre  du  pays.  Autour  de  Bougouni  les  efforts  se  sont  concentrés  sur  les  habitats 
associés  aux  fleuves  et  aux  marigots,  habitats  les  plus  riches  en  oiseaux.  Sur  un  site,  la 
capture  au  filet  a été  pratiquée  régulièrement.  Quelques  données  biométriques  ont  été 
collectées  sur  les  oiseaux  capturés,  notamment  les  longueurs  du  bec  (du  crâne),  de  l’aile, 
de  la  troisième  primaire  et  de  la  queue,  ainsi  que  des  données  sur  la  mue. 


24 


P.  Spierenburg 


Malimbus  22 


Parmi  les  oiseaux  observés  et/ou  capturés  à Bougouni,  P Inséparable  à tête  rouge 
Agapornis  pullaria  et  PApalis  à poitrine  jaune  Apalis  Jîavida  sont  apparemment 
nouveaux  pour  le  Mali.  A cela  s’ajoute  le  Martinet  marbré  Apus  equaîorialis,  observé  à 
la  falaise  de  Bandiagara,  à l’est  du  pays.  Pour  le  Faucon  des  chauves-souris 
Machaerhamphus  alcinus,  le  Martinet  à croupion  blanc  Apus  caffer  et  le  Martin- 
chasseur  à poitrine  bleue  Halcyon  malimbica,  il  y a eu  peu  d’observations  antérieures 
dans  le  pays.  La  présence  régulière  dans  la  zone  de  Bougouni  de  cette  dernière  espèce 
représente  une  extension  importante  de  Faire  de  répartition. 


Résultats  et  discussion 
Machaerhamphus  alcinus  Faucon  des  chauves-souris 

Observé  régulièrement  en  saison  des  pluies  de  mi-août  à fin  septembre,  quand  1-3  sujets 
étaient  présents  au  crépuscule,  en  comportement  typique  de  chasse  des  petites  chauves- 
souris  insectivores,  au-dessus  de  la  ville  de  Bougouni.  Il  y eut  une  observation  en  octobre 
et  une  en  mars. 

Le  comportement  de  chasse  a été  étudié  au  cours  de  quatre  soirées  pendant  une  demi- 
heure  après  le  coucher  du  soleil.  Les  observations  correspondent  bien  à la  description  de 
Brown  et  al.  (1982).  Les  oiseaux  arrivent  entre  le  coucher  du  soleil  et  10  minutes  après. 
La  direction  d’où  ils  viennent  laisse  supposer  que  le  lieu  de  repos  pendant  la  journée 
serait  la  région  du  fleuve,  où  il  existe  de  grands  arbres.  La  chasse  commence  dès 
l’apparition  des  chauves-souris,  10-15  min.  après  le  coucher  du  soleil.  Elle  continue  au 
moins  jusqu’à  20  min.  plus  tard,  quand  la  nuit  empêche  de  continuer  les  observations.  La 
chasse  se  fait  surtout  à une  hauteur  de  25-50  m,  où  les  oiseaux  attendent  les  chauves- 
souris  qui  sortent  de  la  ville  vers  le  nord-est.  Si  les  chauves-souris  rencontrent  l’oiseau 
elles  s’enfuient  en  se  laissent  tomber  sous  un  angle  aigu,  parfois  jusqu’au  sol.  Les 
Faucons  les  poursuivent  dans  leur  chute,  mais  la  plupart  des  captures  se  font  à la 
première  rencontre.  La  fréquence  moyenne  des  tentatives  de  capture  par  oiseau  était  de 
2.7  tentatives  par  min.  avec  3 1%  succès. 

Au  cours  de  cette  période  le  nombre  de  chauves-souris  diminuait,  vraisembablement 
à cause  d’un  déplacement  saisonnier.  A la  mi-août  des  dizaines  d’entre  elles  sortaient  de 
leur  lieu  de  repos  par  min.,  tandis  qu’après  le  15  sep  les  chauves-souris  avaient  presque 
disparu.  Le  nombre  de  chauves-souris  capturées  par  soirée  diminuait  également.  Après  le 
1 5 sep  les  oiseaux  ne  venaient  plus  chasser  et  il  n’y  avait  plus  que  quelques  observations 
d’oiseaux  en  vol. 

Le  Faucon  des  chauves-souris  a été  noté  au  Mali  par  Thiollay  (1977)  et  Balança  & 
Visscher  (1993),  respectivement  pour  le  sud  du  Mali  jusqu’à  Ségou  et  au  plateau  Dogon 
L’observation  de  Balança  & Visscher  (1993)  en  octobre  correspond  bien  à la  période  où 
l’espèce  a été  observée  à Bougouni.  Bien  que  l’espèce  soit  généralement  considérée 
comme  sédentaire  (Thiollay  1977,  Brown  et  al.  1982),  les  données  ci-dessus  suggèrent 
pour  le  Mali  plutôt  une  présence  saisonnière.  Dans  la  zone,  l’espèce  paraît  un  visiteur 


2000 


Oiseaux  du  Mali 


25 


régulier  du  milieu  et  de  la  fm  de  la  saison  des  pluies,  qui  se  déplace  probablement  selon 
la  disponibilité  en  chauves-souris. 

Agapornis pullaria  Inséparable  à tête  rouge 

Observé  six  fois  aux  alentours  de  Bougouni,  survolant  la  forêt  galerie  dégradée,  en 
groupes  de  1-3,  les  observations  étaient  concentrées  au  début  de  la  saison  des  pluies  de 
1996  entre  mi-avril  et  mi-juin.  Il  y eut  une  seule  observation  au  mois  de  septembre  en 
1994.  A part  les  observations  à Bougouni,  il  y eut  l’observation  d’un  mâle  à Bamako  en 
fév  1994,  probablement  un  oiseau  échappé  de  cage.  Un  couple  a été  trouvé  chez  un 
oiselier  à Bougouni  qui  disait  capturer  l’espèce  régulièrement  à la  frontière  de  la  Côte 
d’ivoire. 

L’Inséparable  à tête  rouge  n’était  pas  encore  confirmé  pour  le  Mali.  L’espèce  est 
mentionnée  par  Thiollay  (1985)  au  nord  de  la  Côte  d’ivoire  dans  la  zone  de  Boundiali, 
qui  fait  frontière  à la  zone  de  Bougouni.  L’espèce  pourrait  bien  être  un  visiteur  régulier 
dans  la  zone  au  début  de  la  saison  des  pluies.  Le  fait  que  les  observations  se  limitent  en 
grande  partie  à 1996  pourrait  être  dû  à l’inexpérience  de  l’observateur  avec  l’espèce. 

Apus  coffer  Martinet  à croupion  blanc 

Observé  trois  fois:  une  observation  de  deux  oiseaux  à Koumantou,  80  km  à l’ouest  de 
Bougouni  ( 1 1 °25  "N,  6°50' W),  juin  1 994;  deux  observations  d’un  et  et  de  deux  oiseaux  à 

Bougouni,  sep  1996.  L’identification  repose  sur  la  combinaison  du  croupion  blanc  avec 
la  queue  fourchue. 

Le  Martinet  à croupion  blanc  a été  trouvé  au  Mali  par  Cheke  & Howe  (1990)  à 
Bamako  au  mois  de  novembre.  Les  observations  en  septembre  correspondent  à des 
observations  récentes  dans  cette  période  en  Côte  d’ivoire  (Salewski  1997)  et  Burkina 
Faso  (Balança  & Visscher  1997).  Ceci  pourrait  indiquer  que  l’espèce  visite  la  zone  en 
migration.  Par  contre  l’observation  de  juin  concernait  deux  oiseaux  sur  un  site  apte  à la 
nidification:  à proximité  d’Hirondelles  à gorge  striée  Hirundo  abyssinica  construisant 
des  nids.  Mais  les  données  disponibles  ne  permettent  de  le  considérer  que  comme 
visiteur  irrégulier  de  la  zone. 

Apus  aequatoriaUs  Martinet  marbré 

Un  groupe  d’environ  100  oiseaux  observés  à la  falaise  de  Bandiagara,  près  du  village  de 
Teli,  le  soir  de  13  oct  1989.  Ils  visitaient  des  fissures  dans  les  roches.  Les  oiseaux  ont  été 
identifiés  par  leur  taille  comparée  à celle  d’autres  espèces  de  martinets  présents  (Martinet 
à dos  blanc  A.  affinis.  Martinet  noir  zl.  apus).  Le  Martinet  à ventre  blanc  A.  melba  était 
exclu  par  l’aspect  “marbré”  du  dessous. 

Le  Martinet  marbré  n’est  pas  encore  mentionné  pour  le  Mali.  Balança  & Visscher 
(1997)  l’ont  trouvé  dans  le  Yatenga  au  Burkina  Faso  entre  mars  et  juillet.  Comme  il  n’y 
avait  aucun  milieu  adéquat  au  nord  du  Burkina  Faso,  ils  avaient  suggéré  la  possibilité 
d’une  colonie  de  nidification  à la  falaise  de  Bandiagara  en  territoire  malien.  Bien  qu’il 
n’y  ait  pas  de  preuve  que  les  oiseaux  observés  soient  nicheurs,  l’observation  renforce  la 


26 


P.  Spierenburg 


Malimbus  22 


suggestion  des  deux  auteurs.  L’observation  au  Mali  en  octobre  tombe  dans  la  période  où 
les  oiseaux  étaient  absents  du  Yatenga. 

Halcyon  malimbica  Martin-chasseur  à poitrine  bleue 

Observé  et  capturé  régulièrement  pendant  toute  l’année,  sauf  les  mois  d’août  et  février 
quand  le  nombre  de  visites  était  faible.  Les  observations  sont  fréquentes  de  mars  à juin, 
période  où  l’activité  territoriale  est  la  plus  intense  et  pendant  laquelle  jusqu’à  trois 
oiseaux  ont  été  observés  ensemble.  L’habitat  de  l’espèce  aux  alentours  de  Bougouni 
consiste  en  la  bande  de  forêt  galerie  dégradée  le  long  du  fleuve  Baoulé  et  du  marigot 
Mono.  Cette  bande  atteint  une  largeur  de  10  m et  est  constituée  d’une  strate  d’arbustes  et 
de  lianes  {Mimosa  pigra.  Ficus  capensis),  d’une  strate  arborée  d’une  hauteur  de  5 m 
{Miîragyna  inermis,  Isoberlinia  sp.)  et  de  quelques  grands  arbres  (Daniella  oUvieri). 
Dans  ce  milieu,  l’espèce  est  observée  difficilement  et  généralement  les  oiseaux  étaient 
repérés  par  leur  chant,  surtout  au  moment  du  lever  du  soleil.  Des  comptages  sur  3 km  du 
marigot  en  avril  et  en  juin  ont  donné  une  densité  d’un  oiseau  chantant  par  kilomètre.  En 
dehors  des  alentours  de  Bougouni,  l’espèce  était  observée  à Kolondiéba  (11°5'N, 
6°55'W),  à 80  km  au  sud-est  de  Bougouni,  dans  un  habitat  similaire. 

L’identification  de  ces  oiseaux  en  mains  malheureusement  n’a  pas  pu  donner  une 
réponse  définitive  quant  à la  sous-espèce.  La  couleur  de  la  huppe  et  du  cou  était  gris 
foncé,  avec  des  traces  de  bleu  sur  le  cou  seulement.  Le  bleu  était  nuancé  de  vert  sur 
certains  individus.  Les  données  biométriques  (moyenne,  SD,  écart,  en  mm)  des  9 adultes 
sont:  bec  56.1±1.0  (54.8-58.0),  queue  85.0±2.8  (81.1-89.7),  aile  116.4±2.8  (112.6- 
121.3),  3ème  primaire  80.9±5.6  (73.0-87.6).  La  mue  a été  observée  de  septembre  à 
décembre,  la  mue  des  plumes  du  corps  se  limite  de  septembre  à octobre.  La  mue  des 
primaires,  secondaires  et  tertiaires  a été  observé  jusqu’en  décembre,  bien  qu’un  individu 
l’eût  presque  achevée  en  fin  octobre.  La  mue  semble  commencer  dans  deux  centres  au 
milieu  des  primaires  et  des  secondaires,  à partir  desquels  le  remplacement  des  plumes 
progresse  dans  les  deux  directions. 

La  reproduction  de  l’espèce  a pu  être  constatée  par  la  capture  en  octobre  d’un 
immature  venant  de  quitter  le  nid,  dont  les  ailes,  la  queue  et  le  bec  n’étaient  pas  encore 
bien  développés.  Un  adulte  capturé  en  septembre  montrait  encore  quelques  caractères 
d’un  plumage  immature  et  était  probablement  de  deuxième  année. 

Le  Martin-chasseur  à poitrine  bleue  est  représenté  en  Afrique  de  l’Ouest  (ouest  de 
Cameroun)  par  deux  sous-espèces:  H.  m.  torquata  du  sud  mauritanien  à la  Guinée  Bissau 
et  à l’ouest  du  Mali,  et  H.  m.  forbesi  de  la  Sierra  Leone  au  Nigéria.  Bien  que  les  deux 
populations  semblent  être  séparées  par  une  zone  où  l’éspèce  n’apparaît  pas,  en  Guinée  et 
au  sud  du  Mali  (Fry  et  al.  1988),  l’espèce  est  mentionnée  au  Guinée  par  Walsh  (1987)  et 
par  Morel  & Morel  (1988).  Lamarche  (1980)  ne  mentionne  qu’une  observation  et  deux 
captures  au  Mali,  toutes  dans  l’ouest.  Selon  Thiollay  (1985)  l’espèce  est  rencontrée 
jusqu’aux  galéries  les  plus  septentrionales  de  la  Côte  d’ivoire. 

Les  observations  démontrent  qu’il  existe  une  population  importante  dans  la  zone  de 
Bougouni,  qui  y paraît  sédentaire  et  reproductrice.  Bougouni  est  à cheval  sur  les  aires  de 


2000 


Oiseaux  du  Mali 


27 


répartition  connues  du  nord  de  la  Côte  d’ivoire  (200  km)  et  de  l’ouest  du  Mali  (300  km). 
Bien  que  la  sous-espèce  ne  soit  pas  connue,  il  est  probable  que  cette  population  se 
rattache  à celle  du  nord  de  la  Côte  d’ivoire.  Ceci  est  confirmé  par  l’observation  de 
l’oiseau  à Kolondiéba.  En  outre,  le  fleuve  Baoulé  prend  sa  source  au  nord  de  la  Côte 
d’ivoire  ce  qui  fait  que  l’habitat  de  l’espèce  s’étend  pratiquement  sans  rupture  jusqu’à 
Bougouni.  D’un  autre  côté,  il  n’est  pas  exclu  non  plus  que  l’espèce  soit  présente  dans  la 
zone  peu  prospectée  du  nord-est  de  la  Guinée  et  qu’en  fait  les  deux  aires  de  répartition 
soient  contiguës. 

Apalis  flüvida  Apalis  à poitrine  jaune 

Observé  quatre  fois  et  capturé  au  filet  trois  fois,  en  fév,  mars,  mai,  juin,  sep  et  oct. 
L’espèce  est  rencontrée  dans  la  forêt  galerie  dégradée  le  long  du  fleuve  Baoulé  et  du 
marigot  Mono.  Les  données  biométriques  (mm,  g)  des  3 sujets  capturés  le  1 oct  1995,  4 
fév  1996  et  le  16  mars  1996  sont:  tarsus  18.0,  19.9,  19.4;  bec  12.2,  13.8,  13.4;  queue  44, 
43, 41  ; aile  50.4,  54.8,  53.8;  3ème  primaire  39. 1,  38.2,  39.2;  poids  7.3, 7.6, 8.1.  L’oiseau 
du  16  mars  était  en  mue  du  queue  et  des  plumes  du  corps. 

L’espèce  n’est  pas  encore  mentionnée  pour  le  Mali.  Dans  les  pays  voisins  les 
observations  sont  rares  aussi:  seulement  une  pour  la  Côte  d’ivoire  (Thiollay  1985).  Les 
observations  à Bougouni  laissent  croire  que  l’espèce  y est  présente  pendant  toute  saison, 
mais  en  nombre  très  faible. 


Bibliographie 

Balança,  G.  & Visscher,  M.N.  de  (1993)  Notes  sur  les  oiseaux  observés  sur  le  Plateau 
Dogon  au  Mali.  Malimbus  14:  52-58. 

Balança,  G.  & Visscher,  M.N.  de  (1997)  Composition  et  évolution  saisonnière  d’un 
peuplement  d’oiseaux  au  nord  du  Burkina  Faso  (nord-Yatenga).  Malimbus  19:  68- 
94. 

Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1.  Academie 
Press,  London. 

Cheke,  R. a.  & Howe,  M.A.  (1990)  White-rumped  Swift  {Apus  caffer)  — new  to  Mali. 
Malimbus  12:  54. 

Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.  & Urban,  E.K.  (eds)  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  3.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Lamarche,  B.  (1980)  Liste  commentée  des  oiseaux  du  Mali.  Malimbus  2:  121-158;  3: 
73-102. 

Morel,  G. J.  & Morel,  M.-Y.  (1988)  Liste  des  oiseaux  de  Guinée.  Malimbus  10:  143- 
176. 

Salewski,  V.  (1997)  Notes  on  some  bird  species  from  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivory 
Coast.  Malimbus  19:  61-67. 


28 


P.  Spierenburg 


Malimbus  22 


Thiollay,  J.M.  (1977)  Distribution  saisonnière  des  rapaces  diurnes  en  afrique 
occidentale.  Oiseau  Rev.fr.  Orn.  47:  253-285. 

Thiollay,  J.M.  (1985)  The  birds  of  îvory  Coast:  status  and  distribution.  Malimbus  7: 1- 
59. 

Walsh,  J.F.  (1987)  Records  of  birds  seen  in  north-eastern  Guinea  in  1984-1985. 

Maiimbus  9:  93—103. 


2000 


29 


Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 

Birds  of  Waza  new  to  Cameroon:  corrigenda  and  addenda 

In  their  annotated  list  of  birds  of  the  Waza  area,  northern  Cameroon,  Scholte  et  al, 
(1999)  claimed  11  species  for  which  there  were  no  previous  published  records  from 
Cameroon  “mainly  based  on  Louette  (1981)”.  In  fact,  their  list  included  14  such 
species,  but  there  are  previous  published  records  for  most,  some  missed  by  Louette 
(1981),  some  of  which  had  been  listed  by  Dowsett  (1993).  We  here  clarify  these 
records  and  give  additional  notes  on  two  other  species  of  the  area. 

Corrigenda 

Ciconia  nigra  Black  Stork  (Dowsett  1993,  based  on  Robertson  1992).  Waza.  Not 
claimed  as  new  by  Schoite  et  al  ( 1 999),  but  the  previous  record  mentioned  by  them  is 
unpublished  (Vanpraet  1977). 

Plataiea  kucorodia  European  Spoonbill  (new). 

Phoenicopterus  ruber  Greater  Flamingo  (new).  Not  claimed  as  new  by  Scholte  et  ai. 
(1999),  but  the  previous  record  mentioned  by  them  is  unidentifiable  as  to  species 
(Louette  1981).  Contrary  to  those  authors,  Brown  et  ai.  (1982)  did  not  report  this 
species  from  Cameroon,  but  Lesser  Flamingo  Phoeniconaias  minor. 

Anas  ciypeaia  Shoveler  (Dowsett  1993,  based  on  Robertson  1992).  Several  records 
from  the  Waza  and  Garoua  areas  (see  also  Girard  & Thai  1996),  once  as  far  south  as 
Bamendjing  (RJD  & F.  Dowsett-Lemaire  pers.  obs.). 

Coturnix  coturnix  Common  Quail.  Manenguba  (Serle  1950,  p.  353). 

Turnix  sylvatica  African  Buttonquail.  Reported  from  Dja  (Christy  1994).  Apparently 
it  has  also  been  seen  elsewhere,  but  these  other  records  remain  unpublished. 

Porphyria  porphyrio  Purple  Swamphen  (Dowsett  1993,  based  on  Sala  1991). 
Yaounde  and  Limbe  (see  also  Manners  et  al.  1993). 

Neoiis  nuba  Nubian  Bustard  (new). 

Eupodotis  ruficrista  (savilei)  Crested  (Savile’s)  Bustard  (new). 

Vaneiius  iugubris  Senegal  Plover  (new).  Not  claimed  as  new  by  Scholte  et  al  (1999), 
but  the  previous  record  mentioned  by  them  is  unpublished  (Vanpraet  1977). 
Chiidonias  hybridus  Whiskered  Tern.  Garoua  (Sorensen  et  al.  1996).  There  is  also  a 
recent  report  from  Rio  del  Rey  (R.  Demey  & M.  Languy  in  litt.). 

Apus  palUdus  Pallid  Swift.  Mt  Oku  (Stuart  1986,  p.  127). 

Anthus  campestris  Tawny  Pipit  (Dowsett  1993,  based  on  Robertson  1992).  Waza  area 
(see  also  Elzen  1975). 

Oenanthe  isabeUina  Isabelline  Wheatear.  Waza  (Sorensen  et  al.  1996). 

Addenda 

Egretta  garzeita  Little  Egret.  A ring  was  given  to  PS  by  villagers  of  Dawaya  (close  to 
Tikele)  on  19  Jan  Î996,  of  a bird  probably  trapped  in  a fishing  net  in  the  Logomatya 
water  course.  It  had  been  ringed  as  a nestling  in  the  lagoon  of  Valle  Bertuzzi  (44.48 


30 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


N,  12.13  E)  in  the  Po  River  Delta  (NE  Italy)  on  3 June  1994  (S.  Volponi  in  lût.). 
Elgood  et  al.  (1994)  reported  one  recovery  in  N Nigeria  and  two  in  S Nigeria  from 
Little  Egrets  ringed  in  “Russia”.  Brown  et  al.  (1982)  mentioned  recoveries  of 
Yugoslav  birds  in  Nigeria  and  Russian  birds  in  Nigeria  and  Cameroon  and  concluded 
that  Palaearctic  migrants  from  western  Europe  tend  to  winter  in  western  W Africa  and 
those  from  eastern  Europe  in  eastern  W Africa.  The  Italian  bird  in  Waza-Logone 
suggests  a more  diverse  migration  pattern. 

Anas  hottentota  Hottentot  Teal.  One  ringed  at  the  rice  scheme  near  L.  Maga,  Jan  1999 
(Tiwaoun  & Beladane  1999,  R.  Azombo  pers.  comm.).  Mentioned  by  Scholte  et  al. 
1999  as  observed  only  prior  to  1980;  can  now  be  moved  from  List  2 to  List  1. 

References 

Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 

Academic  Press,  London. 

Christy,  P.  (1994)  Ornithologie  de  la  Réserve  du  Dja.  Unpubl.  rep.  Groupement 

Agreco-CTFT,  Brussels. 

Dowsett,  R. J.  (1993)  Afrotropical  avifaunas:  annotated  country  checklists. 

Cameroon.  Tauraco  Res.  Rep.  5:  159-167. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.J.  1994.  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4,  British  Ornithologists’ 
Union,  Tring. 

Elzen,  R.  van  den  (1975)  Zur  Kenntnis  der  Avifauna  Kameruns.  Bonn.  zool.  Beitr. 
26:  49-75. 

Girard,  O.  & Thal,  J.  (1996)  Quelques  observations  ornithologiques  dans  la  région 
de  Garoua,  Cameroun.  Malimbus  18:  142-148. 

Louette,  M.  (1981)  Birds  of  Cameroon.  An  annotated  check-list.  Verhandel.  Kon. 

Acad.  Wetensch.  Lett.  Schone  Kunst.  Belg.,  Kl.  Wetensch.  43(163):  1-295. 
Manners,  G.R.,  Burtch,  P.,  Bowden,  C.G.R.,  Bowden,  E.M.  & Williams,  E. 
(1993)  Purple  Gallinule  Porphyrio  porphyrio,  further  sightings  in  Cameroon. 
Malimbus  14:  59. 

Robertson,  I.  (1992)  New  information  on  birds  in  Cameroon.  Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club 
112: 36-42. 

Sala,  A.  (1991)  La  Talève  poule-sultane  Porphyrio  porphyrio  madagascariensis  à 
Yaoundé,  Cameroun.  Malimbus  13:  78. 

Scholte,  P.,  de  Kort,  S.  & van  Weerd,  M.  (1999)  The  birds  of  the  Waza-Logone 
area,  Far  North  Province,  Cameroon.  Malimbus  21:  16-50. 

Serle,  W.  (1950)  A contribution  to  the  ornithology  of  the  British  Cameroons.  Ibis  92  : 
343-376,  602-638. 

Sorensen,  U.G.,  Bech,  J.  & Krabbe,  E.  (1996)  New  and  unusual  records  of  birds  in 
Cameroon.  Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club  116:  145-155. 

Stuart,  S.N.  (ed.)  (1986)  Conservation  of  Cameroon  Montane  Forests.  International 
Council  for  Bird  Preservation,  Cambridge. 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


31 


Tiwaoun,  s. T.  & Beladane  B=  (1999)  Rapport  sur  le  Dénombrement  d’ Oiseaux 
d'Eau  dans  les  Plaines  d'inondations  Voisines  du  Logone  au  Cameroun  et  au 
Tchad,  et  sur  le  Baguage  des  Limicoles  dam  la  Zone  des  Casiers  Rizicoies  de  la 
SEMRY  II  à Maga,  Cameroun.  Projet  Waza-Logone/Ecole  de  Faune, 
Maroua/Garoua. 

Vanpraet,  C.L.  (1977)  L'Ecologie  et  V Aménagement  du  Parc  National  de  Waza. 
Annexe  1.  Oiseaux  observés  au  Parc  National  de  Waza.  Unpubl.  rep., 
PNUD/FAO,  Rome„ 

Received  1 September  1999 
Revised  9 September  1999 

Paul  Scholte'’^&  RJ.  Dowsett^ 
^Centre  of  Environmental  Science,  P.O.  Box  9518,  2300  RA  Leiden,  The  Netherlands 
Ecole  de  Faune,  P.O.  Box  271,  Garoua,  Cameroon  (email:  schoIkerst@cs.com) 
^12  rue  des  Lavandes,  Ganges  F-34190,  France  (email:  dowsett@aoLcom) 


Comment  on  species  rejected  from  and  added  to  the  avifauna  of  Bioko 
Island  (Equatorial  Guinea) 

Two  of  the  species  dealt  with  by  Perez  del  Val  et  al.  (1997)  perhaps  need  further 
comment. 

Gyps  africanus  White-backed  Vulture.  Pérez  del  Val  ei  ai.  (1997)  rejected  this 
species,  suggesting  that  the  only  record,  an  adult  female  reported  by  Alexander 
(1903),  was  a misidentified  Palm-nut  Vulture  Gypohierax  angoiemis.  The 
considerable  differences  of  shape  of  head  and  bill  and  of  size  (Brown  et  ai.  1982), 
which  would  be  obvious  in  the  hand,  make  it  hard  to  believe  that  the  two  could  be 
confused.  Part  3 of  Alexander  (1903)  comprises  a list  of  birds  previously  recorded  op. 
Bioko,  which  he  did  not  find  during  his  visit,  and  which  includes  Palm-nut  Vulture. 
As  Alexander  was  an  ornithologist  with  wide  experience  of  W Africa  by  that  time,  it 
seems  unlikely  that  he  would  have  mistaken  the  two  species.  Unfortunately,  neither  is 
included  in  the  list,  in  the  accessions  register,  of  birds  collected  by  Alexander  and 
presented  to  the  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  although  the  entries  include  other 
birds  collected  at  Sipopo  on  the  same  date. 

Pérez  del  Val  et  ai.  remark  on  the  distance  between  Bioko  and  the  main  area  of 
distribution  of  White-backed  Vulture.  However,  there  is  a record  of  White-headed 
Vulture  Trigonoceps  occipitalis,  which  is  of  similar  range  in  W Africa,  coming  as 
close  to  Bioko  as  Mt  Cameroon,  60  km  to  the  NNE  (Bannerman  1953)  and  the  possi- 
bility of  a vagrant  White-backed  Vulture  in  the  same  area  should  not  be  discounted. 

Pérez  del  Val  et  ai.  write  that  Palm-nut  Vulture  was  collected  by  the  ‘'majority  of 
other  naturalists  (Allen  & Thomson  1848)”,  but  there  is  no  reference  to  Palm-nut 


32 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


Vulture  from  Bioko  in  either  text  or  appendix  of  Allen  & Thomson  (1848).  The  only 
specimen  listed  in  the  accessions  register  of  BMNH  of  a Palm-nut  Vulture  that  was 
probably  collected  during  the  expedition  is  “1847.1.18.62  Vulture  angolensis  (Lath)  S 
Racama  Ango  (Gray)  F.  Po”,  purchased  of  Fraser.  The  specimen  no  longer  appears  to 
be  in  the  collection. 

Pérez  del  Val  (2000)  and  I seem  to  agree  that  this  species  cannot  be  discounted 
nor  confirmed  as  a vagrant  to  Bioko.  Pérez  del  Val  (2000)  notes  that  some  evidence 
suggests  that  Alexander  did  examine  a specimen.  This  notion  is  further  supported  by 
the  fact  that  Alexander  (1903)  includes  the  species  in  Part  2 (p.  340)  “List  of  species 
of  which  specimens  were  obtained,  with  Field  Notes”  (my  italics),  as  also  are 
Psittacus  erithacus  and  Actitis  hypoleucos. 

Vanellus  albiceps  White-crowned  Plover.  Rejected  from  the  Bioko  list  by  Pérez  del 
Val  et  al.  (1997),  the  type  locality  of  this  species  is  likely  to  remain  in  doubt.  In  the 
Appendix  to  Allen  & Thomson  (1848),  its  habitat  is  given  as  “River  Quorra”,  or  lower 
Niger.  The  holotype  was  collected  by  Allen,  probably  during  the  Macgregor  Laird 
expedition  to  the  Niger  in  1832.  It  was  presented  by  Gould  to  a meeting  of  the 
Zoological  Society  of  London,  where  it  was  introduced  as  “a  previously  undescribed 
plover”  and,  though  not  entirely  clear,  the  text  suggests  that  it  was  collected  “during 
the  expedition  up  the  Quorra”  (Gould  1834).  The  holotype  was  purchased  by  T.C. 
Eyton  when  the  ZSL  collection  was  closed  down  and  sold  in  1855;  it  was  purchased 
for  BMNH  in  1881  and  is  in  the  type  collection  at  Tring,  curiously  enough  bearing  an 
Eyton  label  “Fernando  Po”. 

Fraser  (1848)  noted  that  Allen  had  collected  two  specimens  on  Fernando  Po,  but 
does  not  say  whether  he  is  including  the  bird  collected  in  1832  or  referring  to  others 
collected  in  1841.  If  the  latter,  the  locality  will  remain  an  enigma.  It  is  unlikely  that  V. 
albiceps  would  have  been  collected  in  Nigeria  in  1841  as,  unlike  the  expedition  of 
1832,  the  only  opportunity  for  collecting  on  the  Niger  was  in  August-October,  when 
the  river  is  in  flood  and  the  species  is  absent  from  southern  Nigeria  (Elgood  et  al. 
1994).  The  habitats  given  for  four  of  the  other  45  birds  listed  in  the  appendix  of  Allen 
& Thomson  (1848)  are  erroneous  and  perhaps  complete  reliance  should  not  be  placed 
on  the  “River  Quorra”  given  there  for  the  present  species. 

I am  most  grateful  to  the  authorities  of  The  Natural  History  Museum  at  Tring  for 
allowing  me  access  to  the  collections  and  to  Dr  Robert  Prÿs-Jones  and  Mrs  F.E.  Warr 
for  their  help. 

References 

Alexander,  B.  (1903)  On  the  birds  of  Fernando  Po.  Ibis  (8)3:  330-403. 

Allen,  W.  & Thomson,  T.R.H.  (1848)  A Narrative  of  the  Expedition  to  the  River 
Niger.  (2nd  impression  1 968)  Cass,  London. 

Bannerman,  D.  (1953)  The  Birds  of  West  and  Equatorial  Africa.  Oliver  & Boyd, 
Edinburgh. 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


33 


Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 
Academie  Press,  London. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 

Skinner,  N.  J.  1994.  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4,  British  Ornithologists’ 

Union,  Tring. 

Fraser,  L.  (1848)  Zoologica  Typica.  Published  by  the  author,  London. 

Gould,  J.  (1834)  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1834:  45. 

PÉREZ  DEL  Val,  J.  (2000)  Reply  to  Moore.  Malimbus  22:  33-34. 

PÉREZ  DEL  Val,  I,  Castroviejo,  j.  & PURROY,  F.J.  (1997)  Species  rejected  from  and 
added  to  the  avifauna  of  Bioko  Island  (Equatorial  Guinea).  Malimbus  19:  19-31. 

Received  26  January  1998  Amberley  Moore 

Revised  19  October  1999  1 Uppingham  Road,  Oakham,  Rutland  LE  15  6JB,  U.K. 


Reply  to  Moore 

Gyps  africanus  White-backed  Vulture.  Moore  (2000)  states  that  we  suggest  “that 
the  only  record  [of  the  species  on  Bioko],  an  adult  female  reported  by  Alexander 
(1903),  was  a misidentified  Palm-nut  Vulture  Gypohierax  angolensis"\  Our  arguments 
were  based  on  the  supposition  that  Alexander  did  not  actually  collect  the  bird.  If  he 
did,  then  I agree  with  Moore  (2000)  that  we  should  accept  White-backed  Vulture  as 
vagrant  on  Bioko.  If  he  did  not,  then  it  should  be  rejected  from  the  Bioko  list  in  the 
light  of  the  arguments  presented  by  Pérez  del  Val  eî  al.  (1997). 

Arguments  that  favour  the  idea  that  Alexander  collected  the  bird  include: 

1.  Alexander  (1903)  writes  “Ad.  suggesting  that  he  examined  a specimen. 

Arguments  unfavourable  to  the  idea  include: 

2.  In  Alexander’s  (1903)  list  for  Bioko  there  are  also  other  species  that  were  recorded 
by  him  but  not  collected  {Corvus  albus,  Actitis  hypoleucos,  Psittacus  erithacus). 

3.  Alexander  did  not  observe  Palm-nut  Vulture  Gypohierax  angolensis,  which  is 
common  and  conspicuous  in  Bioko  (Pérez  del  Val  eî  al.  1997). 

These  arguments  are  not  definitive,  and  personal  opinion  will  give  more  weight  to 
some  than  others.  At  the  very  least,  in  the  absence  of  a specimen  or  firmer  evidence 
that  one  once  existed,  the  record  must  be  regarded  as  unconfirmed. 

Vanellus  albiceps  White-crowned  Plover.  We  simply  accepted  the  view  of  Amadon 
(1953)  rather  than  that  of  Urban  eî  al.  (1986).  The  decision  rests  on  whether  to  rely  on 
the  testimony  of  Allen,  who  collected  the  specimen,  or  Fraser,  who  redescribed  it  16 
years  later.  Although  Moore  (2000)  is  correct  that  many  species  collected  during  the 
Niger  expeditions  were  wrongly  attributed  to  locality  by  both  Allen  and  Fraser,  and 
that  therefore  their  localities,  including  that  of  the  present  species,  must  remain  in 
some  doubt,  the  species  cannot  be  regarded  as  having  been  proved  to  occur  on  Bioko. 


34 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


I would  like  to  thank  Alan  Tye  for  improving  the  text  of  this  reply. 

References 

Alexander,  B.  (1903)  On  the  birds  of  Fernando  Po.  Ibis  (8)3:  330-403. 

Amadon,  D.  (1953)  Avian  systematics  and  evolution  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea.  Bull. 
Amer.  Mus.  Nat  Hist.  100:  393-452. 

Moore,  A.  (2000)  Comment  on  species  rejected  from  and  added  to  the  avifauna  of 
Bioko  Island  (Equatorial  Guinea).  Malimbus  22:  31-33. 

Pérez  del  Val,  J.,  Castroviejo,  J.  & Purroy,  F.J.  (1997)  Species  rejected  from  and 
added  to  the  avifauna  of  Bioko  Island  (Equatorial  Guinea).  Malimbus  19:  19-31. 
Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H,  & Keith,  S (1986)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  2.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Received  1 April  1998  J.  Pérez  del  Val 

Revised  19  October  1999  Museo  Naciorial  de  Ciencias  Naturales  de  Madrid, 

José  Gutiérrez  Abascal  2,  28020  Madrid,  Spain 


Colour  of  the  downy  young  and  notes  on  breeding  and  food  of  the 

Grasshopper  Buzzard  Butastur  rufipennis  in  Niger 

Cheke  (1995)  has  described  the  young  of  the  Grasshopper  Buzzard  Butastur 
rufipennis,  adding,  however,  that  there  was  confusion  about  the  colour  of  their  down. 
We  should  like  to  comment  on  this  question,  and  at  the  same  time  give  a more 
complete  description  of  the  young  and  breeding  habits  of  the  species. 

Along  the  road  to  Say,  26  km  south  of  Niamey,  Niger,  there  is  a 6-7  km  wide 
iaterite  plateau  with  tigerbush  vegetation  (13°17'N,  2°irE).  Tigerbush  is  a type  of 
patterned  vegetation  where  bands  of  crusted  bare  soil  alternate  with  dense  bands  of  2- 
6 m high  bushes.  The  bands  run  more  or  less  parallel  to  the  contours,  each  being  10- 
30  m wide.  At  around  8h00  on  16  Jul  1993,  six  weeks  after  the  start  of  the  rainy 
season,  JB  saw  an  adult  Grasshopper  Buzzard  flying  across  the  road  there,  with  a twig 
in  its  beak.  The  next  day,  we  found  a Grasshopper  Buzzard  nest  in  the  first  line  of 
trees,  c.  15  m from  the  road.  It  was  easy  to  reach,  4.5  m up  in  a Combretum  tree 
(probably  C.  nigricans),  made  of  branches  and  twigs,  and  lined  with  fresh  leaves.  In 
the  nest  were  two  white  (not  grey:  see  Cheke  1995)  downy  young  c.  20  cm  in  length. 
Their  ceres,  gapes  and  claws  were  pale  yellow,  the  distal  halves  of  their  beaks  dark 
grey.  They  had  dark  brownish  grey  irides.  One  of  the  young  was  prostrate.  Based  on 
the  late  pin  stage  of  their  flight  feathers  (see  below),  and  on  comparison  with  the 
speed  of  development  of  similarly  sized  raptors  in  The  Netherlands  (Bijlsma  1997), 
we  estimate  their  age  at  c.  1 1-12  days. 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


35 


On  19  July  at  8h00  one  of  the  adults  was  on  the  nest.  At  16h45  there  was  again  an 
adult  on  the  nest,  which  left  when  we  approached.  Both  young  were  active  and,  to  our 
surprise,  their  down  was  pale  reddish  brown.  We  believe  this  sudden  change  in  colour 
of  both  young  at  the  same  time  came  from  red  dust  in  the  rain  that  had  fallen  since  our 
previous  inspection.  The  alternative  explanation,  a change  from  white  first  down  to 
pale  reddish  brown  second  down,  seems  unlikely.  Colour  changes  from  first  to  second 
down  do  occur  in  many  raptor  species,  e.g.  in  the  genera  Accipiter  and  Circus,  but  in 
these  taxa  second  down  starts  to  develop  after  about  seven  days  and  takes  almost  ten 
days  to  develop  fully  (Cramp  & Simmons  1980,  Brown  et  al  1982).  îf  our  young 
Grasshopper  Buzzards  were  already  11-12  days  old  when  we  first  saw  them,  and  if 
second  down  develops  from  approximately  day  7 to  day  16,  one  would  expect  a 
pronounced  change  in  colour  from  first  to  second  down  to  be  already  visible  by  day 
1 1~12.  Neither  would  one  expect  a complete  change  in  down  colour  to  take  place  over 
a period  of  only  two  days  simultaneously  in  two  young  of  which  one  is  most  likely  1- 
2 days  older  than  the  other. 

The  difference  pointed  out  by  Cheke  (1995),  between  the  nestling  colour 
mentioned  by  Millet-Horsin  in  1921  (white)  and  that  mentioned  by  the  same  author  in 
1922  (buff-grey),  could  perhaps  also  be  explained  by  the  same  mechanism  of 
colouring  by  dust,  assuming  that  Millet-Horsin’s  young,  which  were  in  captivity,  were 
kept  out  of  doors.  Alternatively,  as  Cheke  supposes,  Millet-Horsin  may  have  relied  on 
his  memory  for  his  1922  publication,  and  got  matters  mixed  up.  A change  in  colour 
from  white  first  down  to  buff-grey  second  down  cannot  be  ruled  out,  although  in  that 
case  our  own  young  of  1 1-12  days  seem  rather  slow:  they  showed  no  evidence  of  an 
impending  change  in  down  colour. 

At  the  time  of  our  second  visit,  when  the  young  were  approximately  two  weeks 

old,  the  pin  feathers  in  their  wings  were  showing  rufous  flags  6-10  mm  in  length. 
Their  heads  were  still  covered  with  down,  and  not  yet  bright  reddish  as  described  by 
Millet-Horsin  (Cheke  1995).  On  the  edge  of  the  nest  there  was  the  skin  of  a hedgehog, 
most  likely  a White-bellied  Hedgehog  Atelerix  albiventris.  The  young  were  seen 
again  on  20  and  21  July.  Soon  thereafter  they  were  probably  taken  by  local  youths,  as 
the  nest  was  found  destroyed  and  abandoned.  Local  youths  had  been  seen  offering 
young  raptors  for  sale  on  another  occasion. 

If  we  assume  four  weeks  incubation  as  mentioned  for  the  slightly  larger  Grey- 
faced Buzzard  Butastur  indicus  (Hoyo  et  ai  1994),  young  almost  two  weeks  old  in 
mid-July  indicate  laying  begun  in  the  first  week  of  June,  around  the  start  of  the  rainy 
season.  During  his  30  years  in  SW  Niger,  PS  recorded  six  Grasshopper  Buzzard  nests; 
at  least  two  were  in  isolated  trees,  one  in  a Sterculia,  probably  S.  setifolia.  One  nest 
had  only  one  young,  three  had  two  eggs  or  young.  He  recorded  two  eggs  as  early  as 
19  May,  70  km  south-west  of  our  site,  near  Makalondi  (c.  12°50'N,  1°40'E),  where 
rains  start  earlier.  At  one  nest  there  were  36  days  between  the  young  first  being  noted 
(18  Jun  1994)  and  the  young  leaving  the  nest  (24  Jul).  This  period  is  similar  to  the  34- 
36  day  nestling  period  mentioned  for  the  Grey-faced  Buzzard  (Hoyo  et  al  1994). 


36 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


According  to  Thiollay  (1978),  most  Grasshopper  Buzzards  are  to  be  found  in  the 
Guinea  savanna  Dec-Mar,  they  breed  in  the  Sudan  savanna  Apr-Jun,  move  further 
north  to  the  Sahelian  savanna  Jul-Sep,  then  move  all  the  way  back  south  to  the 
Guinea  savanna  Oct-Dec.  According  to  Brown  et  al.  (1982)  and  Hoyo  et  al.  (1994), 
breeding  is  even  as  early  as  Mar-Apr.  Apparently  this  picture  needs  reappraisal,  as  the 
species  clearly  breeds  during  the  rains  in  Jun-Jul  in  the  central  Sahelian  part  of  its 
range.  We  think  that  laying  may  take  place  even  later  in  the  northern  Sahel,  where  the 
rains  start  later  still;  on  8 Aug  1993,  at  approximately  14°20'N,  3°05'E,  some  200  km 
north-east  of  the  nest  described  above  and  25  km  west  of  Filingué,  we  found  a 
Grasshopper  Buzzard  nest  4 m up  in  a Combretum  ?micranthum  tree.  It  was  lined 
with  fresh  leaves  and  there  was  an  adult  in  attendance.  Breeding  during  the  rainy 
season  is  also  indicated  by  a nest  with  three  recent  fledglings  in  The  Gambia  on  30  Jul 
1996  (Barlow  et  al.  1997). 

The  hedgehog  skin  in  the  nest  probably  originated  from  a road  kill.  Many  dead 
hedgehogs  were  seen  along  that  stretch  of  road  at  that  time  of  year.  The  eating  of 
carrion  by  Grasshopper  Buzzards  is  not  mentioned  by  Thiollay  in  Brown  et  al.  (1982), 
nor  by  Hoyo  et  al.  (1994).  However,  given  the  usual  type  of  prey  of  Grasshopper 
Buzzards,  and  their  diurnal  habits,  we  do  not  think  that  one  of  the  adults  would  have 
caught  a live  adult  hedgehog,  which  is  nocturnal,  although  young  hedgehogs  might  be 
taken.  In  Niger  and  Senegal,  WCM  has  seen  young  (abandoned?)  hedgehogs  active 
during  the  day  on  various  occasions.  They  weighed  about  45  g.  Prey  up  to  c.  20  g 
{Quelea  queled)  has  previously  been  recorded  for  the  Grasshopper  Buzzard  (Brown  et 
al.  1982). 

Thanks  to  Ans  Brouwer  for  help  with  the  literature  search,  and  to  Rob  Bijlsma  and  an 
anonymous  referee  for  helpful  comments. 

References 

Barlow,  C.,  Wacher,  T.  & Disley,  T.  (1997)  A Field  Guide  to  Birds  of  The  Gambia 
and  Senegal.  Pica  Press,  Robertsbridge. 

Bijlsma,  R.  (1997)  Handboek  Veldonderzoek  Roofvogels.  KNNV  Uitgeverij,  Utrecht. 
Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  K.H.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 
Academic  Press,  London. 

Cheke,  R.A.  (1995)  An  historical  breeding  record  in  Mali  and  description  of  the 
young  of  the  Grasshopper  Buzzard  Butastur  rufipennis.  Malimbus  17:106-107. 
Cramp,  S.  & Simmons,  K.E.L.  (eds)  1980.  The  Birds  of  the  Western  Palearctic,  vol. 
2.  Oxford  University  Press,  Oxford. 

Hoyo,  J.  del,  Elliott,  A.  & Sargatal,  J.  (eds)  (1994)  Handbook  of  the  Birds  of  the 
World,  voL2.  Lynx,  Barcelona. 

Millet-Horsin,  [H.]  (1921)  Société  ornithologique  de  France.  Communication  du 
Dr.  Millet-Horsin.  Rev.fr.  Orn.  7:  177-180. 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


37 


Mellet-Horsin,  [H.]  (1922)  Déplacement  de  Test  à Fouest  d’espèces  africaines.  Rev. 

fr.  Orn.  7:  295. 

TfflOLLAY,  J.-M.  (1978)  Les  migrations  de  rapaces  en  Afrique  Occidentale: 
adaptations  écologiques  aux  fluctuations  saisonnières  de  production  des 
écosystèmes.  Terre  Vie  32:  89-133. 

Received  20  September  1999 

Revised  6 November  1999  J.  Brouwer*,  W.C.  Mullié^  & P.  Souvairan^ 

'Brouwer  Environmental  and  Agricultural  Consultancy, 
Wildekamp  32,  6721  JD  Bennekom,  The  Netherlands;  email  brouwbar@bos.nl 
^c/o  Projet  Locustox,  BP  3300,  Dakar,  Senegal;  email  mullie@metissacana.sn 

^deceased;  formerly  resident  in  Makalondi,  Niger 


Adamawa  Turtle  Dove  Streptopelia  hypopyrrha  in  The  Gambia,  with 
comparison  of  its  calls  in  The  Gambia  and  Nigeria 

The  Adamawa  Turtle  Dove  Streptopelia  hypopyrrha  has  been  known  in  Senegambia 
only  in  the  past  10  years  (Bâillon  1992,  Barlow  et  al.  1997,  Borrow  1997).  S. 
hypopyrrha  was  seen  in  The  Gambia  in  1990,  from  2 km  south  of  Georgetown  Island, 
upriver  to  Bansang,  on  both  sides  of  the  river  (Barlow  et  al.  1997,  Borrow  1997).  In 
SE  Senegal,  one  was  observed  in  a flock  of  European  Turtle  Doves  S.  turtur  that  used 
gallery  forest  on  the  Niokolo  River;  it  was  captured,  measured,  photographed  and 
released  (Bâillon  1992).  Before  this,  the  species  was  known  mainly  from  Nigeria  and 
Cameroon  (Urban  et  al.  1986).  These  observations  suggest  a recent  extension  of 
range,  and  bring  into  question  whether  the  western  doves  are  recognizably  distinct 
from  the  birds  of  Nigeria  and  Cameroon,  as  was  suggested  by  Bâillon  (1992). 

On  4 March  1999,  CRB,  John  Hook  and  Paul  Longley  heard  turtle  doves  calling 
in  remnant  indigenous  forest  at  Kunkilling  Forest  Reserve  (13°32'N,  14°4rW),  5 km 
east  of  Georgetown,  near  sea  level  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Gambia  River.  The  call 
was  like  that  of  S.  hypopyrrha  tape-recorded  by  CRB  at  Bukuru,  Jos  Plateau,  in 
northern  Nigeria.  When  the  Nigerian  call  was  played  to  the  Gambian  doves,  they 
reacted  by  approaching  the  call  and  perching  nearby.  The  dove  observed  most  clearly 
had  a very  dark  earth-brown  back  with  pale  scallop  marks,  a contrasting  pale  face  and 
forehead,  and  underparts  pale  pink-cinnamon.  In  size  it  was  like  African  Mourning 
Dove  S.  decipiens.  Other  doves  calling  at  the  site  were  Red-eyed  Dove  S. 
semitorquata,  Speckled  Pigeon  Columba  guinea.  Black-billed  Wood  Dove  Turtur 
abyssinicus,  and  Bruce’s  Green  Pigeon  Treron  waalia. 

Calls  of  the  Gambian  dove  were  compared  with  calls  recorded  by  RBP  at  Taboru 
on  the  Jos  Plateau,  Nigeria  (Fig.  Î).  Although  recording  conditions  differed,  the  calls 
appear  to  be  identical.  Calls  of  the  Nigerian  bird  consisted  of  two  long  phrases  and  a 


38 


Short  Notes 


Maiimbus  22 


2 


1 


0- 

2 


N 

î 1 


0- 

I 1 1 1 1 

0 1.0  2.0  3.0  4.0  s 

Figure  1.  Audiospectrographs  of  Streptopelia  hypopyrrhai  above,  two  songs  at 
Taboru,  Nigeria;  below,  two  songs  at  Kunkilling  Forest  Reserve,  The  Gambia. 

third  short  phrase:  a deep  purring  “croorr,  croorr  croo”,  taking  2. 2-2.4  s.  The  purr  has 
a peak  amplitude  around  0.45  kHz,  the  pulse  rate  is  30  elements  per  s,  and  the  phrases 
are  0.70,  0.70  and  0.44  s long.  The  third  phrase  has  a smaller  frequency  envelope.  The 
gap  between  the  first  two  phrases  is  0.40-0.43  s,  and  between  the  second  and  third 
phrases  0.30  s.  In  the  Nigerian  bird,  the  first  phrase  increases  in  amplitude  and  pitch 
through  the  first  half,  the  second  phrase  slightly  decreases  in  amplitude  and  pitch  at 
the  end,  and  the  third  phrase  is  more  whistled,  less  pulsed,  and  decreases  in  pitch  and 
has  a terminal  pulse.  These  details  are  not  apparent  in  the  Gambia  bird,  where  the  call 
was  distorted  by  distance  and  reverberations  in  the  field.  The  calls  are  like  those  of  the 
perch  call  of  S.  hypopyrrha  illustrated  and  measured  by  Slabbekoorn  et  al.  (1999), 
though  their  call  lacked  the  third  phrase;  the  presence  of  a third  phrase  varied  in  the 
Gambia  calls. 

Calls  of  S.  hypopyrrha  were  compared  with  calls  of  other  individuals  of  this  and 
other  species  of  dove  in  W Africa  (Chappuis  1974,  Urban  et  ai  1986).  No  other  W 
African  doves  have  a purred  call  marked  by  low  pitch  and  slow  delivery  of  three 
phrases,  the  first  two  each  longer  than  the  third  phrase,  and  all  three  on  the  same  pitch. 
In  particular,  the  excitement  and  perch  call  of  S.  turtur  has  only  two  phrases,  the  first 
increasing  in  amplitude  through  its  first  half  (as  in  Nigerian  S.  hypopyrrha)  and  the 
second  of  a constant  amplitude,  while  its  nest  call  is  a series  of  three  purred  phrases 


» I : I I 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


39 


with  the  first  shortest  and  the  last  longest  (Wood  1975,  Cramp  1985).  Both  calls  are 
higher  in  pitch  (0.7  kHz)  than  the  Taboru  and  Kunkilling  doves,  which  have  a low 
pitch  like  the  larger  Wood  Pigeon  Columba  palumbus  but  a different  song  structure.  S. 
turtur  is  common  in  dry  country  in  a belt  across  sub-saharan  Africa  from  Senegal  to 
Ethiopia  (Urban  et  al  1986)  and  occurs  in  The  Gambia  in  winter  (Barlow  et  aL  1997), 
in  more  open  habitat  than  Kunkilling.  It  generally  does  not  call  in  W Africa  and  it  is 
not  known  to  call  in  The  Gambia.  Dusky  Turtle  Dove  S.  lugens  of  E Africa  is  similar 
and  closely  related  to  S.  hypopyrrha;  its  call  is  a bisyllabic  “koo-or,  koo-oor” 
(Someren  1956,  Goodwin  1983),  unlike  the  calls  in  The  Gambia.  In  addition  to  its 
“croorr,  croorr  croo”,  S.  hypopyrrha  also  has  a higher-pitched  “croorr  crr-croor”  with 
a short  second  phrase  (Wood  1975,  Urban  et  al.  1986);  we  did  not  hear  this  call. 

Measurements  of  the  bird  captured  in  Senegal  were  reported  to  differ  from  those 
of  S.  hypopyrrha  taken  in  Nigeria  and  Cameroon  (Bâillon  1992).  The  Senegal  bird 
had  the  tail  129  mm  and  bill  17  mm  (measured  by  Bâillon),  whereas  four  specimens 
from  Nigeria  and  Cameroon  in  the  Tring  museum  had  tails  of  123-126  and  bills  21- 
23  (measured  by  P.  Colston,  in  Bâillon  1992);  measurements  by  other  workers  of 
Tring  specimens  had  no  tail  greater  than  125  and  no  bill  greater  than  18  (Urban  et  al. 
1986).  Because  measurements  of  what  may  have  been  the  same  specimens  made  by 
different  ornithologists  differed  as  much  as  those  between  the  Senegal  bird  and  either 
set  of  museum  measurements,  Baillon’s  (1992)  idea  that  the  western  birds  were 
perhaps  a species  distinct  from  eastern  S.  hypopyrrha  is  unsupported.  Calls  of  the 
dove  recorded  in  The  Gambia  do  not  differ  from  calls  recorded  in  Nigeria,  and  there  is 
no  behavioural  evidence  that  these  western  birds  are  different.  In  habitat  the  bird  is  in 
riverine  forest  and  planted  exotic  trees  around  residences  and  gardens  in  Nigeria  and 
Cameroon  (Urban  et  al.  1986),  while  it  is  in  lowland  riverine  forest  in  The  Gambia. 

The  occurrence  of  S.  hypopyrrha  in  The  Gambia  and  Senegal  extends  the 
previously  known  range  by  more  than  1000  km.  It  is  otherwise  known  only  from 
northern  Nigeria,  Cameroon  and  SW  Chad  (Louette  1981,  Urban  et  al.  1986,  Morel  & 
Morel  1990,  Elgood  et  al.  1994),  with  one  record  in  Togo  (Cheke  & Walsh  1989).  In 
The  Gambia,  CRB  has  seen  and  heard  them  call  in  November  and  March,  Borrow ’s 
(1997)  observations  were  from  November  and  February,  and  the  Senegal  observation 
was  in  April  (Bâillon  1992).  These  dates  occur  during  the  season  when  they  breed  in 
Nigeria  and  Cameroon  (Bates  1930,  Bannerman  1931,  Urban  et  al.  1986);  in  Nigeria 
they  are  resident  throughout  the  year  (Elgood  et  al.  1994).  This  suggests  that  the 
doves  in  The  Gambia  and  Senegal  are  not  migrants  from  the  east.  Perhaps  the 
quietness  of  the  call  of  this  dove  has  been  responsible  for  its  having  been  overlooked 
earlier  in  W Africa,  and  it  should  be  searched  for  also  in  Guinea  and  Guinea-Bissau. 
We  thank  Mark  Hopkins,  Phil  Hall,  John  Barker  and  Joy  Agbor  for  assistance  with 
recordings  in  Nigeria.  In  The  Gambia,  the  Department  of  Parks  and  Wildlife 
Management  Research  and  the  Development  Office  allowed  research,  and  the 
Director  Mr.  A.  Danso  of  the  Forestry  Department  allowed  access  to  Kunkilling.  We 
thank  S.  de  Kort,  R.J.  Dowsett,  S.  Keith  and  the  editor  for  comments. 


40 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


References 

Bâillon,  F.  (1992)  Sîreptopelia  cf.  hypopyrrha,  nouvelle  espèce  de  tourterelle  pour  le 
Sénégal.  Oiseau  Rev.fr.  Orn.  62:  320—334. 

Bannerman,  D.A.  (1931)  The  Birds  of  Tropical  West  Africa,  vol.  2.  Crown  Agents, 
London. 

Barlow,  C.,  Wacher,  T.  & Disley,  T.  (1997)  A Field  Guide  to  Birds  of  The  Gambia 
and  Senegal.  Pica  Press,  Robertsbridge. 

Bates,  G.L.  (1930)  Handbook  of  the  Birds  of  West  Africa.  John  Bale,  Sons  & 
Danielsson,  London. 

Borrow,  N.  (1997)  Red-crested  Bustard  Eupodotis  ruficrista  and  Adamawa  Turtle 
Dove  Streptopelia  hypopyrrha,  new  to  the  Gambia,  and  sightings  of  Great  Snipe 
Gallinago  media.  Malimbus  19:  36-38. 

Chappuis,  C.  (1974)  Les  Oiseaux  de  l'Ouest  Africain,  Disque  1 (Columbidae  et 
Cuculidae).  Alauda,  Paris. 

Cheke,  R. a.  & Walsh,  J. F.  (1989)  Westward  range  extension  into  Togo  of  the 

Adamawa  Turtle  Dove  Streptopelia  hypopyrrha.  Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club  109:  47-48. 
Cramp,  S.  (ed.)  (1985)  The  Birds  of  the  Western  Palearctic,  vol.  4.  Oxford  University 

Press,  Oxford. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E., 
Skinner,  N. J.  (1994)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria,  2nd  ed.  Checklist  4,  British 
Ornithologists’  Union,  Tring. 

Goodwin,  D.  (1983)  Pigeons  and  Doves  of  the  World.  3rd  ed.  British  Museum 

(Natural  History),  London. 

Louette,  M.  (1981)  The  Birds  of  Cameroon.  An  annotated  check-list.  Verhandel. 

Koninkl.  Acad.  Wetensch.  Lett.  Sch.  Kunst.  Belg.,  Klasse  Wetensch.  43(163). 
Morel,  G.J.  & Morel,  M.-Y.  (1990)  Les  Oiseaux  de  Sénégambie.  ORSTOM,  Paris. 
Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (eds)  (1986)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol. 2. 
Academie  Press,  London. 

Slabbekoorn,  h.,  de  Kort,  s.  & TEN  Cate,  C.  (1999)  Comparative  analysis  of 
perch-coo  vocalizations  in  Streptopelia  doves.  Auk  1 16:  737-748. 

SOMEREN,  V.G.L.  VAN  (1956)  Days  with  birds.  Fieldiana  Zool.  38. 

Wood,  B.  (1975)  Observations  on  the  Adamawa  Turtle  Dove.  Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club 
95:  68-73. 

Received  6 November  1999 
Revised  22  November  1999 

Robert  B.  Payne',  Clive  R.  Barlow^  & Tim  Wacher^ 
'Museum  of  Zoology  and  Dept  of  Biology,  Univ.  of  Michigan, 
Ann  Arbor,  Michigan,  U.S.A.;  email:  rbpayne@umich.edu 
^Birds  of  the  Gambia  Co.  Ltd,  Atlantic  Hotel,  P.O.  Box  296,  Banjul,  The  Gambia 
^The  Zoological  Society  of  London,  Regent’s  Park,  London  NWl  4RY,  U.K. 


2000 


41 


Reviews  — Revues 


Stratégie  Préliminaire  poor  le  Suivi  des  Oiseaux  d’Eau  en  Afrique.  Ed.  by  T. 
Dodman,  1997.  175  pp.  Publ.  43,  Wetlands  International,  Wageningen.  ISBN  I- 
900442-14-0. 

This  report  is  the  proceedings  of  a workshop  in  Senegal  in  1996  on  the  development 
of  waterbird  counts  and  conservation  in  Africa.  The  contributions  of  about  20  authors 
form  a valuable  compilation  and  evaluation  of  the  research  on  numbers,  distribution 
and  ecology  of  Palaearctic  and  Afrotropical  Anatidae,  since  the  initial  Sahel  zone 
work  done  by  Francis  Roux  and  Guy  Jarry  from  the  mid-1950s  and  the  coordinated 
censuses  of  Palaearctic  waterfowl  populations,  initiated  by  Wetlands  International  (in 
its  former  guise  as  IWRB),  in  1967. 

An  introductory  chapter  explains  the  lack  of  international  strategy  for  research  on 
wetland  conservation  on  the  African  continent,  and  that  increased  coordination  would 
improve  the  probability  of  achieving  research  and  conservation  goals.  Chapter  2 
reviews  the  work  done  on  wildfowl  counts  and  its  implications  for  conservation. 
Research  on  Anatidae  and  Ardeidae  is  singled  out  as  particularly  important.  Other 
chapters  deal  with  the  international  politics  of  wildfowl  conservation  (Ramsar  and 
Bonn  conventions),  and  international  programmes  for  monitoring  trends  in  waterbirds 
in  Africa,  proposed  or  initiated  by  the  French  working  group  on  migratory  West 
Palaearctic  birds  (OMPO)  and  Office  National  de  la  Chasse,  WIWO  in  the 
Netherlands,  and  BirdLife  International.  A further  section  deals  with  the  organization 
of  waterbird  counts  and  their  objectives,  in  Kenya,  Tanzania,  Uganda,  Ghana,  Sierra 
Leone,  Niger  and  Senegal. 


Ernst  P.R.  Poorter 


Centres  of  Plant  Diversity.  Volume  1:  Europe,  Africa,  South  West  Asia  and  the 
Middle  East.  Ed.  By  S.D.  Davis,  V.H.  Hey  wood  & A.C.  Hamilton,  1994.  354  pp., 
several  maps  and  photos.  WWF  and  lUCN,  Gland.  ISBN  2-831 7-0 197-X,  hardback, 
£30. 

The  important  project  of  which  this  is  the  first  of  three  volumes,  parallels,  for  plants, 
the  Endemic  Bird  Area  analyses  published  by  BirdLife  International.  It  attempts  to 
identify  and  highlight  plant  diversity  and  endemism  hotspots  around  the  world,  taking 
into  account  not  only  numbers  of  species  present  in  an  area  and  number  of  endemics 
but  also  degree  of  threat  (amount  of  habitat/site  destroyed),  gene  pool  of  value  to 


42 


Reviews 


Malimbus  22 


man,  diversity  of  habitats,  and  presence  of  specialist  species.  Most  of  the  top 
continental  sites  have  over  1000  vascular  plant  species  and  over  100  endemics.  Island 
sites  chosen  have  over  50  species  or  10%  of  the  flora  endemic. 

The  introductory  section  describes  the  project  itself,  and  summarises  global 
patterns  of  diversity  and  endemism.  Some  of  the  arguments  are  a little  tenuous  due  to 
shortage  of  data,  such  as  the  calculations  of  continental  diversity  and  endemism  on 
pp.  7-"8;  throughout  the  book  the  lack  of  data  compared  with  what  we  have  for  birds 
is  evident.  Only  15%  of  the  234  top  global  sites  are  considered  reasonably  safe. 

Sites  are  termed  “sites”  where  the  whole  area  needs  to  be  conserved;  “floristic 
province”  or  “vegetation  type”  is  used  for  larger  areas  where  a network  of  reserves  is 
required.  This  distinction  leads  to  much  inconsistency  and  is  perhaps  not  very  useful 
in  practice:  some  “sites”  such  as  a montane  area,  could  equally  be  protected  by  a 
reserve  network,  while  floristic  provinces  and  vegetation  types  would  better  be 
broken  down  into  sites  so  that  we  can  really  see  what  needs  to  be  protected.  The 
choice  of  the  top  234  sites  that  are  given  detailed  “data-sheef’  treatment  is  open  to 
criticism.  Some  bias  according  to  the  authors'  and  editors’  regional  knowledge  and 
specialisation  is  evident,  and  others  of  us  may  wonder  why  our  favourite  sites,  that 
easily  meet  the  stated  criteria  (such  as  Sao  Tomé),  are  not  included,  while  others  that 
might  seem  less  valuable  (such  as  St  Helena  with  only  60  species,  although  50  are 
admittedly  endemic)  are.  Why  include  East  Usambara  but  not  West  Usambara  nor 
others  of  the  Eastern  Arc  chain  of  montane  isolates?  In  Sierra  Leone,  why  include 
Loma  and  Gola  but  not  Western  Area  and  Tingi?  The  approach  also  leads  to  some 
neglect  of  the  conservation  requirements  of  widespread  but  rare  species,  as 
recognized  in  the  similar  EBA  process. 

The  list  of  the  top  234  sites  is  excellent  for  lobbying  purposes,  and  can  usefully 
be  combined  with  the  EBA  results,  but  it  inevitably  obscures  the  fact  that,  even  if  all 
234  were  fully  protected,  we  could  still  lose  a large  proportion  of  plant  diversity.  This 
could  only  be  preserved  by  protecting  the  “lesser”  sites  (including  such  gems  as  the 
Gulf  of  Guinea  islands),  which  are  seriously  neglected  by  the  chosen  approach.  Most 
of  the  famous  African  sites  are  mentioned  in  the  regional  table  (Table  25)  but  only  30 
of  84  are  given  data-sheet  treatment.  The  others  should  have  had  more  attention 
drawn  to  them,  such  as  by  mapping;  as  it  is,  the  few  (whole-continent)  maps  show 
only  the  data-sheet  sites.  More  emphasis  on  the  “lesser”  sites  would  have  made  the 
book  a much  more  useful  conservation  tool.  It  is  also  a pity  that,  even  for  the  data- 
sheet sites,  site  maps  are  presented  for  very  few;  maps  readily  place  a site  in  context 
and  leave  a more  lasting  impression,  and  maps  for  every  site  could  have  been  a 
valuable  feature. 

The  overview  section  on  Africa  is  good,  dealing  with  vegetation  types,  factors 
influencing  them,  flora  and  threats.  The  African  protected  area  system  is  shown  to 
give  much  poorer  protection  to  plant  species  than  to  birds:  the  protected  areas  are 
mostly  in  savannas  and  neglect  the  forests. 


2000 


Revues 


43 


In  summary,  although  the  book  is  marked  by  inconsistency  in  the  basics  of  the 
approach,  this  does  not  destroy  its  value  as  a conservation  planning  tool  and  as  a 
useful  comparison  with  EBAs.  Hopefully  a future  edition  will  be  able  to  draw  on 
better  information,  take  a broader  view  and  present  a more  complete  and  balanced 
picture.  Most  of  the  above  criticism  refers  to  shortcomings  that  are  perhaps  inevitable 
in  a first  review  of  a comparatively  poorly  known  group  of  organisms  (compared  to 
birds,  at  any  rate);  the  book  is  definitely  worth  acquiring  by  anyone  concerned  with 
comparative  biogeography  or  conservation  planning  and  will  serve  as  a very  useful 
basis  for  further  research. 


Alan  Tye 


Also  received: 

The  Atlas  of  European  Mammals.  By  A.J.  Mitchell-Jones,  G.  Amori,  W. 
Bogdanowicz,  B.  Krystufek,  P.J.H.  Reijnders,  F.  Spitzenberger,  M.  Stubbe,  J.B.M. 
Thissen,  V.  Vohralik  & J.  Zima,  1999.  484  pp.,  many  maps.  Academic  Press, 
London.  ISBN  0-85661  = 130-1,  hardback,  £37.50. 

An  excellent  dot  atlas  based  on  50  x 50  km  cells,  covering  Europe  except  Russia, 
Byelorussia,  Ukraine  and  Moldova,  and  dealing  with  all  species  found  in  Europe 
including  introduced  ones. 


Alan  Tye 


44 


Malimbus  22 


News  & Letters  — - Nouvelles  & Lettres 


Tenth  Pan-African  Ornithological  Congress,  Kampala,  3-8  Sep  2000 

The  Pan-African  Ornithological  Congress  is  a quadrennial  meeting  that  brings 
together  people  interested  in  the  study  and  conservation  of  African  birds.  The  first 
congress  was  held  in  Livingstone,  Zambia  in  1957  and  subsequent  ones  have  been 
held  in  other  African  countries.  The  objective  of  the  PAOC  is  to  promote  research  on 
Africa’s  birds  and  enhance  their  survival  through  conservation  and  raising  awareness. 

The  tenth  PAOC  will  be  held  in  Kampala,  Uganda  from  the  afternoon  of  3 
September  to  the  evening  of  8 September  2000.  The  theme  of  this  congress  is  “Birds 
and  Biodiversity”,  highlighting  the  important  role  played  by  birds  and  research  on 
birds  in  promoting  the  understanding  and  conservation  of  biodiversity.  The  congress 
is  being  organized  by  NatureUganda  the  BirdLife  partner  in  Uganda.  NatureUganda  is 
a membership  organisation  promoting  the  understanding,  appreciation  and 
conservation  of  nature  in  Uganda.  The  congress  is  bilingual  (French  and  English)  and 
will  comprise  plenary  sessions,  oral  and  poster  contributions  and  round-table 
discussions.  All  people  involved  in  the  study  and  conservation  of  African  birds  are 
invited  to  attend  the  congress.  Uganda  has  very  high  bird  species  diversity  (over  1010 
species)  for  a country  of  only  236,000  km^.  Her  tropical  conditions  are  somewhat 
ameliorated  by  the  high  altitude,  giving  cooler  and  more  pleasant  birding  conditions. 
Interesting  pre-,  mid-  and  post-congress  excursions  are  organized.  Special  daily  very- 
early  morning  bird-walks  are  also  possible. 

All  correspondence  concerning  registration  and  logistics  should  be  sent  to:  PAOC 
10  Organising  Committee,  NatureUganda,  PO  Box  27034,  Kampala.  Tel:  +256  41 
540719;  fax:  +256  41  533528;  email:  <eanhs@imul.com>. 

Abstracts  and  correspondence  on  the  scientific  programme  should  be  sent  to:  Dr. 
Luc  Lens,  Chairman  of  PAOC  10  Scientific  Committee,  Laboratory  of  Animal 
Ecology,  Department  of  Biology,  University  of  Antwerp,  Belgium.  Tel:  +32  3 
8202262;  fax:  +32  3 8202271;  email:  <llens@uia.ua.ac.be>. 

Registration  fees:  Early  (before  30  April  2000)  US  $ 300;  Late  (after  1 May  2000) 
US  $ 400;  Students  (proof  of  student  status,  e.g.  letter  from  head  of  department, 
required)  US  $ 200;  Daily  fee  US  $ 60;  Accompanying  Persons  US  $ 180. 


Un  magazine  d’ornithologie  africain 

C’est  avec  plaisir  que  nous  avons  appris  que  le  premier  numéro  de  La  Cigogne  vient 

de  paraître.  Il  s’agit  d’un  magazine,  publié  par  le  Centre  de  Recherche  Ornithologique 
et  de  l’Environnement  du  Bénin  et  dirigé  par  notre  collègue  Jacques  B.  Adjakpa,  qui  a 


2000 


Nouvelles  & Lettres 


45 


pour  objet  de  promouvoir  l’ornithologie  dans  ce  pays,  en  particulier  pour  les  enfants. 
Son  titre  est  une  référence  à la  Cigogne  d’Abdim,  sujet  d’étude  de  ce  chercheur.  Nous 
lui  souhaitons  bon  accueil. 


Gérard  J.  Morel 


Écrivons  en  français 

Lors  de  la  dernière  réunion  du  Conseil  de  SOOA  (juillet  1999),  notre  Rédacteur  a 
constaté  une  diminution  marquée  du  nombre  d’articles  en  français.  Pourtant,  C.  Hilary 
Fry  Rédacteur  d’alors,  dans  le  numéro  2 de  1979,  constatait  qu’il  lui  était  alors  soumis 
à peu  près  le  même  nombre  de  manuscrits  dans  les  deux  langues.  Et  il  écrivait  que  si 
les  lecteurs  de  langue  anglaise  se  sentaient  “menacés”,  il  leur  appartenait  de  redresser 
la  situation  en  augmentant  la  soumission  d’articles  en  anglais.  Mais,  Hilary  n’avait 
peut-être  pas  prévu  que  quelques  années  plus  tard  l’équilibre  se  trouverait  renversé  au 
profit  de  l’anglais.  C’est  ainsi  que  dans  Malimbus  17(1)  (1995),  j’exprimais  déjà  mon 
étonnement  que  certains  auteurs  francophones  écrivaient  leurs  articles  en  anglais 
même  s’il  s’agissait  d’observations  faites  en  pays  francophones.  Depuis  1995,  cette 
tendance  n’a  fait  que  s’accélérer.  Je  me  hâte  d’ajouter  que,  quoi  qu’il  en  soit,  notre 
Rédacteur  continuera  à accepter  les  articles  dans  les  deux  langues. 


Gérard  J.  Morel,  Président 


46 


Malimbus  22 


Society  Notices  — Informations  de  la  Société 


Back  numbers  of  the  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists"  Society 

The  Librarian  of  the  Scottish  Ornithologists'  Club  has  written  to  say  that  they  have  a 
complete  set  of  the  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists  ’ Society.  Photocopies  can 
be  supplied  at  10  p per  page,  on  application  to:  S.O.C.,  21  Regent  Terrace,  Edinburgh 
EH7  5BT,  U.K. 

The  S.O.C.  is  not  aware  of  the  origin  of  their  set  of  the  Bull.  NOS.  Most  likely  it 
was  presented  by  a member  of  that  Society,  Mr  V.S.  Maclelland  (now  deceased). 

R.E.  Sharland 


W.A«0*S,  Research  Grants 

This  is  to  remind  researchers  on  W African  birds  that  the  Society  makes  grants  of  up 
to  £500  for  research  projects  that  meet  certain  criteria.  Full  details  were  published  in 
Malimbus  15(2),  and  are  available  from  the  Secretary  (address  inside  front  cover). 

Bourses  de  recherches  de  la  S.O.O.A. 

Ceci  est  pour  rappeler  aux  chercheurs  sur  les  oiseaux  de  l’Ouest  africain  que  la  Soci- 
été octroie  des  bourses  d’un  montant  maximal  de  500£  pour  des  projets  de  recherche 
qui  satisfont  à certains  critères.  Tous  les  détails  ont  été  publiés  dans  Malimbus  15(2), 
et  peuvent  être  obtenus  chez  le  Secrétaire  (adresse  au  verso  de  la  couverture). 


Next  general  meeting  of  the  Society^  Uganda  2000 

It  is  proposed  to  organize  a meeting  of  the  Society  at  the  forthcoming  Pan-African 
Ornithological  Congress  (see  details  p.  44  of  this  issue).  Would  WAOS  members 
intending  to  attend  the  PAOC  please  inform  either  the  President  or  the  Meetings 
Secretary  (addresses  inside  front  cover). 

Prochaine  réunion  générale  de  la  Société,  Ouganda  2000 

La  Société  se  propose  d’organiser  une  réunion  au  prochain  Congrès  Panafricain 
d’Ornithologie  (pour  les  détails,  voir  p.  44  de  cette  livraison).  Nous  serions  obligés 


2000 


Informations  de  la  Société 


47 


envers  les  abonnés  qui  ont  l’intention  d’assister  au  PAOC  de  le  faire  savoir  soit  au 
Président  soit  au  Secrétaire  des  Réunions  (adresses  au  verso  de  la  couverture). 


A new  member  of  Council 

During  the  Council  meeting  in  London  in  July  1999,  Roger  Wilkinson  advised  of  his 

difficulty  in  carrying  out  all  of  the  duties  of  the  Secretary,  due  to  other  commitments. 
It  was  therefore  decided  to  create  a new  post  of  Meetings  Secretary,  to  take  on  some 
of  these  duties.  We  welcome  onto  Council  Dr  Hazell  Shokellu  Thompson,  who  takes 
up  this  new  office.  Hazell  will  take  responsibility  for  arranging  meetings  of  the 
Society’s  members  and  will  also  assist  the  Treasurer  and  Membership  Secretary,  Bob 
Sharland,  in  maintaining  the  membership  lists.  Roger  Wilkinson  continues  as 
Secretaiy,  with  responsibility  for  administering  the  WAOS  Research  Grant  scheme 
and  Council  meetings. 

Hazell  is  Sierra  Leonean,  and  was  trained  in  Zoology  at  Fourah  Bay  College, 
University  of  Sierra  Leone,  where  he  then  took  up  a lectureship  while  working  for  his 
MSc  (on  mannikins  Lonchura  spp.)  and  latterly  his  PhD  (on  Picathartes 
gymnocephalus).  He  is  currently  working  for  BirdLife  International  in  Cambridge. 

As  regards  contact  points  for  members,  Bob  Sharland  remains  the  person  with 
whom  members  should  correspond  regarding  their  subscriptions,  and  whom  anyone 
wishing  to  join  the  Society  should  contact.  Questions  regarding  research  grants 
should  continue  to  be  addressed  to  Roger  Wilkinson,  while  suggestions  for  meetings, 
or  questions  regarding  attendance  at  meetings,  should  be  addressed  to  Hazell 
Thompson.  Their  addresses  are  inside  the  front  cover  of  each  issue  of  Malimbus. 

Un  nouveau  membre  du  Conseil 

Au  cours  de  la  réunion  du  Conseil  à Londres,  en  juillet  1999,  Roger  Wilkinson  a 
reconnu  la  difficulté  d’assurer  convenablement  son  travail  de  Secrétaire,  compte  tenu 
de  ses  autres  obligations;  nous  avons  donc  été  décidé  de  créer  le  poste  de  Secrétaire 
Adjoint  pour  le  soulager  d’une  partie  de  sa  tâche.  Nous  accueillons  au  Conseil  le  Dr 
Hazell  Shokellu  Thompson,  qui  prend  le  nouveau  poste.  Hazell  aura  la  responsabilité 
d’organiser  les  réunions  de  la  Société  et  d’aider  le  Trésorier  et  le  Secrétaire  aux 
Adhésions,  Bob  Sharland,  en  tenant  à jour  la  liste  des  membres.  Roger  Wilkinson 
continuera  comme  Secrétaire,  responsable  de  l’administration  des  Bourses  de 
Recherches  de  la  SOOA  et  des  Réunions  du  Conseil. 

Hazell  est  Sierra  Léonais,  et  acquit  sa  formation  de  Zoologiste  à Fourah  Bay 
College,  Université  de  Sierra  Leone,  où  il  fut  ensuite  assistant  tout  en  préparant  son 
mémoire  de  maîtrise  (sur  les  Capucins  Lonchura  spp.)  et  récemment  sa  thèse  de 


48 


Society  Notices 


Malimbus  22 


doctorat  (sur  Picathartes  gymnocephalus).  Il  travaille  actuellement  pour  BirdLife 
Internationa!  à Cambridge. 

En  ce  qui  concerne  les  rapports  avec  les  membres,  Bob  Sharland  reste  celui  à qui 
les  adhérents  doivent  s'adresser  pour  leurs  abonnements  et  que  toute  personne 
désireuse  d'adhérer  à la  société  doit  contacter.  Les  questions  relatives  aux  bourses  de 
recherches  doivent  toujours  être  posées  à Roger  Wilkinson,  tandis  que  les  suggestions 
pour  les  réunions  et  les  questions  ayant  pour  objet  leur  inscription  à celles-ci  doivent 
être  adressées  à Hazell  Thompson.  Leurs  adresses  figurent  à l’intérieur  de  couverture 
de  chaque  numéro  de  Malimbus. 


Instructions  to  Authors 


s 


Malimbus  publishes  Papers,  Short  Notes,  Reviews,  News  & Letters,  and  illustrative  material 
covering  the  field  of  West  African  ornithology. 

Papers  and  Short  Notes  cover  original  contributions;  material  published  elsewhere,  in 
whole  or  in  part,  will  not  normally  be  accepted.  Short  Notes  are  articles  not  exceeding  1 500 
words  (including  references)  or  three  printed  pages  in  length.  Wherever  possible,  manuscripts 
should  first  have  been  submitted  to  atJeast  one  ornithologist  or  biologist  for  critical  scrutiny. 
Manuscripts  will  be  sent  for  critical  review  to  at  least  one  relevant  authority. 

Items  for  News  & Letters  should  not  exceed  1000  words. 

Contributions  are  accepted  in  English  or  French;  editorial  assistance  will  be  made 
available  to  authors  whose  first  language  is  not  one  of  these.  Two  copies  are  required,  typed  on 
one  side  of  the  paper,  with  double  spacing  and  wide  margins.  Dot-matrix  printouts  will  only  be 
accepted  if  they  are  of  “near-letter”  quality.  Initial  submissions  by  e-mail  are  not  normally 
accepted;  authors  should  not  send  a diskette  copy  of  their  initial  submission,  but  are  requested 
to  indicate  whether  they  can  send  a diskette  or  e-mail  copy  if  their  paper  is  accepted.  Diskettes 
will  be  returned  to  authors.  Consult  the  editor  for  further  details,  e.g.  for  acceptable  software. 

Conventions  regarding  tabular  material,  numbers,  metric  units,  references,  etc.  ma}^be 
found  in  this  issue  and  should  be  adhered  to  carefully.  Note  particularly  the  following;  dates 
should  be  in  the  form  2 Feb  1990  but  months  standing  alone  in  text  may  be  written  in  full; 
times  of  day  are  written  6h45,  17h32;  coordinates  are  written  in  the  form  7°46'N,  16'’4'E; 
numbers  up  to  ten  are  written  in  full,  except  when  followed  by  abbreviated  units  {e.g.  6 m), 
numbers  fi’om  1 1 upwards  are  written  in  figures  except  at  the  beginning  of  a sentence.  All 
references  mentioned  in  the  article,  and  only  such,  must  be  entered  in  the  bibliography. 

Avifaunal  articles  must  contain  a map  or  gazetteer,  including  all  localities  mentioned. 
They  should  include  brief  notes  on  climate,  topography,  vegetation,  and  conditions  or  unusual 
events  prior  to  or  during  the  study  {e.g.  late  rains  etc.).  Species  lists  should  include  only 
significant  information;  full  lists  are  justified  only  for  areas  previously  unstudied  or  unvisited 
for  many  years.  Otherwise,  include  only  species  for  which  the  study  provides  new  information 
on  range,  period  of  residence,  breeding  etc.  For  each  species,  indicate  migratory  status,  period 
of  residence  (as  shown  by  the  study),  range  extensions,  an  assessment  of  abundance  {Malimbus 
17:  36)  and  dated  breeding  records.  Where  appropriate,  set  data  in  context  by  brief  comparison 
with  an  authoritative  regional  checklist.  Lengthy  species  lists  should  be  in  tabular  form  {e.g. 
Malimbus  12:  39-51,  1:  22-28,  or  1:  49-54)  or  of  the  textual  format  of  recent  issues  (e.g. 
Malimbus  12:  19-24,  12:  61-86,  13:  49-66,  16:  10-29).  The  taxonomic  sequence  and 
scientific  names  (and  preferably  also  vernacular  names)  should  follow  Dowsett  & Forbes- 
Watson  (1993,  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  Afrotropical  and  Malagasy  Regions,  Tauraco  Press, 
Liège)  or  The  Birds  of  Africa  (Brown  et  al.  1982,  Urban  et  al.  1986,  1997,  Fry  et  al.  1988, 
Keith  et  al.  1992,  Urban  et  al.  1998,  Academie  Press,  London),  unless  reasons  for  departure 
from  these  authorities  are  stated.  A more  complete  guide  for  authors  of  avifaunal  papers, 
including  the  preferred  abundance  scale,  appeared  in  Malimbus  17:  35-39.  A copy  may  be 
obtained  from  the  Editor,  who  will  be  happy  to  advise  on  the  presentation  of  specific  studies. 

Figures  should  be  prepared  as  for  final  reproduction,  allowing  for  20-50%  reduction, 
using  indian  ink  on  good  quality  white  paper  or  heavy  tracing,  and  adhesive  transfer  lettering  as 
appropriate.  Diagrams  produced  by  computer  programs  other  than  specialized  graphics 
packages,  and  by  printers  other  than  laser  printers,  are  rarely  of  acceptable  quality.  When® 
designing  Figures,  pay  attention  to  the  page-shape  of  Malimbus. 

All  Papers  (but  not  Short  Notes)  should  include  a Summary,  not  exceeding  5%  of  the 
paper’s  length.  The  Summary  should  include  brief  reference  to  major  findings  of  the  paper  and 
not  simply  review  what  was  done.  Summaries  will  be  published  in  both  English  and  French  and 
will  be  translated  as  appropriate  by  the  Editorial  Board. 

Ten  offprints  of  Papers  (but  not  of  Short  Notes)  will  be  sent  to  single  or  senior  authors, 
^gratis.  Offprints  will  not  be  stapled,  bound,  or  covered;  they  are  merely  cut  from  copies  of  the 
journal. 


THSON  AN 


AW  W 


B.R 


3 9088  00997  6713 
Malimbus  22(1)  Marcii  zuuo 

Contents  — Table  des  Matières 


The  birds  of  the  Parc  National  du  Haut  Niger,  Guinea. 

G.  Nikolaus 

Nouvelles  observations  de  six  espèces  d’oiseaux  au  Mali. 

P.  Spierenburg 

Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 

Birds  of  Waza  new  to  Cameroon:  corrigenda  and  addenda. 

P.  Scholte  & R.J.  Dowsett 

Comment  on  species  rejected  from  and  added  to  the  avifauna 
of  Bioko  Island  (Equatorial  Guinea).  A.  Moore 
Reply  to  Moore.  J.  Pérez  del  Val 

Colour  of  the  downy  young  and  notes  on  breeding  and  food 
of  the  Grasshopper  Buzzard  Butastur  rufipennis  in  Niger. 

J.  Brouwer,  W.C.  Mullié  & P.  Souvairan 
Adamawa  Turtle  Dove  Streptopelia  hypopyrrha  in  The  Gambia, 
with  comparison  of  its  calls  in  The  Gambia  and  Nigeria. 
R.B.  Payne,  C.R.  Barlow  & T.  Wacher 

Reviews  — Revues 


1-22 

23-28 


29-31 

31-33 

33-34 


34-37 

37-40 

41-43 


News  & Letters  — Nouvelles  & Lettres 


44-45 


Society  Notices  — Informations  de  la  Société 


ÉSÎfef'  iÂ' 


46-48 


16  7 ( , 

'm  5Î.S  ( 


Journal  of  the  West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Revue  de  la  Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


VOLUME  22  Number  2 
ISSN  0331-3689 


-lip 


West  African  Ornithological  Society 
Société  d’Ornithologie  de  l’Ouest  Africain 


•»  4 

'■1 


:C'v’ 


Conseil: 

Président:  Dr  Gérard  J.  Morel 
Vice^Président:  Prof.  C.  Hilary  Fry 
Trésorier  et  chargé  des  abonnements:  Robert  E.  Sharland 
Rédacteur  en  Chef:  Dr  Alan  Tye 
Membre  du  Conseil:  Dr  Max  Germain 
Secrétaire  du  Conseil:  Dr  Roger  Wilkinson 
Secrétaire  adjoint:  Dr  Hazell  S. S.  Thompson 


9 


Comité  de  Rédaction:  Dr  J.S.  Ash,  Dr  R.A.  Cheke,  G.D.  Field,  Dr  L.D.C.  Fishpool, 
A.A.  Green,  Dr  P J.  Jones,  Dr  G J.  Morel,  A.  Sauvage,  Dr  J.-M.  Thiollay,  Dr  T.  Wacher 
Distribution  de  Malimbus:  G.D.  Field 


La  correspondance  doit  être  adressée  comme  suit:  ‘i 

— au  Rédacteur  en  Chef  (CDRS,  Casilla  17-01-3891,  Quito,  Ecuador)  pour  les  pub-  I 

lications  dans  Malimbus,  y compris  éventuellement  des  photos  ou  des  dessins  au  trait;  î 

— au  Trésorier  (1  Fisher’s  Heron,  East  Mills,  Fordingbridge,  Hampshire,  SP6  2 JR,  < 

U.K.)  pour  les  abonnements,  les  questions  financières  et  les  numéros  anciens; 

— au  Secrétaire  du  Conseil  (Zoological  Gardens,  Chester  CH2  ILH,  U.K.)  pour  les 
demandes  des  Bourses  de  Recherches  de  la  Société; 

— au  Secrétaire  adjoint  (BirdLife,  Wellbrook  Court,  Girton  Road,  Cambridge  CB3 

ONH,  U. K.;  e-mail  hazell.thompson@birdlife.org.uk)  pour  la  présence  aux  réjummns^^^ 
ou  des  suggestions  pour  celles-ci. 

— au  Président  (1  Route  de  Sallenelles,  14860  Bréville-les-Monts,  France;  e-mail 
gmorel@mail.cpod.fr)  pour  les  questions  d’intérêt  général. 

La  Société  tire  son  origine  de  la  “Nigerian  Ornithologists’  Society”,  fondée  en  1964,;  ? 

Son  but  est  de  promouvoir  l’intérêt  scientifique  pour  les  oiseaux  de  l’Ouest  africain  et  J 

de  faire  avancer  l’ornithologie  de  ces  régions  principalement  au  moyen  de  sa  revue  : 

Malimbus  (anciennement  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian  Ornithologists'  Society). 


Les  demandes  d’adhésion  sont  les  bienvenues.  Les  cotisations  annuelles  sont  de  £10 
pour  les  Membres  Ordinaires  et  de  £25  pour  les  Sociétés  (les  cotisations  peuvent  être 
payées  en  £ sterling  au  Trésorier  ou  en  francs  français  au  Président).  Les  Membres 
Ordinaires  reçoivent  Malimbus  par  courrier  ordinaire  et  les  Sociétés  par  courrier 
aérien,  gratuitement.  Un  supplément  est  exigé  des  Membres  Ordinaires  pour  le 
courrier  aérien  (demander  au  Trésorier  le  tarif). 

Anciens  Numéros:  Les  Volumes  11-14  (1975-78)  du  Bulletin  of  the  Nigerian 
Ornithologists  ’ Society  (du  même  format  que  Malimbus)  sont  disponibles  à £ 2 par 
numéro  (£4  par  volume)  ou  £15  l’ensemble.  Les  Volumes  1-9  de  Malimbus  sont 
disponibles  à £3  par  numéro  (£6  par  volume)  et,  à partir  du  Vol.  10,  à £5  par  numéro 
(£10  par  volume).  On  peut  acheter  la  série  complète  des  Vols  1-22  de  Malimbus  au 
prix  spécial  de  £170.  Frais  de  port  et  emballage  sont  gratuits.  Veuillez  joindre  le 
paiement  à votre  commande  et  l’adresser  au  Trésorier. 


Bourses  de  Recherches  de  la  S.O.O.A.:  Les  conditions  à remplir  pour  les 
candidatures  se  trouvent  dans  Malimbus  15:  103-106  et  peuvent  être  obtenues  auprès 
du  Secrétaire  du  Conseil  (voir  adresse  ci-dessus). 


2000 


49 


Kordofan  Bush  Lark  Mirafra  cordofanica 
and  Desert  hurk  Ammomanes  deserti^ 

additions  to  the  avifauna  of  Burkina  Faso 

by  Lincoln  Fishpool',  Georges  Oueda^  & Prosper  Compaoré^ 

‘BirdLife  International,  Wellbrook  Court,  Girton  Road,  Cambridge  CB3  ONA,  UK 
fondation  Naturama,  01  BP  6133,  Ouagadougou  01,  Burkina  Faso 
^S.P.E.E.F.-Oudalan,  BP  07,  Gorom-Gorom,  Burkina  Faso 

Received  8 November  1999 

Summary 

Kordofan  Bush  Lark  Mirafra  cordofanica  and  Desert  Lark  Ammomanes 
deserti  are  reported  from  Burkina  Faso  for  the  first  time.  Kordofan  Bush  Lark 
was  found  in  association  with  the  grass  Schoenefeidia  gracilis,  and  recordings 
made  of  its  song  are,  apparently,  the  first  for  this  species.  The  Desert  Larks 
differed  in  coloration  from  that  of  the  nearest  recorded  subspecies,  while 
these  records  are  amongst  the  southernmost  for  the  species  in  West  Africa. 

Résumé 

L’Alouette  du  Cordofan  Mirafra  cordofanica  et  I’Ammomane  isabelline 
Ammomanes  deserti  ont  été  observées  pour  la  première  fois  au  Burkina  Faso. 
L’Alouette  du  Cordofan  fut  trouvée  en  association  avec  la  graminée 
Schoenefeidia  gracilis,  et  les  enregistrements  de  son  chant  sont, 
apparemment,  les  premiers  pour  cette  espèce.  L’Ammomane  isabelline 
différait  par  sa  couleur  de  la  plus  proche  sous-espèce  observée,  alors  que  ces 
observations  sont  les  plus  méridionales  pour  l’espèce  dans  l’Ouest  africain. 

Introduction 

During  the  course  of  a visit  to  the  Réserve  Partielle  du  Sahel,  northern  Burkina  Faso, 
in  June  1999,  two  lark  species  were  recorded,  which  appear  not  to  have  been 
previously  reported  from  the  country  (Dowsett  1993). 


Kordofan  Bush  Lark  Mirafra  cordofanica 

On  the  evening  of  16  June  1999  an  unfamiliar  lark  was  seen  to  the  north  of  the  village 
of  Déou,  some  10  km  south  of  Forage  Christine  at  about  14®52'N,  0°44'W.  Initial 


50 


L.  Fishpool  et  al. 


Maümbus  22 


impressions  were  that  the  bird  was  larger,  longer  tailed  and  more  brightly  coloured 
than  the  Singing  Bush  Larks  Mirafra  cantillans  which  had  been  seen  commonly  over 
the  course  of  the  preceding  few  days.  The  bird  was  re-located  the  next  morning  and 
the  following  details  noted. 

The  centres  of  the  feathers  of  the  upperparts  were  a striking,  pale  golden-rufous, 
with  paler,  sandy-coloured,  fairly  wide  fringes.  There  appeared  to  be  some  darker 
flecking  on  the  feathers  of  the  back  and  mantle.  The  crown  was  streaked,  the  ear 
coverts  pale  rufous.  A narrow,  ill-defined  darker  stripe  extended  behind  the  eye  but 
the  white  supercilium,  lores  and  the  area. below  the  eye  meant  that  overall  the  head 
was  conspicuously  pale,  especially  given  that  the  bill,  which  was  stubby  and 
relatively  strong  with  a decurved  culmen,  was  also  whitish.  The  central  tail  feathers 
were  concolorous  with  the  back  and  wings,  the  adjacent  tail  feathers  were  black,  or 
almost  so,  while  the  outermost  ones  were  white.  Below,  the  throat  was  white,  there 
was  a gorget  of  gingerish  streaks  on  the  upper  breast  (which  appeared  to  be  more 
marked  on  some  individuals  than  others)  while  the  belly  and  lower  breast  were  pale 
creamy  white.  The  legs  were  pale  pinkish.  Compared  with  M.  cantillans  it  seemed 
more  robust,  less  neat  and  compact.  From  subsequent  examination  of  skins  at  the 
Natural  History  Museum,  Tring  the  birds  were  identified  as  Kordofan  Bush  Larks 
Mirafra  cordofanica. 

The  habitat  was  an  area  of  gently  undulating,  reddish-coloured  sand,  patchily 
covered  with  a few  low  shrubs  and  dead  grasses,  in  which  Schoenefeldia  gracilis 
appeared  to  predominate.  All  the  grasses  were  dry,  with  bare  seed  heads,  since  they 
were  the  remains  of  the  previous  year’s  growth,  this  year’s  rains  having  barely  begun. 
Despite  this,  all  available  characters  support  the  determination  and  collected 
specimens  closely  resemble  the  illustration,  in  Andrews  (1956),  of  the  spikes  after  the 
fall  of  the  florets.  The  overall  “quality”  of  the  savanna  here,  however,  appeared  to  be 
relatively  high  since,  unlike  much  of  the  region,  there  was  little  evidence  of  heavy 
grazing  activity  by  domestic  stock,  presumably  because  of  distance  from  water 
sources. 

The  birds  were  vocally  active  and  what  later  proved  to  be  this  species  was  heard 
at  first  light  (around  4h40).  It  was  later  seen  singing  from  bare  sand  patches  between 
dead  grasses,  from  the  tops  of  bushes  at  2-3  m {Maerua  sp.)  and  from  aerial  song 
flights.  The  song  consisted  of  a sustained  series  of  short,  varied,  non-repeated 
phrases,  made  up  of  short  trills,  harsh  and  mellow  chirps  and  melodious,  whistled 
notes.  One  bird  sang  from  the  top  of  a bush  for  some  minutes,  after  which  it  took  off 
and  towered,  keeping  a more  or  less  constant  angle  to  its  point  of  departure  as  it 
extended  up  and  away  downwind.  It  then  remained  on  this  station,  but  for  some 
minor  lateral  movement,  at  an  altitude  of  perhaps  100  m,  and  stayed  aloft,  head  into 
the  wind,  on  rapid,  shallow,  fluttery  wing  beats  for  fully  35  minutes,  singing  all  the 
while.  After  some  time  it  became  clear  that  the  song  contained  a number  of  mimetic 
elements  including  White-faced  Duck  Dendrocygna  viduaia.  White-cheeked  Bee- 
eater  Merops  albicollis.  Grey  Woodpecker  Mesopicos  goertae  and  Tawny-flanked 


2000 


Larks  new  to  Burkina  Faso 


51 


Prinia  Prinia  subflava,  all  of  which  were  seen  in  the  area.  At  the  end  of  this  period  the 

bird  descended  to  land  on  the  ground  within  a few  metres  of  its  take-off  point. 

Sound  recordings  were  made  of  a perched  bird  (apparently  the  first  time  M 
cordofanica  has  been  recorded:  C.  Chappuis  in  litt.)  but  none  was  made  during  the 
aerial  cruise  since  it  was  felt  that  the  bird’s  altitude  and  the  strength  of  the  wind 
would  have  resulted  in  a recording  of  poor  quality.  This  decision  was,  in  retrospect,  a 
mistake  since  playback  of  the  recordings  subsequently  revealed  that  the  mimetic 
elements  were  only  or  mostly  confined  to  the  aerial  song. 

The  reddish  sand  habitat  concurs  with  previous  reports  of  its  association  with  this 
substrate  (Butler  1905,  Bannerman  1936,  Cave  & MacDonald  1955,  Salvan  1968, 
Nikolaus  1987,  Dean  et  al.  1992).  This  appears,  however,  to  be  the  first  time  the  bird 
has  been  noted  in  association  with  Schoenefeldia  gracilis.  The  two  other  grass  species 
with  which  the  lark  has  previously  been  reported  to  be  associated  are  Heskanit 
Cenchrus  biflorus  (=  C.  catharticus:  Butler  1905,  Bannerman  1936,  Cave  & 
MacDonald  1955),  and  Stipagrostis  uniplumis  (=^  Aristida  papposa:  Lynes  1924, 
Bannerman  1936,  Cave  & MacDonald  1955). 

No  other  lark  species  was  seen  in  the  immediate  vicinity;  nor  was  M cordofanica 
seen  other  than  in  this  apparently  limited  area.  It  is  of  interest  that  M cordofanica 
was  singing  despite  the  lack  of  rain,  while  M cantiUans,  seen  commonly  not  far 
away,  was  not. 

Desert  h2iY\i  Ammomanes  deserti 

A pair  of  larks  was  found  on  a rocky  outcrop  at  approximately  14°40'N,  0°0',  altitude 
c.  300  m,  some  5 km  north  of  the  town  of  Markoye  on  18  June  1999.  The  larks  were 
uniform,  unstreaked  dark  slate  grey  on  the  crown,  back,  mantle  and  wings;  the  ear 
coverts  were  slightly  paler  but  were  otherwise  also  unstreaked  grey.  There  was  a 
narrow  whitish  eye-ring,  fairly  conspicuous  against  the  face,  which  was  dark  and 
plain  except  for  a poorly  defined,  narrow,  dirty  white  supercilium  extending  behind 
the  eye,  over  a darker  line  through  the  eye.  The  flight  feathers  were  blackish  on  the 
inner  webs,  buffy  on  the  outer  ones.  There  were  a few  darker,  almost  black  spots  on 
the  median  coverts;  the  edges  of  the  greater  coverts  had  buffy  fringes.  The  tail 
feathers  were  likewise  black  on  the  inner  webs,  while  the  outer  webs,  at  least  in  the 
basal  half  of  the  outer  feathers,  were  a rich  rufous-chestnut.  Although  the  rump  was 
not  clearly  seen,  it  too  appeared  to  be  rufous-chestnut  and  black.  The  throat  was  dirty 
white,  with  some  darker  streaking  on  the  neck  and  upper  breast.  The  lower  breast  and 
belly  were  pale  centrally,  while  the  flanks  were  a conspicuous  buffy-tan.  The  bill  was 
prominent,  relatively  large,  and  of  a dirty  yellow  colour  except  for  a darker  line  along 
the  culmen.  The  eyes  were  black. 

The  isolated,  small  outcrop  on  which  they  were  discovered  rose  abruptly  from  the 
surrounding  stony  plain  to  a height  of  perhaps  20  m.  It  comprised  a jumble  of 


52 


L.  Fishpool  et  ai. 


Malimbus  22 


weathered,  granitic  boulders  and  rocks,  uniformly  battleship-grey  in  colour  which 
contrasted  conspicuously  with  the  yellows  and  browns  of  the  plain.  The  larks  were 
clearly  intimately  associated  with  this  habitat;  they  were  not  seen  to  leave  it  and  their 
overall  colour  closely  matched  that  of  the  rocks. 

The  birds  were  relatively  confiding,  allowing  good  views  through  a telescope  at 
close  range  as  they  foraged  in  the  sparse,  dry  vegetation  between  the  broken  rocks 
where  they  were  seen  to  catch  and  eat  acridid  grasshoppers,  at  least  one  of  which  was 
Harpezocatantops  stylifer.  They  appeared  relatively  large,  larger  than  the  locally 
common  M cantillans,  about  the  same  size  as  the  nearby  Grey-headed  Sparrows 
Passer  griseus.  The  pair  was  persistently  tracked  by  a White-throated  Bee-eater, 
which  left  its  perch  to  harass  one  or  other  whenever  it  caught  a grasshopper. 

A second  pair  was  later  found  in,  and  also  seemed  confined  to,  identical  habitat  at 
similar  altitude  6-7  km  southwest  of  Markoye  on  the  Gorom-Gorom  road,  at  about 
14®36'N,  0°2'E,  on  a higher,  more  extensive  hill  also  of  broken  granitic  boulders  and 
stones.  These  birds  often  perched  conspicuously  on  the  tops  of  rocks  when  they 
appeared  almost  thrush-like.  A third  bird  seen  later,  in  company  of  the  other  two,  was 
possibly  an  immature,  as  it  was  distinctly  browner  above  with  paler  spotting  on  the 
coverts.  They  made  “wheoo”  or  “weow”  contact  calls  as  they  foraged,  while  in  flight 
a soft,  rapidly  delivered  series  of  “tyup-tyup-tyup-tyup”  notes  was  heard.  Although 
we  were  present  at  dawn  on  19  June,  no  song  was  heard. 

While  these  birds  were  clearly  Desert  Larks  Ammomanes  deserti,  their  subspecific 
identity  is  less  apparent.  As  Dean  et  al.  (1992)  make  clear,  the  species  is  very  variable 
and,  in  parts  of  Africa  at  least,  the  situation  appears  confused.  These  birds  should,  on 
distributional  grounds,  be  of  the  race  geyri,  the  range  of  which  is  given  by  Dean  et  al. 
(1992)  as  “Mauritania  to  Nigeria  (Kano)  and  SE  Algeria”.  However,  the  upperparts  of 
geyri  are  described  as  being  “sandy  grey-brown,  rump  pink-brown;  tail  feathers 
darker  brown  with  rufous  outer  margins”  which  does  not  match  the  colour  of  these 
birds.  Examination  of  skins  at  the  Natural  Histoiy  Museum,  Tring  has  confirmed  that 
the  Burkina  Faso  birds  were  much  darker  than  geyri  and,  in  fact,  resemble  the  dark 
grey  races  assabensis  of  Ethiopia  and  Somalia,  saturatus  of  Saudi  Arabia  and  annae 
of  Jordan  and  Syria.  They  did,  however,  match  geyri  in  basic  colour  pattern,  in 
particular  in  the  distribution  and  amount  (but  not  degree  of  saturation)  of  red  in  the 
flight,  tail  and  rump  feathers,  and  thereby  differed  from  the  other  three  dark 
subspecies,  which  lack  or  show  much  less  red  in  wings  and  tail. 

These  records  appear  to  be  among  the  southernmost  localities  known  for  Desert 
Lark  in  West  Africa.  Hall  & Moreau  (1970)  map  none  south  of  15®N;  Dean  et  al. 
(1992)  state  that  the  species’  range  includes  Kano  (12®N,  8°E),  although  Nigeria  is 
not  included  in  the  accompanying  distribution  map.  The  Kano  record  had,  however, 
earlier  been  rejected  by  Elgood  (1982),  who  attributed  it  to  White  (1961).  White 
wrote  that  the  range  of  A.  d.  geyri  comprised  “the  southern  edge  of  Sahara  from  Tillia 
to  Dameîrgou  and  Kano  in  northern  Nigeria.”  The  confusion  may  date  back  to  Sclater 
(1930)  who  stated  that  geyri  occurs  in  “Damergu  country  between  Asben  and  Kano, 


2000 


Larks  new  to  Burkina  Faso 


53 


in  French  Sahara”,  words  repeated  almost  exactly  by  Bannerman  (1936).  Both  these 
authors,  however,  say  “between”  Asben  (-  Air)  and  Kano;  White’s  (1961)  slight  re- 
wording changes  the  sense.  These  authors  were  probably  all  drawing  upon  the 
description  of  geyri,  the  type  locality  of  which  is  Farak  (15°1S"N,  8°55'E),  Damergu 
in  present  day  Niger  (Hartert  1924).  The  only  localities  from  the  southern,  sahelian 
parts  of  the  country  given  by  Giraudoux  et  al.  (1988)  are  those  of  Hartert  (1924),  and 
of  Bates  (1934),  from  Tillia  (16®8'N,  4®47'E),  other  than  for  a sight  record  of  two,  30 
km  south  of  Filingué  (14®2rN,  3®19'E).  More  recently,  Holyoak  & Seddon  (1991) 
report  the  species  from  several  sahelian  localities  but  none  south  of  16®N. 

Elsewhere  in  West  Africa,  Lamarche  (1981)  states  that  in  Mali  A.  deserti  is 
common  and  widespread  in  the  north  of  the  Sahel,  descending  in  the  east  to  16°N.  In 
Chad  it  is  apparently  not  known  south  of  Ennedi  (c.  17°N)  (Salvan  1968,  Dean  et  al 
1992);  there  are  no  records  from  Senegal  (Morel  & Morel  1990). 


Acknowledgments 

LF  is  grateful  to  Dr  Robert  Prÿs-Jones  of  the  Natural  History  Museum,  Tring  for 
access  to  skins  and  to  Dr  Claude  Chappuis  and  Ron  Demey  for  information  and 
comment  on  the  recordings  of  M cordofanica.  He  would  also  like  to  thank  the  staff 
of  Fondation  Naturama,  Ouagadougou  for  their  hospitality  and  generous  assistance. 
Copies  of  these  recordings  have  been  sent  to  Dr  Chappuis  and  to  the  British  Library’s 
National  Sound  Archive,  Wildlife  Section,  London.  This  work  was  carried  out  under 
BirdLife  International’s  GEF/UNDP-funded  programme  for  the  conservation  of 
Important  Bird  Areas  in  Africa  (RAF/97/G31/C/IG/31). 


References 

Andrews,  F.W.  (1956)  The  Flowering  Plants  of  the  Sudan.  Vol  III  (Compositae- 
Graminae).  Buncle,  Arbroath. 

Bannerman,  D.A.  (1936)  The  Birds  of  Tropical  West  Africa^  vol.  4.  Crown  Agents, 
London. 

Bates,  G.L.  (1934)  Birds  of  the  southern  Sahara  and  adjoining  countries  in  French 
West  Africa.  Ibis  (13)4:  439-466. 

Butler,  A.L.  (1905)  A contribution  to  the  ornithology  of  the  Egyptian  Sudan.  Ibis 

(8)5:301^01. 

Cave,  F.O.  & MacDonald,  J.D.  (1955)  The  Birds  of  the  Sudan.  Oliver  & Boyd, 
Edinburgh. 

Dean,  W.R.J.,  Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.  & Lack,  P.  (1992)  Alaudidae,  larks.  Pp.  13-124 
in  Keith,  S.,  Urban,  E.K.  8l  Fry,  C.H.  (eds).  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  4. 
Academic  Press,  London. 


54 


L.  Fishpool  et  al. 


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Dowsett,  RJ.  (1993)  Afrotropical  avifaunas:  annotated  country  checklists.  Pp.  1- 
322  in  Dowsett,  R.J.  & Dowsett-Lemaîre,  F.  (eds).  A Contribution  to  the 
Distribution  and  Taxonomy  of  Afrotropical  and  Malagasy  birds.  Res.  Rep.  5, 
Tauraco  Press,  Liège. 

Elgood,  J.H.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Check-list  4,  British  Ornithologists’ 

Union,  London. 

Giraudoux,  P.,  Degauquier,  R.,  Jones,  P.J.,  Weigel,  J.  & Isenmann,  P.  (1988) 
Avifaune  du  Niger:  état  des  connaissances  en  1986.  Malimbus  10:  1-1 40. 

Hall,  B. P.  & Moreau,  R.E.  (1970)  An  Atlas  of  Spéciation  in  African  Passerine 
Birds.  British  Museum  (Natural  Histoiy),  London. 

Hartert,  E.  (1924)  Ornithological  results  of  Captain  Buchanan’s  second  Sahara 
expedition.  Novit.  Zool.  31:  1-48. 

Holyoak,  D.  T & Seddon,  M.B.  (1991)  Notes  sur  la  répartition  des  oiseaux  du  Niger 
(deuxième  partie).  Alauda  59:  1 16-120. 

Lamarche,  B.  (1981)  Liste  commentée  des  oiseaux  du  Mali.  Deuxième  partie: 
Passereaux.  Malimbus  3:  73-102. 

Lynes,  h.  (1924)  On  the  birds  of  north  and  central  Darfur,  with  notes  on  the  west- 
central  Kordofan  and  North  Nuba  Provinces  of  British  Sudan.  Part  II.  Ibis  (1 1)6: 
648-719. 

Morel,  G.J.  & Morel,  M.-Y.  (1990)  Les  Oiseaux  de  Sénégambie.  ORSTOM,  Paris. 

Nikolaus,  G.  (1987)  Distribution  atlas  of  Sudan’s  birds  with  notes  on  habitat  and 
status.  Bonn.  Zool.  Monogr.  25:  1-322. 

Salvan,  J.  (1968)  Contribution  à l’étude  des  oiseaux  du  Tchad  (suite).  Oiseau 
Rev.fr.Orn.  38:  249-273. 

SCLATER,  W.L.  (1930)  Systema  Avium  Aethiopicarum.  Part  II.  British  Ornithologists’ 
Union,  London. 

White,  C.M.N.  (1961)  A Revised  Check-list  of  African  Broadbills,  Pittas,  Larks, 
Swallows,  Wagtails  and  Pipits.  Government  Printer,  Lusaka. 


2000 


55 


The  birds  of  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivory  Coast 

by  Volker  Salewski 

Institut  fur  Vogelforschung  “Vogeiwarte  Helgoland”, 

An  der  Vogelwaite  21,  26386  Wilhelmshaven,  Germany 

Received  30  November  1999;  revised  8 April  2000. 

Summary 

Between  1994  and  1999 1 spent  about  24  months  in  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivoiy 
Coast,  during  the  European  winters.  During  this  time,  321  bird  species  were  re- 
corded, of  which  ten  were  new  for  the  park,  including  Red-chested  Swallow  Hi- 
rundo  iucida,  which  is  published  here  for  the  first  time.  Gabon  Nightjar  Capri- 
mulgus  fossii.  Mourning  Dove  Streptopeiia  decipiem,  White  Wagtail  Moiaciila 
alba.  Tawny  Pipit  Anthus  campestris,  Stonechat  Saxicola  torquata  and  Great 
Grey  Shrike  Lanius  excubiior,  mentioned  by  former  authors,  were  rejected  from 
the  confirmed  list.  Including  previous  published  records,  494  species  have  been 
reliably  recorded  in  the  park,  and  are  listed  here.  This  high  species  diversity 
results  from  the  variety  of  habitats  within  the  park  and  indicates  its  importance 
as  the  largest  remnant  of  relatively  intact  W African  savanna. 

Résumé 

Entre  1994  et  1999,  j’ai  passé  environ  24  mois  dans  le  Parc  National  de  la 
Comoé  en  Côte  dTvoire  pendant  fhiver  européen.  Durant  cette  période,  331 
espèces  forent  observées  dont  dix  nouvelles  pour  le  parc,  y compris  rHiroedelie 
de  Guinée  Hirundo  iucida,  dont  c’est  ici  la  première  mention.  L’Engoulevent  du 
Moambique  Caprimuigus  fossii,  la  Tourterelle  pleureuse  Streptopeiia 
decipiem,  la  Bergeronnette  grise  Moiaciiia  aiba,  le  Pipit  rousseline  Anîhus 
campes  iris,  le  Traquet  pâtre  Saxicoia  torquata  et  la  Pie-grièche  grise  Lanius 
excübitor  (déjà  signalée  par  d’anciens  auteurs),  étaient  rejetés  de  la  liste 
officielle.  Si  nous  incluons  les  publications  précédentes,  494  espèces  ont  été 
observées  indiscutablement  dans  k parc  et  sont  données  ici.  La  grande  diversité 
spécifique  résulte  de  la  variété  des  habitats  du  parc  et  montre  son  importance 
comme  vestige  relativement  intact  de  savane  ouest-africaine. 


Introduction 

The  Comoé  National  Park  (see  maps  in  Poilecot  1991,  Salewski  1997a)  is,  with 
1 1,491  km\  the  biggest  national  p.ark  in  West  Africa;  it  is  also  a Biosphere  Reserve 


56 


V.  Salewski 


Mal  imbus  22 


and  World  Heritage  Site.  The  first  steps  to  protect  the  area  were  taken  in  1926,  when 
the  sector  between  the  Comoé  river  and  Bouna  became  the  “Refuge  Nord”,  which 
was  changed  in  1953  into  the  “Réserve  Totale  de  Faune  de  Bouna”.  The  evacuation 
of  the  few  settlements  inside  the  park  started  in  1953  and  was  completed  about  ten 
years  later  (Lauginie  1975).  On  9 February  1968,  the  Réserve,  together  with  the  Forêt 
Classé  de  Kong  west  of  the  Comoé  river  was  declared  a National  Park.  The  fauna  was 
investigated  in  1968  by  Geerling  & Bokdam  (1971,  1973)  who  mainly  focused  on  the 
larger  mammals.  The  potential  for  tourism  was  investigated  in  the  early  seventies 
(Rahm  & Bienek  1973),  followed  by  a biologicaheconomic  study  by  Lauginie 
(1975).  These  efforts  culminated  in  the  biological-ecological  analysis  being  used  as  a 
basic  for  the  development  of  tourism  by  FGU  Kronberg  (1979).  A list  of  445 
recorded  bird  species  compiled  by  I.  Kühn  and  W.  Werres  (and  including  information 
of  others),  based  mainly  on  mist-netting  and  observations  in  1979  and  1980,  was 
added  to  this  report  later  (FGU  1980).  However,  this  was  never  published.  In  the 
otherwise  excellent  study  of  Poilecot  (1991)  birds  are  treated  only  marginally.  Since 
1979,  50  more  species  have  been  recorded  for  the  park,  but  these  records  are  scattered 
in  a number  of  different  publications  (Thiollay  1985,  Balchin  1988,  1990,  Demey  & 
Fishpool  1991,  Williams  1997,  Salewski  1997a,  1998a,  Salewski  & Korb  1998,  Falk 
& Salewski  1999).  I stayed  in  Comoé  National  Park  from  1994  to  1999  in  each 
European  winter  (usually  Sep^Apr)  and  made  intensive  bird  observations.  The 
intention  of  this  article  is  to  summarise  all  these  observations  and  to  provide  the  first 
comprehensive  list  of  the  birds  of  the  park,  together  with  notes  on  their  habitat, 
presence  and  abundance.  For  this  purpose  I include  previous  published  records  and 
the  unpublished  observations  by  FGU  (1980),  which  are  analysed  critically  to  exclude 
some  doubtful  records  and  to  indicate  possible  changes  in  abundance  or  distribution. 


Comoé  National  Park 

The  Comoé  National  Park  lies  in  NE  Ivory  Coast  close  to  Burkina  Faso  and  Ghana.  It 
extends  from  about  8°30'  to  9°30'N  and  from  3®0'  to  4®30'W.  The  100-200  m-wide 
Comoé  river  flows  north-south  through  the  park  for  about  230  km  (Porembski  1991) 
and  drains  most  of  the  area.  A small  part  in  the  east  (the  Kolodio  River)  belongs  to 
the  drainage  system  of  the  Volta  River  in  Ghana.  Major  tributaries  of  the  Comoé  are 
the  rivers  Bawé,  Boin,  Iringou  and  Kongo.  Inside  the  park  there  are  several  lakes 
containing  water  throughout  the  year.  Over  most  of  its  area,  the  park  is  a plateau  with 
an  average  elevation  of  250-300  m;  the  highest  peak  is  at  635  m.  Inselbergs  are  found 
in  various  places.  Major  villages  around  the  Park  are  Bouna  (with  the  park 
headquarters),  Kafolo,  Kong,  Gansé,  Kakpin  and  Tehini. 

As  in  most  parts  of  N Ivory  Coast,  the  plateaux  are  of  granite.  Along  the  Comoé 
river  metamorphic  slates  are  found.  The  soils  are  mostly  laterized,  often  with  a hard 


2000 


Birds  of  Comoé  N.P= 


57 


surface  crust.  They  are  generally  iithosols,  with  ferruginuos  tropical  soils  in  the 
south-east  (Poilecot  1991). 

Within  the  park  lies  the  border  between  two  climate  zones,  the  Sub-sudan  Zone 
(the  Northern  Guinea  Savanna  Zone  of  Thiollay  1985)  in  the  south-west  and  the 
Sudan  Zone  in  the  north-east  (see  map  in  Poilecot  1991).  The  rainy  season  in  both 
zones  lasts  in  general  from  March  or  April  to  October  and  is  also  characterized  by 
less  distinct  daily  temperature  changes.  In  the  south,  the  rain  decreases  in  July  before 
its  peak  in  September.  Relative  humidity  usually  exceeds  90%.  During  the  dry  season 
there  is  hardly  any  rainfall  and  the  Harmattan,  a hot  dry  wind  from  the  north,  blows 
regularly.  In  this  season  the  daily  temperature  differences  are  in  general  high  and 
relative  humidity  is  below  30%.  Annual  rainfall  varies  between  1100  and  1300  mm. 
Maximum  daily  temperatures  (37°C)  are  highest  in  March  and  minimum  daily 
temperatures  lowest  (15°C)  in  January  (Poilecot  1991). 

The  high  diversity  of  bird  species  in  the  park  is  explained  by  the  variety  of 
different  habitats.  Besides  the  savanna  there  are  forests,  bowals,  mountain  regions  and 
waterways,  all  with  their  typical  bird  communities. 

Tree  and  bush  savanna  cover  about  70%  of  the  park  (Poilecot  1991),  with  several 
subdivisions  defined  by  different  dominant  tree  species  on  different  soils.  Tree  cover 
is  usually  2-70%  with  dominant  species  including  Crossopteryx  febrifuga,  Daniellia 
oiiveri,  Burkea  africana,  Terminaiia  avicennioides,  Deiarium  microcarpum  among 
others.  The  herbaceous  layer  is  up  to  2 m high,  with  dominant  grasses  including 
Brachiaria  jubata  and  Andropogon  africanus.  Savanna  forests  with  Isoberlinia  doka 
as  the  dominant  species  and  tree  cover  of  70-"90%  are  found  in  the  north.  Species 
composition  of  savannas  and  savanna  forests  is  influenced  by  the  annual  bush  fires, 
most  of  them  anthropogenic,  which  bum  the  whole  savanna  area  of  the  park  between 
November  and  January  proceeding  from  north  to  south  (Poilecot  1991). 

Bowals  are  laterite  pans  lacking  trees  or  bushes.  Depending  on  the  season,  their 
surface  is  often  covered  with  water,  grass  or  is  bare  after  the  fires.  Alluvial  plains  are 
often  found  along  the  gallery  forest  of  the  Comoé  river  and  separate  the  forest  from 
the  savanna.  They  are  characterised  by  the  lack  of  trees  and  bushes,  with  vegetation 
cover  often  less  than  30%  (Porembski  1991).  Although  of  quite  different  origin, 
bowals  and  alluvial  plains  therefore  often  have  a similar  general  appearance. 

Gallery  forests  are  found  along  the  Comoé  river  and  its  larger  tributaries  like  the 
Iringou.  They  range  from  less  than  ten  to  several  hundred  meters  broad;  only  rarely 
are  savanna  habitats  found  next  to  the  river.  The  riparian  forests  show  similarities  to 
the  rain  forests  in  the  south,  but  with  lower  tree  species  diversity.  They  are  mostly 
dense  but  more  open  close  to  the  savanna  fringe.  The  upper  tree  strata  are  higher  than 
in  the  savanna  formations,  with  species  like  Cynometra  megalophylla.  Cola  cordifo- 
iia,  Manilkara  muUinervis  and  Ceiba  pentandra  attaining  > 40  m (Porembski  1991). 
Smaller  trees  up  to  15m  high  are  Dialium  guineense,  Dyospyros  abyssinica,  Oxyan- 
thus  racemosus  or  Syzygium  guineense.  A herbaceous  layer  is  hardly  developed. 


58 


V.  Salewski 


Malimbus  22 


Isolated  forests  are  patches  of  various  sizes,  scattered  in  the  savanna  without  any 
connection  to  the  riparian  forest.  The  origin  and  dynamics  of  these  forests  is  not  yet 
understood.  There  are  two  types  of  isolated  forests  (Porembski  1991):  “wet”  forests 
show  similarities  to  riparian  forests  (dominants:  Cynometra  megalophylla,  Dialium 
guineense,  Chlorophora  excelsa,  Cola  cordifolia  and  Anisogeisus  leiocarpus);  dry 
forests  are  believed  to  be  an  extreme  closed  wooded  savanna  (typical  tree  species: 
Anisogeisus  leiocarpus,  Ceiba  pentandra  and  Lannea  kerstingii,  all  deciduous). 

The  isolated  forests  and  gallery  forest  are  not  influenced  by  the  savanna  fires,  but 
vegetation  cover  decreases  in  the  dry  season  because  some  tree  species  are  deciduous. 


Species  list 

The  list  below  includes  all  494  bird  species  recorded  in  the  park  until  2000,  including 
Red-chested  Swallow  Hirundo  lucida,  which  I observed  regularly  in  the  north  of  the 
park  in  1999  but  which  has  not  been  recorded  before.  This  includes  321  species 
whose  presence  was  confirmed  by  my  own  observations.  The  other  records  were 
taken  from  literature.  I did  not  see  all  birds  in  the  list  but  due  to  the  known  quality  of 
the  observers,  most  published  records  were  accepted.  Species  provisionally  rejected 
include  White  Wagtail  Motacilla  alba  and  African  Mourning  Dove  Streptopelia 
decipiens  because  they  would  be  new  species  for  the  country,  and  they  are  listed  in 
FGU  (1980)  and  Mühlenberg  et  al.  (1990)  without  detailed  descriptions.  This  is  also 
the  case  for  the  Gabon  Nightjar  Caprimulgus  fossi,  although  Thiollay  (1985) 
mentioned  a bird  found  dead  in  the  park.  The  latter  would  be  the  only  record  for  West 
Africa  and  it  was  rejected  by  Dowsett  & Dowsett-Lemaire  (1993)  because  of  the  lack 
of  proper  documentation.  For  the  same  reasons,  a Great  Grey  Shrike  Lanius  excubitor 
mentioned  by  Fischer  & GroB  (1998)  was  rejected.  Stonechat  Saxicola  torquata, 
reported  by  the  same  authors,  was  also  rejected;  it  seems  unlikely  that  the  species 
would  occur  in  the  park  because  of  its  habitat  requirements  (Thiollay  1985)  and  no 
description  was  given.  Tawny  Pipit  was  also  rejected.  It  was  recorded  as  “common” 
by  FGU  (1980)  but  Thiollay  (1985)  mentioned  only  one  definite  record  for  Ivory 
Coast,  which  is  not  in  the  park.  Therefore,  the  records  in  FGU  (1980)  might  be  based 
on  misidentification.  The  only  record  of  Swallow-tailed  Kite  Chelictina  riocourii  for 
the  country,  by  FGU  (1980),  was  accepted  because  the  park  lies  just  south  of  the 
regular  distribution  of  the  species  (Thiollay  1985)  and  it  is  unlikely  to  be 
misidentified. 

Some  species  mentioned  as  abundant  by  FGU  (1980)  were  not  observed  in  the 
period  covering  this  study,  including  obvious  species  like  White-crested  Hornbill, 
Yellow-casqued  Hornbill,  Great  Blue  Turaco,  and  Senegal  Kingfisher.  I am  familiar 
with  these  species  and  their  calls  from  other  parts  of  the  country  and  a lack  of 
observations  means  that  they  are  at  least  not  very  abundant.  This  is  also  the  case  for 
some  of  the  bulbuls  (Little  Greenbul,  Yellow-whiskered  Greenbul),  which  were 


2000 


Birds  of  Comoé  N.P. 


59 


indicated  to  be  common  by  FGU  (1980).  Despite  intensive  observations,  mist-netting 
and  voice  recording  in  galiery  forest  I not  able  to  find  these  species,  indicating 
that  they  are  at  least  not  common.  Whether  numbers  have  really  declined  is  difficult 
to  assess.  A number  of  species  which  were  only  recorded  in  the  north  of  the  park  by 
FGU  (1980),  including  Chestnut-crowned  Sparrow,  some  Lagonosticta  finches,  some 
sunbirds,  and  Togo  Paradise  Widow,  are  abundant  in  the  south  now  (Salewski 
1997a).  However,  information  is  similarly  not  sufficient  to  judge  whether  this  really 
indicates  a southward  extension  of  bird  species  in  the  region. 

In  the  list  below,  nomenclature  follows  Dowsett  & Forbes- Watson  (1993). 
Records  in  brackets  were  not  confirmed  by  my  own  observations.  The  information  is 
presented  in  the  following  sequence,  after  the  species  name:  Habitat,  Status, 
Abundance.  References. 

Habitat 

The  habitat  in  which  a species  is  most  likely  to  be  observed. 

A Air  (aerial  species  like  swifts  and  swallows). 

W Water  (rivers,  ponds). 

F Forest  (riparian-  and  isolated  forests). 

P Plains  (bowals  and  alluvial  plains). 

S Savanna. 

-N/-S  Occurs  only  in  the  north/south  of  the  park. 

-(N)/-(S)  Occurs  mainly  in  the  north/south  of  the  park. 


Status 

M 

MB 

P 

RB 

MB,  RB 


Italics 


African  migrant. 

African  migrant  probably  breeding  in  the  park. 

Palearctic  migrant. 

Resident,  probably  breeding  in  the  park. 

Breeding  is  explicitly  reported  in  the  literature  or  by  my  own  observations 
(nests,  juveniles,  incubation  patches,  courtship  behaviour,  mating,  carrying 
of  food  or  nesting  material).  This  difference  was  made  because  most  of  the 
information  about  the  status  of  residents  came  from  the  list  of  FGU 
(1980),  where  no  breeding  details  were  given. 

Status  to  be  confirmed 


(Oct-Mar)  Months  in  which  the  species  occurs,  in  this  case  October  to  March. 


Abundance 

The  relative  abundance  of  a species  in  the  park  in  the  specified  habitat  or  time  period 
is  indicated.  This  is  only  tentative  for  the  species  recorded  by  myself  because  I was 
present  only  during  the  European  winter  months  and  only  in  the  western  parts  of  the 
park.  For  species  not  confirmed  by  own  observations  I tried  to  transform  the 
information  from  literature  into  the  abundance  categories  used  here.  However,  in  such 


60 


V.  Salewski 


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species  the  letters  indicating  abundance  are  written  in  italics  (status  to  be  confirmed) 
except  when  given  as  vagrant  or  rare  (see  below). 

V Vagrant,  one  observation  in  several  years,  migrant  species 

r Rare,  one  observation  in  several  years,  resident  species 

u Uncommon,  several  observation  in  one  year 

f Frequent,  observed  regularly,  but  not  every  day 

c Common,  1-10  individuals  observed  every  day 

a Abundant,  > 10  individuals  observed  every  day 

Reference 

Gives  the  first  mention  of  a species  in  the  park  since  FGU  (1980). 

FGU  FGU  1980. 

VS  Information  about  habitat,  status  or  relative  abundance  of  a species  found 

in  the  literature  has  been  modified  according  to  my  own  unpublished 
observations;  for  abundance,  (VS+)  indicates  abundance  higher  and  (VS-) 
lower  than  in  previous  literature. 

(VS-)  Abundance  of  a species  found  in  the  literature  (here  FGU  1980)  has  been 
reduced,  because  I did  not  observe  the  species  and  the  previously 
published  abundance  seemed  therefore  too  high. 

Podicipepidae 

{Tachybaptus  mficollis  Little  Grebe.  W,  M,  v/u.  FGU.) 

Phalacrocoracidae 

{Phalacrocorax  carbo  White-breasted  Cormorant.  W,  ?,  v.  Demey  & Fishpool  1991.) 
P.  africanus  Reed  Cormorant.  W,  M,  u.  FGU. 

Anhingidae 

{Anhinga  rufa  Darter.  W,  M,  v.  FGU.) 

Ardeidae 

{Ixobrychus  minutus  Little  Bittern.  W,  R/M,  v,  FGU.) 

(/.  sturmii  Dwarf  Bittern.  W,  MB(Jun-Nov),  v.  FGU.) 

{Tigriornis  leucolophus  White-crested  Tiger  Heron.  W-S,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Nycticorax  nycticorax  Black-crowned  Night  Heron.  W/F,  M(Oct“-Apr),  u.  FGU. 
Gorsachius  leuconotus  White-backed  Night  Heron.  W/F,  RB,  u.  Salewski  & Korb  (1998). 
(Ardeoia  ralloides  Common  Squacco  Heron.  W,  M(Oct“-May),  v.  (VS-).) 

Bubulcus  ibis  Cattle  Egret  W/S/P,  M(Sep-May),  f.  FGU. 

Butorides  striatus  Green-backed  Heron.  W,  RB,  c.  FGU,  VS+. 

Egretta  garzetta  Little  Egret.  W,  M(Sep“”May),  f.  FGU. 

{E.  intermedia  Yellow-billed  Egret  W,  M,  v.  FGU.) 

E.  alba  Great  White  Egret.  W,  M(Sep~May),  u.  FGU. 

{Ardea  purpurea  Purple  Heron.  W,  M(Sep“Apr),  v.  (VS-).) 

A.  cinerea  Grey  Heron.  W,  RB/M,  f.  FGU.  Most  individuals  probably  Palaearctic 
migrants,  but  Thiollay  (1985)  reports  a breeding  colony  near  Korhogo. 


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61 


A.  meianocephala  Black-headed  Heron.  W,  M(Nov-=May),  u.  FGU. 

A.  goliath  Goliath  Heron.  W/F,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991). 

Scopidae 

Scopus  umbretta  Hamerkop.  W/S“(S),  RB,  c.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

Ciconidae 

Mycteria  ibis  Yellow-billed  Stork.  W/P,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Salewski  & Korb  (1998). 
{Anastomus  lamelligerus  Openbill  Stork.  W/P,  M(N0V“May),  r.  Thiollay  (1985).) 
(Ciconia  nigra  Black  Stork.  ?,  P.  One  fitted  with  a satellite  transmitter  in  1 995  in  the 
Czech  Republic  stayed  some  days  in  the  north-east  of  the  park  in  winter  1995-6 
(Salewski  et  ai.  2000). 

C.  abdimii  Abdim’s  Stork.  W/S,  MB(Mar--Jun),  v.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

C episcopus  Woolly-necked  Stork.  W/S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

(C.  ciconia  White  Stork.  S,  P(Oct“Mar),  v.  FGU.) 

{Ephippiorhynchus  senegaiensis  Saddle-billed  Stork.  W,  RB,  r.  Walsh  1977,  FGU.) 
Leptoptilos  crumeniferus  MM’abou.  W/S,  RB(Dec-Apr),  u.  FGU,  Salewski  & Korb  (1998). 
Threskiornithidae 

(Threskiornis  aethiopicus  Sacred  Ibis.  ?,  ?,  r/v.  Thiollay  1985.) 

{Plegadis  falcinellus  Glossy  Ibis.  W,  ?,  v.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 

Bostrychia  hagedash  Hadada.  W/S/F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Anatidae 

Dendrocygna  viduata  White-faced  Whistling  Duck.  E-(N),  M,  u.  FGU,  VS. 
(Alopochen  aegyptiacus  Egyptian  Goose.  W,  M(Feb-Mar),  v.  Thiollay  1985,  Demey 
& Fishpool  (1991).) 

Plectropterus  gambensis  Spur-winged  Goose.  E-(N),  M(Nov-Apr),  u.  FGU. 
Pteronetta  hartlaubii  Hartlaub’s  Duck.  E-S,  RB,  r.  FGU. 

{Nettapus  auritus  African  Pygmy  Goose.  W,  M(Apr-Nov),  v.  FGU.) 

{Anas  querquedula  Garganey.  W,  P(Jan”Mar),  v.  FGU.) 

Accipitridae 

Aviceda  cucuioides  Cuckoo  Hawk.  S/F-(S),  Affl(Jun-Dec),  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

Pernis  apivorus  Honey  Buzzard.  S/F,  P,  u.  FGU,VS-. 

Macheiramphus  alcinus  Bat  Hawk.  S/W,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Elanus  caeruleus  Black-shouldered  Kite.  S/P,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

{Chelictinia  riocourii  Swallow-tailed  Kite.  S/P,  ?,  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).  The 
record  by  FGU  (1980)  is  the  only  one  for  Ivory  Coast.  Additionally,  J.  Korb  and  G. 
Markgraf  (pers.  comm.)  saw  a “grey  tern-like  raptor”  at  the  river  Lola  in  spring  1997. 
Their  description  fits  this  species.) 

Miivus  migrans  Black  Kite.  S/P/W,  MB(Sep-May),  f.  FGU.  Both  the  African  and  the 
European  subspecies  might  occur  in  the  park.  I only  identified  the  African  M m. 
parasitas. 

Haliaeetus  vocifer  African  Fish  Eagle.  W,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Gypohierax  angolensis  Palm-nut  Vulture.  W/S/F-(S),  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Necrosyrtes  monachus  Hooded  Vulture.  S/P,  RB,  f FGU. 


62 


V.  Salewski 


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Gyps  africanus  White-backed  Vulture.  S/P,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Torgos  tracheliotus  Lappet-faced  Vulture.  S/P,  RB,  u,  Thiollay  (1985). 

Trigonoceps  occipitalis  White-headed  Vulture.  S/P,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Circaetus  galiicus  Short-toed  Eagle.  S/P,  M(NoV"“Apr),  u.  FGU,  VS-.  European  C g. 
gallicus  has  never  been  positively  identified  in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985). 

C.  cinereus  Brown  Snake  Eagle.  S/P-(N),  M(Dec-Apr),  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

C.  cinemscens  Western  Banded  Snake  Eagle.  S/P,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

Temthopius  ecaudatus  Bateleur.  S/P,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Polyboroides  typus  Gymnogene.  F/S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Circus  aeruginosus  European  Marsh  Harrier.  W/S/P,  P(Dec--Mar),  f.  FGU. 

(C.  macrourus  Pallid  Harrier.  S/P,  P(Oct~Mar),  v.  FGU.) 

(C.  pygargus  Montagu’s  Harrier.  S/P,  P(Dec-Apr),  v.  (VS-).) 

Melierax  metabates  Dark  Chanting  Goshawk.  S/P,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

M gabar  Gabar  Goshawk.  S/F-(N),  RB,  u.  FGU,  Thiollay  1985,  VS-. 

{Accipiter  melanoleucus  Black  Goshawk.  F,  RB,  r.  Thiollay  (1985).) 

A.  ovampensis  Ovambo  Sparrowhawk.  S,  M(Jul-Sep),  u.  FGU,  Salewski  (1998b),  VS. 

A.  erythropus  Western  Little  Sparrowhawk.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

A.  tachiro  African  Goshawk.  F/S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

A.  badius  Shikra.  S,  MB(Sep-Jun),  f FGU. 

Butastur  rufipennis  Grasshopper  Buzzard.  S/P,  M(Nov-Apr),  f FGU. 

Kaupifalco  monogrammicus  Lizard  Buzzard.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 

(Buteo  buteo  Common  Buzzard.  S,  P,  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

B.  auguralis  Red-necked  Buzzard.  S,  M(Oct-Jun),  f FGU. 

Aquila  wahlbergi  Wahlberg’s  Eagle.  S,  MB(Nov-May),  f.  FGU. 

A.  rapax  Tawny  Eagle.  S/P,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 

Hieraaetus  spilogaster  African  Hawk  Eagle.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

H.  pennatus  Booted  Eagle.  S,  P(Jan”Apr),  u.  FGU. 

H.  ayresii  Ayres’s  Hawk  Eagle.  S/F-S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Lophaetus  occipitalis  Long-crested  Eagle.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Stephanoaetus  coronatus  Crowned  Eagle.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Polemaetus  bellicosus  Martial  Eagle.  S/P/F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Pandion  haliaetus  Osprey.  W,  P(Oct”May),  u.  FGU. 

Sagittariidae 

Sagittarius  serpentarius  Secretary  Bird.  P,  M(Oct-May),  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 
Falconidae 

{Falco  naumanni  Lesser  Kestrel.  S,  P(Jan-Apr),  v.  Thiollay  (1985).) 

F.  tinnunculus  Common  Kestrel.  S/P,  RB/P{Oct--Apr),  u.  FGU. 

{F.  alopex  Fox  Kestrel.  S/P,  M{Dec-Apr),  v.  FGU,  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 

F.  ardosiaceus  Grey  Kestrel.  S/P,  RB,  f FGU,  Thiollay  1985. 

{F.  vespertinus  Western  Red-footed  Falcon.  P,  P(Mar-May),  v.  FGU.) 

{F.  chicquera  Red-necked  Falcon.  ?,  RB,  r.  Balchin  1988.) 

{F.  subbuteo  European  Hobby.  F,  P,  v.  Thiollay  1985,  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 


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63 


F.  cuvierii  African  Hobby.  S/P-(S),  RB,  f FGU. 

F.  biarmicus  Banner.  S/P,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{F.  peregrinus  Peregrine  Falcon.  S/P,  P/RB,  u.  FGU,  Thoillay  (1985).) 

Phasianidae 

Francolinus  lathami  Forest  Francolin.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{F.  albogularis  White-throated  Francolin.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

F.  bicalcaratus  Double-spurred  Francolin.  S,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

F.  ahantensis  Ahanta  Francolin.  F-S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

{Coturnix  coturnix  Common  Quail.  S,  P(DeC“Mar),  u.  FGU.) 

(C  chinensis  Blue  Quail.  S/P,  RB,/  FGU.) 

Ptilopachus  petrosus  Stone  Partridge.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 

Numididae 

Guttera  pucherani  Crested  Guineafowl.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Numida  meleagris  Helmeted  Guineafowl.  S/P,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

Turnicidae 

Turnix  sylvatica  Kurrichane  Buttonquail.  S/P,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS+. 

Rallldae 

{Himantornis  haematopus  Nkulengu  Rail.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

(Sarothrura pulchra  White-spotted  Flufftail.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

{Crecopsis  egregia  African  Crake.  S/P,  RB,  u/f.  FGU.) 

Amaurornis  flavirostris  Black  Crake.  W,  RB,  u/f  FGU. 

{Porphyrula  alieni  Lesser  Gallinule.  W,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

(Gallinula  chloropus  Common  Moorhen.  W,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

(G.  angulata  Lesser  Moorhen.  W,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

Gruidae 

{Balearica  pavonina  Northern  Crowned  Crane.  P,  RB,  r.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 
Heliornithidae 

Podica  senegalensis  African  Finfoot.  W,  RB,  u/f  FGU. 

Otididae 

Neotis  denhami  Denham’s  Bustard.  S/P,  MB(Oct“May),  u.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 
{Ardeotis  arabs  Arabian  Bustard.  P,  ?,  r/v.  FGU,  Thiollay  1985.  The  only  record  for 
the  country  apart  from  an  old  one  near  Beoumi  (Thiollay  1985). 

{Eupodotis  senegalensis  White-bellied  Bustard.  S,  M(Nov-Apr),  r.  FGU.) 

E.  melanogaster  Black-bellied  Bustard.  S/P,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS. 

Jacanidae 

Actophilornis  africanus  African  Jacana.  W,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

Rostratulidae 

Rostratula  benghaiensis  Painted  Snipe.  W,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 

Recurvirostridae 

(Himantopus  himantopus  Black-winged  Stilt.  W,  P/M,  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 
Burhinidae 

Burhinus  senegalensis  Senegal  Thick-knee.  W/S/P,  MB(Oct-“May),  c.  FGU,  VS. 


64 


V.  Salewski 


Malimbus  22 


{B.  vermiculatus  Water  Dikkop.  W,  MB(NoV”Jun),  r.  FGU.) 

B.  capensis  Spotted  Dikkop.  P-(N),  M(DeC“Apr),  u.  FGU,  VS. 

Glareolidae 

{Pluvianus  aegyptius  Egyptian  Plover.  W,  M(Nov--May),  v.  (VS-).) 

{Rhinoptilus  chalcopterus  Bronze-winged  Courser.  S,  M(DeC”-Apr),  v.  (VS-).) 
{Cursorius  temminckii  T Qmm\nc\C s Courser.  P/S,  M(DeC“Apr),  v.  (VS-).) 

Glareola  nuchalis  Rock  Pratincole.  W,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

Charadriidae 

{Charadrius  dubius  Little  Ringed  Plover.  W,  P,  v/w.  FGU.) 

C.  hiaticuîa  Ringed  Plover.  W,  P,  v/u.  FGU. 

(C.  pecuarius  Kittlitz's  Plover.  P,  M(Jan“Mar),  v/u.  FGU.) 

C.forbesi  Forbes’s  Plover.  W/P,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

(C  marginatus  White-fronted  Sand  Plover.  W,  ?,  v.  Thiollay  (1985).) 

Vanellus  senegallus  Senegal  Wattled  Plover.  P,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

V.  albiceps  White-crowned  Plover.  W,  RB/MB{Oct-Jun),  c.  FGU,  VS. 

{V.  tectus  Black-headed  Plover.  W,  ?,  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

V.  spinosus  Spur-winged  Plover.  E-N,  M(Dec-Mar),  v/u.  FGU. 

{V.  lugubris  Lesser  Black-winged  Plover.  P,  MB(Mar“Jun),  v.  FGU.) 

Scolopacidae 

{Gallinago  gallinago  Common  Snipe.  W,  P,  v/u.  FGU.) 

G.  media  Great  Snipe.  W,  P(Dec-Apr),  v.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

{Limosa  limosa  Black-tailed  Godwit.  W,  P,  v,  FGU.) 

(Tringa  erythropus  Spotted  Redshank.  W,  P,  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

{T.  totanus  Common  Redshank.  W,  P,  v.  FGU.) 

(T.  stagnalis  Marsh  Sandpiper.  W,  P,  v.  FGU.) 

T.  nebularia  Greenshank.  W,  P,  v.  FGU. 

T.  ochropus  Green  Sandpiper.  W,  P,  f.  FGU,  VS. 

T.  glareola  Wood  Sandpiper.  W,  P,  u.  FGU. 

Actitis  hypoleucos  Common  Sandpiper.  W,  P(Sep-May),  c.  FGU,  VS. 

(Arenaria  interpres  Turnstone.  W,  P,  v.  FGU.) 

{Calidris  minuta  Little  Stint.  W,  P,  v.  FGU.) 

{Phalaropus  fulicarius  Grey  Phalarope.  W,  P,  v.  FGU.) 

Sternidae 

{Sterna  albifrons  Little  Tern.  W,  P,  v.  FGU.) 

Pteroclididae 

Pterocles  quadricinctus  Four-banded  Sandgrouse.  S/P-(N),  MB(Dec-Apr),  f.  FGU. 

Columbidae 

Columba  iriditorques  Western  Bronze-naped  Pigeon.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.  Listed  as  C. 

by  FGU  (1980). 

{Streptopelia  turtur  European  Turtle  Dove.  ?,  P,  v.  Demey  (1986).) 

S.  senegalensis  Laughing  Dove.  S-(N),  RB,  u.  FGU. 

S.  vinacea  Vinaceous  Dove.  S,  RB,  a.  FGU. 


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65 


S.  semitorquata  Red-eyed  Dove.  S/F,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

Turtur  abyssiniens  Black-billed  Wood  Dove.  S/P-(N),  RB,  f/c.  FGU,  VS. 

T.  afer  Blue-spotted  Wood  Dove.  F/S-(S),  RB,  a.  FGU. 

T.  tympanistria  Tambourine  Dove.  F,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

T.  brehmeri  Blue-headed  Wood  Dove.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Oena  capensis  Namaqua  Dove.  P-N,  M(DeC“Mar),  v/u.  FGU.) 

Treron  waaiia  Bruce’s  Green  Pigeon.  F/S-N,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

T.  australis  Green  Pigeon.  F/S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Psittacidae 

Poicephalus  robustus  Brown-necked  Parrot.  S-S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

P.  senegalus  Senegal  Parrot.  S/F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Psittacula  krameri  Rose-ringed  Parakeet.  S-N,  RB,  u/f,  FGU. 

{Agapornis  puiiaria  Red-headed  Lovebird.  S,  ?,  r.  Hovestadt  (1997).) 

Musophagidae 

Tauraco  persa  Guinea  Turaco.  F,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

{T.  macrorhynchus  Verreaux’s  Turaco.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Musophaga  violacea  Violet  Turaco.  F,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

{Corythaeola  cristata  Great  Blue  Turaco.  F,  RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

Crinifer  piscator  Western  Grey  Plantain-eater.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

Cuculldae 

{Clamator  glandarius  Great  Spotted  Cuckoo,  S,  M(Jan““Mar),  v/u.  FGU.) 

{C.  jacobinus  Jacobin  Cuckoo.  S,  M(Jan-Mar),  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

C.  levaillantii  Striped  Crested  Cuckoo.  S/F,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 
{Pachycoccyx  audeberti  Thick-billed  Cuckoo.  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

Cuculus  solitarius  Red-chested  Cuckoo.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

(C  ciamosus  Black  Cuckoo.  F,  M(JuI~Sep),  u.  FGU.) 

C.  gularis  African  Grey  Cuckoo.  S,  M(Sep“Apr),  u/f.  European  Cuckoo  C.  canorus  is 
recorded  for  the  park  in  FGU  (1980)  but  this  Palaearctic  species  is  only  recorded  once 
in  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985).  Its  presence  in  the  park  is  considered  unconfirmed. 
Chrysococcyx  cupreus  Emerald  Cuckoo.  F,  RB,  u/f,  FGU. 

C.  klaas  Klaas’s  Cuckoo.  F,  RB,  f FGU,  Thiollay  (1985),  VS.  Courtship  feeding 
observed  several  times  in  the  south  of  the  park  in  Feb. 

C.  caprius  Didric  Cuckoo.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 

Ceuthmochares  aereus  Green  Coucal,  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Centropus  grillii  African  Black  Coucal.  S/F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

C.  leucogaster  Black-throated  Coucal.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

C.  senegalensis  Senegal  Coucal.  S/F,  RB,  f/c.  FGU. 

Tytonidae 

Tyto  alba  Bam  Owl.  S/F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Strigidae 

Otus  senegalensis  African  Scops  Owl,  S/F,  RB,  c.  FGU.  In  FGU  (1980)  O.  scops 
(then  regarded  as  including  O.  senegalensis)  is  recorded.  I only  found  O.  senegalensis 


66 


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Malimbus  22 


(heard  and  mist-netted).  The  presence  of  the  Palaearctic  O.  scops  is  unconfirmed. 

O.  leucotis  White-faced  Owl.  S/F,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

Bubo  africanus  Spotted  Eagle  Owl.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{B.  lacteus  Giant  Eagle  Owl.  S-//,  RB,  r/u.  (VS-).) 

Scotopeiia  pelt  Pel’s  Fishing  Owl.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Glaucidium  perlatum  Pearl-spotted  Owlet.  S-(N),  RB,  u.  (VS-).) 

G.  capense  Barred  Owlet.  F-(S),  RB,  f.  FGU,  VS+. 

Strix  woodfordii  Wood  Owl,  F,  RB,  f FGU. 

Caprimulgidae 

Caprimulgus  ruficollis  Red-necked  Nightjar.  S,  Ÿ{Feb-Apr),  u.  Salewski  (1997a), 

C.  pectoralis  Fiery-necked  Nightjar.  F/S,  RB,  f Demey  & Fishpool  (1991),  Salewski 
(1997a). 

C.  inornatus  Plain  Nightjar.  S/P,  M(Nov-May),  u/f  FGU,  VS-. 

(C.  tristigma  Freckled  Rock  Nightjar.  P,  RB,  r.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

C.  climacurus  Long-tailed  Nightjar,  S/P,  MB(Sep”Jun),  c.  FGU. 

Macrodipteryx  longipennis  Standard-winged  Nightjar.  S/P,  MB(NoV“Apr),  f/c.  FGU. 
Apodidae 

Telacanthura  ussheri  Mottled  Spinetail.  A,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Cypsiurus  parvus  African  Palm  Swift.  A,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

{Apus  melba  Alpine  Swift.  A,  P(Oct-Apr),  v.  Thiollay  (1985).) 

{A.  aequatorialis  Mottled  Swift.  A,  ?,  v/r.  FGU,  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991),) 

A.  pallidus  Pallid  Swift.  A,  M/P,  v/u.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991). 

A.  apus  European  Swift.  A,  P(Sep--May),  f/c.  FGU. 

A.  affinis  Little  Swift.  A,  RB,  u/f  FGU,  VS-, 

A.  African  White-mmped  Swift.  A,  RB,  u.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991),  Salewski  (1997a). 
Trogonidae 

Aploderma  narina  Narina  Trogon.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Alcedinidae 

Alcedo  quadribrachys  Shining-blue  Kingfisher.  W,  RB,  f FGU. 

A.  cristata  Malachite  Kingfisher.  W,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{A.  leucogaster  White-bellied  Kingfisher.  W,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Ceyx  pictus  Pygmy  Kingfisher.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Halcyon  leucocephala  Chestnut-bellied  Kingfisher.  S,  MB(Nov-May),  f/c.  FGU, 
Salewski  & Schmidt  2000. 

H.  malimbica  Blue-breasted  Kingfisher.  W/F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

(//.  senegalensis  Senegal  Kingfisher.  S,  RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

H.  chelicuti  Striped  Kingfisher.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Megaceryle  maxima  Giant  Kingfisher.  W,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Ceryle  rudis  Pied  Kingfisher.  W,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Meropidae 

Merops  pusillus  Little  Bee-eater.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

M.  hirundineus  Swallow-tailed  Bee-eater.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 


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67 


M.  bulocki  Red-throated  Bee-eater.  S,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

M albicoUis  White-throated  Bee-eater.  S,  M(Sep-May),  u.  FGU,  VS. 

(M  orienialis  Little  Green  Bee-eater.  S,  M(Apr-Sep),  v.  FGU.) 

(M  persicus  Blue-cheeked  Bee-eater.  S,  M(Dec~Mar),  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

M.  apiaster  European  Bee-eater,  S,  P(Sep-Apr),  f.  FGU,  VS. 

M nubicus  Northern  Carmine  Bee-eater.  S,  M(Nov-Apr),  f.  FGU. 

Coraciidae 

(Coracias  garruius  European  Roller.  S,  P(Jan-Feb),  ¥.  FGU,  Demey  & Fishpool 
(1991).) 

C.  abyssinica  Abyssinian  Roller.  S/P,  M(Feb-Apr),  u/f.  FGU,  VS-. 

C naevia  Purple  Roller.  S,  M(Dec-Jun),  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

C.  cyanogaster  Blue-bellied  Roller.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Eurystomus  glaucurus  Broad-billed  Roller.  S/F,  M(Oct— May),  c.  FGU,  VS+. 

E.  guiaris  Blue-throated  Roller.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU. 

Phoeniculidae 

Phoeniculus  purpureus  Wood  Hoopoe.  S,  RB,  f/c.  FGU. 

(P.  bollei  White-headed  Wood  Hoopoe.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

{P.  castmiceps  Forest  Wood  Hoopoe.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

P.  aterrimus  Black  Wood  Hoopoe.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Upupidae 

Upupa  epops  Hoopoe.  S,  ^^/^(Jun-Apr),  f.  FGU,  VS. 

Bucerotidae 

(Tropicrams  albocristatus  White-crested  Hornbill.  F,  RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

{Tockus  hartlaubi  Black  Dwarf  Hornbill.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

{T.  camurus  Red-billed  Dwarf  Hornbill.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

T.  fasciatus  Pied  Hornbill.  F/S-(S),  RB,  c.  FGU, 

T,  nasuius  African  Grey  Hornbill.  S,  MB(Apr-May),  c.  FGU. 

Bycanistes  fisiuiaior  White-tailed  Hornbill.  F/S-(S),  MB(Sep-Jun),  c.  FGU. 

{B.  cyiindricus  White-thighed  Hornbill.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

B.  subcylindricm  Black-and-white  Casqued  Hornbill.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

(Ceraiogymna  elata  Yellow-casqued  Hornbill.  F,  RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

Bucorvus  abyssinicus  Abyssinian  Ground  Hornbill  S,  RB,  ii/f.  FGU. 

Lybiidae 

{Gymnobucco peli  Bristle-nosed  Barbet.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

{Pogoniuius  scoiopaceus  Speckled  Tinkerbird.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

P.  chrysoconus  Yellow-fronted  Tinkerbird,  F/S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

P.  biiineaius  Golden-rumped  Tinkerbird.  F/S-S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

(P.  subsulphureus  Yellow-throated  Tinkerbird.  F,  R,  u.  FGU.) 

(Trichoiaema  hirsutum  Hairy-breasted  Barbet.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Lybius  vieiiloti  Vieillot’s  Barbet.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{L  bidentaius  Double-toothed  Barbet.  S,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

L dubius  Bearded  Barbet.  S-(N),  RB,  r/u.  FGU,  VS-. 


68 


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Indicatoridae 

{Prodotîscus  insignis  Cassin’s  Honeyguide.  S,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Indicator  maculatus  Spotted  Honeyguide.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

I.  indicator  Greater  Honeyguide.  F/S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

(/.  minor  Lesser  Honeyguide.  F/S,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Picidae 

Jynx  torquilla  European  Wryneck.  S,  P(Nov-Feb),  u.  FGU. 

Campeihera  punctuUgera  Fine-spotted  Woodpecker.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

C.  nivosa  Buff-spotted  Woodpecker.  F,  RB,  f FGU. 

C.  abingoni  Golden-tailed  Woodpecker.  S,  RB,  u.  Falk  & Salewski  (1999). 
{Dendropicos  gabonensis  Gabon  Woodpecker.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Z).  fuscescens  Cardinal  Woodpecker.  S/F,  RB,  f FGU. 

{Thripias pyrrhogaster  Fire-bellied  Woodpecker.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Mesopicos  goertae  Grey  Woodpecker.  S/F,  RB,  f,  FGU. 

Picoides  obsoletus  Brown-backed  Woodpecker.  S/F,  RB,  f FGU. 

Eurylaimidae 

Smithornis  capensis  African  Broadbill.  F,  RB,  r/u.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991). 

Alaudidae 

Mirafra  rufocinnamomea  Flappet  Lark.  P,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Pinarocorys  erythropygia  Rufous-rumped  Lark.  P,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Galerida  modesta  Sun  Lark.  P,  RB,  u/f  FGU,  Salewski  1997b. 

Eremopterix  leucotis  Chestnut-backed  Sparrow  Lark.  P,  M,  v/u.  Salewski  (1997a). 

Hirundinidae 

(Psalidoprocne  nitens  Square-tailed  Saw-wing.  S,  ?,  v.  FGU.) 

P.  obscura  Fanti  Saw-wing.  S/A-(S),  M5(Feb-Dec),  f/c.  FGU. 

Riparia  riparia  European  Sand  Martin.  S/P/A,  P(Nov-Apr),  u.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 
{R.  cincta  Banded  Martin.  P/A,  M(Jul“Aug),  v.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985).) 

R.  paludicola  Brown-throated  Sand  Martin.  S/P/A,  M,  u/f.  Salewski  (1998a). 
Pseudhirundo  griseopyga  Grey-rumped  Swallow.  ?,  ?,  v/u.  Thiollay  (1985). 

Hirundo  semiruf a Red-breasted  Swallow.  S/P/A,  RB,  f FGU,  VS+. 

H.  senegalensis  Mosque  Swallow.  S/P/A,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a),  VS-. 

H.  abyssinica  Lesser  Striped  Swallow.  S/A,  RB,  u/f  FGU.  In  the  south  of  the  park 
seen  only  Mar-Apr  arriving  shortly  after  the  first  rains. 

H.  daurica  Red-rumped  Swallow.  S/P/ A,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 

{H.  preussi  Preuss’s  Cliff  Swallow.  S-N,  RB,  r.  FGU,  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 

H.  smithii  Wire-tailed  Swallow.  S/P,  RB,  f FGU. 

{H.  nigrita  White-throated  Blue  Swallow.  W,  RB,  ?.  FGU.) 

H.  leucosoma  Pied-winged  Swallow.  P,  RB,  r.  FGU. 

{H.  aethiopica  Ethiopian  Swallow.  ?,  ?,  ?.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 

H.  rustica  European  Swallow.  S/P/A,  P(Sep”Apr),  c.  FGU. 

H.  lucida  Red-chested  Swallow.  S/A-N,  ?,  f/c.  Large  flocks  observed  regularly  FeL- 
Apr  1 999  near  Gué  Auto.  Nests  in  the  Comoe  Safari  Lodge  in  Kafolo. 


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69 


Delichon  urbica  House  Martin.  S/A,  P(Oct-Apr),  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

Motacillidae 

Moiaciiia  flava  Yellow  Wagtail.  S/P/W,  P(Oct-Apr),  u/f.  FGU,  VS-. 

(M  dara  Mountain  Wagtail  ?,  RB,  r.  Thiollay  (1985).) 

M aguimp  African  Pied  Wagtail  W,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Anthus  richardi  Richard's  Pipit.  P,  ?,  ?.  FGU,  Balchin  (1988).  Recorded  as  A. 
novaeseelandiae  (Thiollay  1985,  Balchin  1988).) 

A,  ieucophrys  Plain-backed  Pipit.  P,  RB,  f/c.  FGU. 

A.  triviaiis  Tree  Pipit.  S,  P(Oct-Apr),  f/c.  FGU. 

(A.  cervinus  Red-throated  Pipit.  S/P,  P(Nov-Mar),  u,  FGU.) 

Macronyx  croceus  Yellow-throated  Longclaw.  P,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Campephagidae 

Campephaga  phoenicea  Red-shouldered  Cuckoo-shrike.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Coracina  pecioraiis  White-breasted  Cuckoo-shrike.  S/F,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

Pycnonotidae 

{Andropadus  virens  Little  Greenbul.  F,  -RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

(A.  gracilis  Little  Grey  Greenbul.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

(A.  graciiirostris  Slender-billed  Greenbul  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

(A.  latirostris  Yellow-whiskered  Greenbul  F,  RB,  r.  (VS-),) 

Baeopogon  indicator  Hoeeyguide  Greenbul  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{CMorocichla  simplex  Simple  Greenbul  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

C.flavicoilis  Ydlow-throated  Leaflove.  F-(S),  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS-. 

(Thesceiocichla  leucopieura  Swamp  Palm  Bulbul  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Pyrrhurus  scande  ns  Leaflove.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

(Phyiiastrephus  icierinus  Icterin  Greenbul  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Bieda  canicapiiia  Grey-headed  BristlebilL  F,  RB,  c.  FGU,  VS+. 

{Criniger  barbatus  Bearded  Greenbul  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

(C.  calurus  Red-tailed  Greenbul.  F,  ?,  ?.  Muhlenberg  et  al.  (1990).) 

Pycnonoîus  barbatus  Common  Bulbul  S/F,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

Turdidae 

Neocossyphus  poemis  White-tailed  Ant  Thrush.  F,  RB,  r/u,  Thiollay  (1985). 
{Monticola  saxatiiis  European  Rock  Thrush.  ?,  P,  v.  Balchin  (1990).) 

Turdus  pelios  West  African  Thrush.  F/S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{Zoothera  princei  Grey  Ground  Thrush.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Aleihe  diademata  Fire-crested  Alethe.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

(A.  poiiocephaia  Brown-chested  Alethe.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Luscinia  megarhynchos  Nightingale.  F,  P(Oct-Apr),  ii/f.  FGU. 

Cossypha  niveicapilia  Snowy-headed  Robin-chat.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU,  VS. 

C.  aibicapilla  White-crowned  Robin-chat.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Erythropygia  leucosticta  Forest  Scrub  Robin.  F,  RB,  f.  Muhlenberg  et  ai.  (1990), 
Salewski  (1997a). 

Phoenicurus  phoenicurus  Redstart.  S,  P(Oct“-Apr),  u.  FGU. 


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Saxicola  rubetra  Whinchat.  P/S,  P(Sep“Apr),  f.  FGU. 

{Oenanthe  oenanihe  European  Wheatear.  S,  P(Jan-Feb),  v.  FGU.) 

Myrmecocichla  albifrons  White-fronted  Black  Chat.  S,  RB,  f/c.  FGU. 

Sylvidae 

Melocichla  mentalis  African  Moustached  Warbler.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 

Acrocephalus  schoenobaenus  Sedge  Warbler.  W,  P,  u.  Salewski  (1997a),  Balchin  (1988). 

A.  scirpaceus  Reed  Warbler.  W,  P(Oct— Apr),  u.  FGU. 

(A.  arundinaceus  Great  Reed  Warbler.  W,  P(Oct-Apr),  v.  FGU,  Williams  (1997).) 
(Hippolais pallida  Olivaceous  Warbler.  S,  P,  v.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991),  Williams  (1997).) 
(//.  icterina  Icterine  Warbler.  ?,  P,  v.  Williams  (1997).) 

H.  polyglotta  Melodious  Warbler.  S,  P(Oct-Apr),  c.  FGU,  VS+. 

Eremomela  pusilla  Green-backed  Eremomela.  S/F,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

{Sylvietta  virens  Green  Crombec.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

{S.  denti  Lemon-bellied  Crombec.  ?,  ?,  r.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 

S.  brachyura  Northern  Crombec.  S/P,  RB,  f FGU. 

{Macrosphenus  concolor  Grey  Longbill.  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

Phylloscopus  trochilus  Willow  Warbler.  S/F,  P(Oct-Apr),  a.  FGU. 

P.  sibilatrix  Wood  Warbler.  F,  P(Oct-Apr),  u.  FGU. 

P.  collybita  Chiffchaff  ?,  P,  v.  Williams  (1997),  Salewski  (1997a). 

Hyliota  flavigaster  Yellow-bellied  Hyliota.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Hylia  prasina  Green  Hylia.  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

Sylvia  borin  Garden  Warbler.  S/F,  P(Oct“Apr),  u/f  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

S.  atricapilla  Blackcap.  S/F,  P(Dec-Mar),  u.  FGU. 

S.  communis  Common  Whitethroat,  S/P,  P(Dec-Mar),  v/u.  FGU,  Balchin  (1988). 

{S.  hortensis  Orphean  Warbler.  ?,  P.  Tentatively  identified  by  Williams  (1997)  but 
needs  confirmation.) 

Cisticola  eximinus  Black-backed  Cloud  Cisticola.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

C.  juncidis  Fan-tailed  Cisticola.  P,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

C natalensis  Croaking  Cisticola.  S/P,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

(C.  ruficeps  Red-pate  Cisticola.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Balchin  (1988).) 

C brachypterus  Short-winged  Cisticola.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

C.  lateralis  Whistling  Cisticola.  S,  RB,  c/a.  FGU. 

C erythrops  Red-faced  Cisticola.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 

C.  cantans  Singing  Cisticola.  S,  RB,  a.FGU,  VS+. 

C,  galactotes  Greater  Black-backed  Cisticola,  W/S,  RB,  f FGU. 

Prinia  subflava  Tawny-flanked  Prinia.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Heliolais  erythroptera  Red-winged  Warbler.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Apalis  flavida  Yellow-breasted  Apalis.  S/F,  R,  u.  FGU,  VS+. 

{A.  nigriceps  Black-capped  Apalis.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

{A.  sharpii  Sharp’s  Apalis.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Camaroptera  brachyura  Bleating  Bush  Warbler.  F,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

(C.  superciliaris  Yellow-browed  Camaroptera.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 


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(C.  chloronota  Olive-green  Camaroptera.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Hypergerus  atriceps  Oriole  Warbler.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU,  VS+. 

Muscicapidae 

Bradornis  pallidus  Pallid  Flycatcher.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Melaenornis  edolioides  Western  Black  Flycatcher.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{Fraseria  ocreaia  Forest  Flycatcher.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

F.  cinerascens  White-browed  Forest  Flycatcher.  F.  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Ficedula  hypoleuca  Pied  Flycatcher.  F/S,  P(Sep“Apr),  a.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 
Muscicapa  striata  Spotted  Flycatcher.  S,  P(Sep-Apr),  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

M.  gambagae  Gambaga  Flycatcher.  S/F,  RB,  f.  Balchin  (1988),  Salewski,  (1997a), 
Falk  (1998). 

M aquatica  Swamp  Flycatcher.  W/F,  ?,  r.  Salewski’s  (1997)  was  the  first  published 
record  but  the  species  had  already  been  mist-netted  nearby  in  Mar  1979  by  I.  Kühn 
and  W.  Werres  (1.  Kühn  pers.  comm..). 

M cassini  Cassin’s  Grey  Flycatcher.  W/F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

M.  caerulescens  Ashy  Flycatcher.  F,  RB,  u.  Salewski  (1997a). 

Myioparus  plumbeus  Lead-coloured  Flycatcher.  F/S,  RB,  f.  FGU,  VS+. 

Platysteiridae 

Batis  senegalensis  Senegal  Batis.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{Dyaphorophyia  castanea  Chestnut  Wattle-eye.  F,  RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

Platysteira  cyanea  Scarlet-spectacled  Wattle-eye.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Monarchidae 

{Erythrocercus  mccalli  Chestnut-capped  Flycatcher.  F,  RB,  r.  (VS-).) 

Elminia  longicauda  Blue  Flycatcher.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Terpsiphone  viridis  Paradise  Flycatcher.  F,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

T.  rufiventer  Red-bellied  Paradise  Flycatcher.  F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Timalitdae 

{llladopsis  fulvescens  Brown  Illadopsis.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

/.  puveli  PuveFs  Illadopsis.  F-(S),  RB,  f FGU,  Salewski  (1997c). 

Turdoides  plebejus  Brown  Babbler.  S/F-(N),  RB,  f/c.  FGU. 

T.  reinwardii  Blackcap  Babbler.  F-(N),  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Phyllanthus  atripennis  Capuchin  Babbler.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Paridae 

Parus  leucomeias  White-winged  Black  Tit.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Remizidae 

(Anthoscopus  parvulus  West  African  Penduline  Tit.  S-(N),  RB,  u.  (VS-).) 

Certhiidae 

Salpornis  spilonotus  Spotted  Creeper.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU,  VS+. 

Nectariniidae 

(Anthreptes  fraseri  Fraser's  Sunbird.  F,  R,  r/u.  FGU.) 

A.  gabonicus  Brown  Sunbird.  F/W,  RB,  r.  FGU. 

A.  longuemarei  Violet-backed  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 


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(À.  recîirosîris  Yellow-chinned  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

A.  collaris  Collared  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

A.  platurus  Pygmy  Sunbird.  S,  MB{Oct~Mar),  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

{Nectarinia  seimundi  Little  Green  Sunbird.  S,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

N.  olivacea  Olive  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

N.  verticalis  Green-headed  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

N.  senegalensis  Scarlet-chested  Sunbird.  S/F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{N.  adelberîi  Buff-throated  Sunbird.  S,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

N.  venusta  Yellow-bellied  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

{N.  chloropygia  Olive-bellied  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

N.  cuprea  Coppery  Sunbird.  S/F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

N.  coccinigaster  Splendid  Sunbird.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

N.  pulchella  Beautiful  Sunbird.  S/F,  RB,  f/c.  FGU,  VS. 

{N.  Johannae  Johanna’s  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

(N.  superba  Superb  Sunbird.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

Zosteropidae 

Zosterops  senegalensis  Yellow  White-eye.  S/F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Oriolidae 

(Oriolus  oriolus  European  Golden  Oriole.  ?,  P,  v.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991).) 

O.  auratus  African  Golden  Oriole.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Thiollay  (1985). 

(O.  brachyrhynchus  Western  Black-headed  Oriole.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

O.  nigripennis  Black-winged  Oriole.  F,  RB,  u/f  FGU. 

Laniidae 

{Lanius  collaris  Fiscal  Shrike.  S/P,  RB,  r/u.  (VS-).) 

L.  senator  Woodchat  Shrike.  S/P,  P,  u.  FGU. 

L.  gubernaîor  Ermin’s  Shrike.  S,  RB,  f Suspected  breeding  in  the  park  (Balchin 
1990).  Courtship  feeding  observed  Apr  1997.  Female  with  incubation  patch  mist- 
netted  Mar  1998  (K.H.  Falk,  pers.  comm.). 

Corvinella  corvina  Yellow-billed  Shrike.  S-(N),  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

Malaconotidae 

Nilaus  afer  Brubru.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 

Dryoscopus  gambensis  Northern  Puffback,  S/F,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{Tchagra  australis  Brown-headed  Tchagra.  S-S,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 

T.  senegala  Black-crowned  Tchagra.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Laniarius  aethiopicus  Tropical  Boubou.  S/F,  RB,  c.  FGU,  VS+. 

L.  barbarus  Yellow-crowned  Gonolek.  S/F/W,  RB,  c.  FGU,  VS. 

Malaconotus  sulfure opectus  Orange-breasted  Bush  Shrike.  S/F,  RB,  c.  FGU,  VS+. 

(M  multicolor  Many-coloured  Bush  Shrike.  F/S,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

M.  blanchoti  Grey-headed  Bush  Shrike.  S,  RB,  r.  Thiollay  (1985). 

Nicator  chloris  Western  Nicator.  F,  RB,  f FGU. 

Prionopidae 

Prionops  plumatus  White  Helmet  Shrike.  S/F,  RB,  f/c.  FGU. 


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{P.  caniceps  Northern  Red-billed  Helmet  Shrike.  F,  RB,  ?.  Thioliay  (1985).) 
Dicruridae 

Dicrurus  ludwigii  Square-tailed  Drongo.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

{D.  atripennis  Shining  Drongo.  F,  RB,  r.  FGU.) 

D.  adsimilis  Fork-tailed  Drongo.  S/F,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

Corvidae 

{Ptilosîomus  afer  Piapiac.  S-N,  RB,  r.  FGU,  Thioliay  (1985).) 

Corvus  albus  Pied  Crow.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

Sturnidae 

{Onychognathus  fulgidus  Forest  Chestnut-winged  Starling.  S,  RB,  r/u.  FGU.) 
{Lamprotornis  purpureus  Purple  Glossy  Starling.  S-(N),  RB,  u.  (VS-).) 

{L  chaîcurus  Bronze-tailed  Glossy  Starling.  S-N,  RB,  u.  (VS-).) 

{L  chaiybaeus  Greater  Blue-eared  Starling.  S,  M(DeC“Mar),  r/u.  FGU.) 

L chloropterus  Lesser  Blue-eared  Starling.  S-S,  MB(Oct~-May),  a.  FGU. 

L caudatus  Northern  Long-tailed  Starling.  S/P,  M(NoV“Apr),  u.  FGU. 
Cinnyricinclus  leucogasîer  Violet-backed  Starling.  S,  MB,  a.  FGU,  Thioliay  (1985). 
Buphagus  africanus  Yellow-billed  Oxpecker.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Passeridae 

Passer  griseus  Grey-headed  Sparrow.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

Petronia  dentata  Bush  Petronia.  S/P,  RB,  c.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

Ploceidae 

Plocepasser  superciliosus  Chestnut-crowned  Sparrow-weaver.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU,  VS. 
Pioceus  luteolus  Little  Weaver.  S/P,  RB,  u/f.  Salewski  (1997a). 

P.  nigricoîiis  Black-necked  Weaver.  F/S,  RB,  f.  Demey  & Fishpool  (1991),  Salewski  (1997a). 
{P.  heuglini  Heuglin’s  Masked  Weaver.  S,  RB,  u.  (VS-).) 

{P.  nigerrimus  Vieillot’ s Black  Weaver.  F,  RB,  r/u.  FGU,  Thioliay  (1985).) 

P.  cucuilatus  Village  Weaver.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{P.  superciliosus  Compact  Weaver.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

{Malimbus  nitens  Blue-billed  Malimbe.  F,  RB,  u.  (VS-).) 

(M  rubricollis  Red-headed  Malimbe.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Anaplectes  rubriceps  Red-headed  Weaver.  S/F,  RB,  u.  Thioliay  (1985). 

Quelea  eryihrops  Red-headed  Quelea.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

{Euplectes  afer  Yellow-crowned  Bishop.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

E.  hordeaceus  Black-winged  Red  Bishop.  S-(5),  RB,  f.  FGU. 

E.  franciscanus  Northern  Red  Bishop.  S-(N),  RB,  u/f.  FGU. 

E.  macrourus  Yellow-mantled  Whydah.  S/P,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

E.  ardens  Red-collared  Whydah.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU. 

{Amblyospiza  albifrons  Thick-billed  Weaver.  S/W,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Estrildidae 

{Nigrita  canicapilla  Grey-crowned  Negrofmch.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

{N.  bicolor  Chestnut-breasted  Neg)pfmch.  F,  RB,  î^.FGU.) 

{Nesocharis  capistrata  White-cheeked  Olive-back.  S/F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 


74 


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Pytiîia  hypogrammica  Yellow-winged  Pytilia.  S/P,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

P.  phoenicoptera  Red-winged  Pytilia.  S/P,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

{Pyrenestes  sanguineus  Crimson  Seed-cracker.  F,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Spermophaga  haematina  Bluebill.  F,  RB,  f.  FGU. 

Mandingoa  niîiduia  Green  Twinspot.  F,  ?,  ?.  Salewski  & Korb  (1998). 

Lagonosticta  rufopicta  Brown  Firefmch.  S,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

L.  senegala  Red-billed  Firefmch.  S-(N),  RB,  u/f.  FGU,  VS. 

L ram  Black-bellied  Firefmch.  S,  RB,  f FGU. 

L rubricata  Blue-billed  Firefmch.  S,  RB,  u/f  FGU,  VS. 

L.  larvaîa  Black-faced  Firefmch.  S,  RB,  f FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

Estrilda  caerulescens  Lavender  Waxbill.  S/F,  RB,  f.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 

E.  melpoda  Orange-cheeked  Waxbill.  S,  RB,  c.  FGU. 

{E.  troglodytes  Black-rumped  Waxbill.  S,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

{E.  astrild  Common  Waxbill.  S,  R,  u.  FGU.) 

Uraeginthus  bengalus  Red-cheeked  Cordon-bleu.  S,  RB,  a.  FGU,  Salewski  (1997a). 
{Amandava  subflava  Zebra  Waxbill.  S/W,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

Ortygospiza  atricollis  Quail  Finch.  S,  RB,  u/f  FGU. 

Lonchura  cucullata  Bronze  Mannikin.  S/P,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

Viduidae 

{Vidua  chalybeata  Village  Indigobird.  S-N,  RB,  u.  FGU.) 

(V.  wilsoni  Pale-winged  Indigobird.  S-N,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Balchin  (1988,  1990).) 

V cammerunensis  Cammeroon  Indigobird.  S,  RB,  / FGU.  Recorded  for  the  park 
(FGU  1980)  and  Ivory  Coast  (Thiollay  1985)  but  not  mentioned  by  Dowsett  & 
Dowsett-Lemaire  (1993). 

V.  macroura  Pin-tailed  Widow.  S/P,  RB,  f FGU. 

V.  togoensis  Togo  Paradise  Widow.  S,  RB,  fc.  FGU,  VS. 

Fringiilidae 

Serinus  mozambicus  Yellow-fronted  Canary.  S,  RB,  a.  FGU. 

S.  gularis  Streaky-headed  Seed-eater.  S,  RB,  u/f  FGU,  Balchin  (1988),  VS. 

Emberizidae 

{Emberiza  tahapisi  Cinnamon-breasted  Rock  Bunting.  S-N,  RB,  u.  FGU,  Demey  & 
Fishpool  (1991).) 

{E.  affinis  Brown-rumped  Bunting.  ?,  ?,  r.  Thiollay  1985,  Balchin  (1988).) 

E.  cabanisi  Cabanis’s  Bunting.  S,  R,  u/f  FGU. 


Acknowledgments 

I wish  to  thank  F.  Bairlein  and  B.  Leisler  who  made  it  possible  to  stay  in  Ivory  Coast. 
S.  Eggers,  J.  Fry,  F.  Goken,  J.  Korb,  K.  Kouadio,  A.  Kouakou  Kouadio,  Lakado,  G. 
Nikolaus,  L.  Pommerencke,  S.  Schmidt,  D.  v.  Stünzner-Karbe,  D.T.  Tietze  and  P. 
Yao  were  of  invaluable  help  in  the  field.  K.E.  Linsenmair  allowed  use  of  the  facilities 


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of  the  camp  of  the  University  of  Würzburg.  The  Ministère  des  Eaux  et  Forêts  gave 
permission  to  conduct  research  in  the  park.  G.  Manners  kindly  improved  the  English. 
I.  Kühn,  J.-M.  Thiollay  and  W.  Werres  allowed  use  of  the  records  in  FGU  (1980)  and 
provided  useful  unpublished  information  (it  was  not  possible  to  contact  the  other 
authors  of  that  report).  The  project  was  supported  by  the  Deutsche  Forschungs- 
gemeinschaft  and  Volkswagen  AG. 


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Rahm,  U.  & Bienek,  B.(1973)  Etude  des  Parcs  Nationaux,  Côte  d'ivoire. 
Steigenberger  Consulting,  Frankfurt. 

Salewski,  V.  (1997a)  Notes  on  some  bird  species  from  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivory 
Coast.  Malimbus  19:  61-67. 

Salewski,  V.  (1997b)  The  immature  plumage  of  Sun  Lark  Galerida  modesta.  Bull. 
Afr.  Bird  Club  4:  136. 

Salewski,  V.  (1997c)  Discovery  of  the  nest  of  Puvel’s  Akalat  Illadopsis  puveli. 
Malimbus  19:  34-36 

Salewski,  V.  (1998a)  Brown-throated  Sand  Martin  Riparia  paludicola,  new  for 
Ivory  Coast.  Malimbus  20:  127-128. 

Salewski,  V.  (1998b)  A record  of  an  immature  Ovambo  Sparrowhawk  from  Ivory 

Coast.  Bull  Afr.  Bird  Club  5:  120-121 

Salewski,  V.  & Korb,  J.  (1998)  New  bird  records  from  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivory 
Coast.  Malimbus  20:  54-55. 

Salewski,  V.,  Bobek,  M.,  PeSke,  L.  & Pojer,  F.  (2000)  Status  of  the  Black  Stork 
Ciconia  nigra  in  Ivory  Coast.  Malimbus  22:  86-87. 

Thiollay,  J.-M.  (1985)  The  birds  of  Ivory  Coast:  status  and  distribution.  Malimbus 

7:  1-59. 

Walsh,  J.  F.  (1977)  Nesting  of  the  Jabiru  Stork  Ephippiorhynchus  senegalensis  in 
West  Africa.  Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club  97:  136. 

Williams,  E.  (1997)  Unusual  records  of  Palaearctic  warblers  Sylviidae  in  Ivory 
Coast.  Malimbus  19:  33-34. 


2000 


77 


Noteworthy  records  from  Ginak  Island,  The  Gambia 

by  Michael  King 

Stonehaven,  16  Marsh  Road,  Rode,  Bath,  Somerset  BA3  6PE,  U.K. 
Received  3 September  1999;  revised  22  May  2000. 

Summary 

Four  species  new  to  The  Gambia  are  reported:  Red-footed  Falcon  Falco  vesper- 
iinus,  Eurasian  Scops  Owl  Otus  scops.  Barred  Warbler  Sylvia  nisoria  and  Lesser 
Whitethroat  S.  curruca.  The  Gambian  status  of  four  species,  Grasshopper  Warbler 
Lociistella  naevia,  Reed  Warbler  Acrocephalus  scirpaceus.  Olivaceous  Warbler 
Hippolais  pallida  and  Orphean  Warbler  Sylvia  hortensis,  is  significantly  modified 
by  trapping  records.  Observations  of  note  on  38  other  species  are  presented. 

Résumé 

Je  cite  quatre  espèces  nouvelles  pour  La  Gambie:  le  Faucon  kobez  Falco 
vespertinus,  le  Petit-duc  scops  Otus  scops,  la  Fauvette  épervière  Sylvia  nisoria  et  la 
Fauvette  babillarde  Sylvia  curruca.  Le  statut  pour  La  Gambie  de  quatre  espèces,  la 
Locustelle  tachetée  Locustella  naevia,  la  Rousserolle  effarvate  Acrocephalus 
scirpaceus,  FHypolaïs  pâle  Hippolais  pallida  et  la  Fauvette  orphée  Sylvia 
hortensis,  se  voit  considérablement  modifié  par  les  données  de  capture.  Sont 
également  fournies  des  observations  ou  notes  sur  38  autres  espèces. 


Study  Area 

Ginak  Island  is  situated  in  North  Bank  Division  at  the  mouth  of  the  River  Gambia,  at 
13®34'N,  16°32'W.  It  is  a long,  narrow  island  (10  km  by  max.  2.5  km),  set  on  a north- 
south  axis,  low-lying  and  sandy  on  the  west  coast  and  separated  from  the  mainland  on 
the  east  by  a mangrove-fringed  channel,  nowhere  wider  than  300  m.  The  highest  point 
is  about  4 m a.s.l.  Ginak  falls  within  the  Guinea  savanna  zone.  Day  temperatures  vary 
from  18°C  (dawn)  to  44°C  but  34®C  is  a more  usual  maximum.  There  are  shallow 
pools  in  October  left  from  the  rains  and  tidal  overflows,  which  gradually  dry  up  by 
February.  Vegetation  is  lush  in  October  with  tall,  dense  grasses  which  die  back 
leaving  a parched  open  ground  layer  by  late  January.  The  west  coastal  strip  has  a line 
of  low  bushes  some  200  m wide  {Maytenus  senegalensis,  Tamarix  pentandra  and 
others),  with  groups  of  trees  of  various  Acacia  species  and  Baobab  Adansonia 
digitata. 


78 


M.B.  King 


Malimbus  22 


Methods 

These  notes  summarize  records  collected  from  birds  trapped  and  observed  at  the 

northern  end  of  Ginak  island.  Trapping  sites  were  normally  within  200  m of  the  W 
coast,  but  observations  were  made  over  many  km^.  Trapping  operations  were  carried 
out  mainly  during  the  dry  season  (November  to  March)  but  often  including  the  end  of 
the  rains  in  late  September  and  October  (Table  1),  by  teams  of  2-6  ringers,  each 
individual  usually  staying  for  two  weeks.  The  first  visit  was  in  December  1994  and 
operations  continued  through  to  March  2000.  The  primary  aim  was  to  catch 
Palaearctic  migrants.  No  attempt  was  made  to  census  numbers. 


Table  1.  Trapping  coverage. 


Year 

Period 

Trapping  days‘ 

1994-1995 

December 

5 

February-April 

35 

1995-1996 

October-April 

147 

1996-1997 

October-April 

147 

1997-1998 

October  & November 

28 

January-March 

71 

1998-1999 

September-November 

30 

January-March 

60 

1999-2000 

September-November 

38 

January-March 

55 

‘One  trapping  day  was  approximately  5 hours. 


Species  are  included  in  this  paper  only  where  our  records  supplement  data  given 
in  Barlow  & Wacher  (1997),  either  as  new  records  for  the  country  or  area,  modifying 
the  species’  status,  further  records  of  infrequently  recorded  species  or  other  interesting 
observations.  All  references  to  current  status,  in  square  brackets,  are  to  Barlow  & 
Wacher  (1997).  Wing  measurements  were  made  by  the  maximum  length  (flattened 
and  straightened  wing)  method  described  by  Svensson  ( 1 992). 


Notes  on  Species 


Accipitridae 

Chelictinia  riocourii  Swallow-tailed  Kite.  Singles  seen  Jan  1997  and  Jan-Feb  1999. 

[Uncommon.] 

Falconidae 

Falco  vespertinus  Red-footed  Falcon.  On  3 Nov  1999,  Friederike  Woog  and  I had  a 

close  view  of  a male,  perched  at  a distance  of  less  than  10  m for  5 s;  it  flew  off 


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Birds  of  Ginak  Island 


79 


rapidly,  giving  a 10-s  view  of  its  upper  side.  It  was  a small  falcon,  about  the  size  of 

Hobby  F.  subbuteo,  all  black  with  bright  red  cere  and  legs.  In  flight,  the  upperparts 
were  all  black  with  the  primaries  semi-transparent,  therefore  giving  them  a lighter 
appearance.  There  was  no  facial  pattern.  First  record  for  The  Gambia,  though  there 
have  been  several  in  both  N and  S Senegal  (Morel  & Morel  1990,  Sauvage  & Rodwell 
1998).  [No  Gambian  records,  but  likely.] 

Phasianidae 

Coturnix  coturnix  Common  Quail.  One  trapped,  Jan  1998.  [Palaearctic  migrant,  few 

records.] 

Turnicidae 

Turnix  sylvatica  Little  Button-Quail.  One  trapped,  Jan  1999.  [Infrequent  and  local, 
usually  further  inland.] 

Ortyxelos  meiffreni  Quail-Plover.  One  seen,  26  Jan  1998.  In  flight  showed  bowed 
wings,  lark-like  flight  and  predominantly  white  upper  wing:  seen  briefly  at  rest  it  had 
sandy-brown  mantle  with  dark  mottling,  spotted  breast-band  and  creamy-white 
supercilium.  [Two  recent  previous  records.] 

Pteroclidae 

Pterocles  exustus  Chestnut-bellied  Sandgrouse.  One  male  and  two  females  seen  16 
Feb  1996.  One  male  and  one  female,  Feb  2000.  [Rare,  with  a few  recent  records 
upriver.] 

Cuculidae 

Clamator  jacobinus  Jacobin  Cuckoo.  One  immature  trapped,  Oct  1997,  was  still  in 
juvenile  plumage  with  no  sign  of  any  post-juvenile  moult.  Primaries  fully  grown, 
wing  150  mm  . Rarely  recorded  in  The  Gambia,  but  N Senegal  and  S Mauritania  are 
within  its  breeding  range  (Urban  et  ai  1988,  Morel  & Morel  1990).  Young  birds  in 
this  state  of  plumage  do  not  usually  move  far  from  their  natal  area,  but  if  raised  in  N 
Senegal  it  could  have  moved  rapidly  south.  [Rare  to  uncommon.] 

C glandarius  Great  Spotted  Cuckoo.  Three  trapped,  Dec  1995.  Not  previously 
recorded  on  the  north  bank  but  frequently  seen  near  the  coast  on  the  south  bank  of  the 
river  so  its  occurrence  here  is  not  unexpected.  Two  were  immature,  both  female  on 
wing-length;  the  other  was  adult  male.  [Frequent  in  Western  Division.] 

Strigidae 

Otus  scops  Eurasian  Scops  Owl.  Two  caught  Jan-Feb  1996  (mentioned  by  Barlow  & 
Wacher  1997)  and  one  Jan  1998,  all  determined  to  be  this  species  by  wing-length: 
158,  149,  164  mm  (the  largest  O.  senegalensis  is  138mm:  Urban  et  al.  1988).  First 
records  for  The  Gambia. 

Upupidae 

Upupa  epops  Hoopoe.  Eleven  caught.  Photographs  of  two  show  clearly  the  wing 
pattern  depicted  in  Fry  et  ai  (1988).  Although  hoopoes  are  frequently  recorded,  it  is 
not  always  easy  to  separate  this  species  from  U.  senegalensis  in  the  field;  in  the  hand 
the  white  subterminal  bands  on  the  crown  feathers  of  U.  epops  species  are  easily  seen. 
U.  senegalensis  African  Hoopoe.  Six  caught.  A photograph  of  one  does  not  show  the 


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M.B.  King 


Maîimbus  22 


ends  of  the  primaries;  the  pattern  of  the  secondaries  approaches  that  shown  in  Fry  et 
al.  ( 1 998)  for  epops,  but  the  crown  feathers  have  no  white  sub-terminal  band  and  the 
crown  colour  is  cinnamon-rufous,  whereas  photographs  of  epops  show  more  huffish. 
Picidae 

Campethera  abingoni  Golden-tailed  Woodpecker.  Five  trapped:  male,  30  Mar  1995; 
female,  17  Jan  1996;  female,  4 Feb  1997;  male  25  Jan  1998;  female  28  Feb  2000.  The 
first  four  of  these  were  retrapped  and  the  maximum  present  within  a week  was  two 
males  in  Jan  1998.  There  were  no  sight  records.  Photographs  of  a male  showed  ear 
coverts  grey,  blotched  black,  and  neck,  breast,  flanks,  belly  and  under  tail  coverts 
buff,  heavily  streaked  black.  Photographs  of  a female  show  the  distinctive  large  black 
streaks  on  flanks  and  neck.  Fine-spotted  Woodpecker  C.  punctuligera  was  common, 
often  with  two  present  within  one  week.  Cardinal  Woodpecker  Dendropicos  fuscens 
was  also  common,  with  up  to  three  in  a week.  All  three  species  were  trapped  in  the 
same  area  (less  than  1 km  x 200  m)  where  both  the  common  species  are  known  to 
breed.  [Rare.] 

Dendropicos  obsoletus  Brown-backed  Woodpecker.  One  trapped,  Nov  1995.  [Few 
records  outside  Western  and  Lower  River  Divisions.] 

Alaudidae 

Mirafra  rufocinnamomea  Flappet  Lark.  One  trapped,  Nov  1998.  [Few  records,  status 
poorly  known.] 

Hirundinidae 

Hirundo  rustica  Bam  Swallow.  Small  numbers  during  winter,  a slight  increase  in  late 
Feb  when  a few  (mostly  immatures)  were  just  finishing  primary  moult.  [Seldom 
common:  usually  briefly  frequent  on  passage.] 

H.  lucida  Red-chested  Swallow.  Regular  in  small  numbers  with  occasional  larger 
movements  which  could  be  a local  migration:  e.g.  42  trapped  on  8 Oct  1995,  53 
during  Feb  1996,  probably  representing  < 10%  of  those  present  on  those  dates. 
[Abundant  throughout.] 

Motacillidae 

Anthus  cervinus  Red-throated  Pipit.  One  caught,  Nov  1998:  wing  87,  hind  claw  12 
mm.  [Uncommon  migrant.] 

Turdidae 

Phoenicurus  phoenicurus  Redstart.  Average  caught  wintering:  60.  One  ringed  at 
Ginak  on  12  Feb  96  was  killed  near  Ross-on-Wye,  U.K.  on  6 May  96  (Toms  & Clark 
1998);  one  ringed  near  Rosyth,  Scotland  on  19  Jul  97  was  trapped  at  Ginak  on  23  Oct 
97.  [Common  migrant.] 

Sylviidae 

Locustella  naevia  Grasshopper  Warbler.  Total  of  20  trapped  (Table  2).  Key  features 
were:  feathers  of  crown,  mantle,  upper  wing-coverts  and  tertials  with  black-brown 
centres,  broadly  fringed  and  tipped  buff.  Rump  similar  but  feathers  with  narrow 
centres  and  very  broad  fringes.  Primaries  brown-black,  narrowly  fringed  paler  on 
outer  webs;  secondaries  similar  but  more  broadly  fringed  on  outer  webs.  Throat  with 


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Birds  of  Ginak  Island 


81 


necklace  of  small,  dark  spots.  Breast  rich  rufous  buff  Belly  shading  to  pale  buff  of 
chin.  Wing  66.5  mm.  One  ringed  at  Ginak  on  25  Jan  96  was  found  dead  on  a road  in 
NW  Germany  on  22  Jun  96  (Toms  et  al.  1998).  [Limited  information,  probably  under- 
recorded, likely  to  be  more  regular.]  Our  records  confirm  this  suggestion. 


Table  2.  Grasshopper  Warblers  present  by  month  (including  retraps). 


1996 

1997 

1998 

1999 

2000 

Total 

January 

5 

3 

2 

1 

11 

February 

4 

1 

2 

1 

8 

March 

1 

2 

3 

Acrocephaius  schoenobaenus  Sedge  Warbler.  About  three  caught  per  year  on  passage 

{c.  10%  of  the  number  of  Reed  Warblers).  [Uncommon,  likely  under-recorded.] 

A.  scirpaceus  Reed  Warbler.  Despite  Ginak  not  having  very  suitable  habitat  for  the 
species,  an  average  of  25  were  caught  on  passage  each  year.  One  ringed  in 
Hampshire,  U.K.,  19  Aug  98,  was  trapped  at  Ginak  on  5 Oct  98;  very  few  of  the 
ringed  birds  caught  in  N Senegal  were  of  British  origin  at  this  time  of  year  (S. 
Rumsey  pers.  comm.).  Probably  a common  but  much  overlooked  wintering  species  in 
The  Gambia,  since  in  Feb  1994  large  numbers  were  seen  in  reed  beds  near  Dankunku, 
Central  River  Division  (pers.  obs.)  and  in  Feb  1998  some  were  caught  there.  Difficult 
to  separate  in  the  field  from  African  Reed  Warbler  A.  baeticatus,  for  which  there  are 
few  Gambian  records.  [Few  records.] 

A.  arundimceus  Great  Reed  Warbler.  Two  caught  in  each  of  Oct  and  Dec  1995  and 
one  in  Feb  2000.  [Few  records.] 

Hippolais  polyglotta  Melodious  Warbler.  Common  on  autumn  passage,  a few  winter; 
average  54  per  year  caught.  On  arrival  in  mid-Sep  they  had  just  started  moult. 
[Frequent  winter  visitor.] 

H.  pallida  Olivaceous  Warbler.  Subspecies  opaca  common  on  passage,  with  fair 
numbers  wintering;  average  65  caught  per  year.  Main  arrivals  from  early  Oct,  in 
moult  state  ranging  from  all  old  primaries  to  80%  complete.  Active  moult  also 
recorded  Nov  (one  in  interrupted  moult),  but  most  later  than  this  were  in  new 
plumage.  Subspecies  reiseri  is  a partial  intra-African  migrant,  easily  distinguished  in 
the  hand  by  bill  shape,  wing  length  and  wing  formula.  About  16  of  this  subspecies 
were  caught  each  year. 

Phylloscopus  bonelii  Western  Bonelli’s  Warbler.  Passage  migrant  in  small  numbers 
both  autumn  and  spring  with  a few  wintering.  Three  records  of  recurrence  in 
successive  years.  [Uncommon  regular  winter  visitor.] 

P.  sibilatrix  Wood  Warbler.  One  caught,  30  Mar  1997:  a largish  Phylloscopus  warbler 
(wing  71  mm)  with  yellow-green  upperparts,  bright  yellow  throat  and  white  breast 
and  belly.  [Few  positive  records.] 

P.  collybita  Chiffchaff  Usually  a small  passage  with  relatively  many  wintering  (Table 


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MB.  King 


Malimbus  22 


3).  Fed  in  the  tops  of  acacias  from  Dec  when  they  are  in  leaf,  where  highly  visible  but 
not  easily  caught.  In  the  1995-6  season,  exceptionally  large  numbers  were  trapped 
(125  compared  with  the  average  for  other  years  of  22).  The  1995-96  catch  might 
seem  to  contradict  the  suggestion  that  they  are  not  easily  caught  after  December,  since 
the  catching  areas  did  not  alter,  but  the  large  catch  probably  resulted  from  exceptional 
numbers  present  that  winter  (cf.  Blackcap  S.  atricapilla).  [Frequent  winter  visitor.] 


Table  3.  Numbers  of  Chiffchaffs  ringed  during  December  and  January. 


Year 

December 

January 

Total 

Coverage 

Birds  per  day 

1995-96 

25 

56 

81 

Full,  57days 

1.42 

1996-97 

16 

5 

21 

Full,  50days 

0.42 

1997-98 

18 

18 

no  Dec,  22days 

0.81 

1998-99 

4 

4 

no  Dec,  14days 

0.29 

1999-2000 

9 

9 

no  Dec,  14days 

0.64 

P.  trochilus  Willow  Warbler.  Common  on  autumn  and  spring  passage,  on  average 

about  twice  as  many  as  Chiffchaffs.  Did  not  winter,  none  being  recorded  from  early 
Dec  until  Feb.  [Frequent  passage  migrant  throughout.] 

Sylvia  nisoria  Barred  Warbler.  One  caught,  Feb  1999:  a very  large,  grey  Sylvia  (wing 
90  mm)  with  distinct  yellow  eye  and  some  barring.  Forehead  crown,  nape  and  mantle 
flecked  brown-grey.  Lores  and  ear  coverts  grey;  no  distinct  supercilium.  Some  greyish 
barring  on  cheeks  and  side  of  throat.  Underparts  off-white,  with  some  light  barring 
across  upper  breast.  Flanks  with  faint  dark  barring.  First  record  for  The  Gambia. 
Three  previous  records  in  W Africa:  Djoudj  in  Senegal  (Rodwell  et  al.  1996),  Nigeria 
and  Zaire  (Urban  et  al.  1 997). 

S.  hortensis  Orphean  Warbler.  100  caught  of  which  about  25%  were  retrapped  in  the 
same  winter;  clearly  a fairly  common  visitor  on  the  coast,  largely  overlooked  because 
of  its  skulking  habit.  Rarely  seen  by  any  of  our  team  members  in  the  field.  Average 
numbers  caught  per  month  were:  Nov  4,  Dec  6,  Jan  10,  Feb  5,  Mar  3.  [Uncommon, 
probably  under-recorded  in  coastal  scrub.] 

S.  borin  Garden  Warbler.  Abundant  autumn  migrant,  rarely  staying  long.  Exceptional 
after  early  Dec  and  spring  records  extremely  rare.  An  average  of  105  caught  each 
year.  Perhaps  moves  south  and  east  to  Congo,  then  further  south  before  passing 
through  Congo  again  then  going  directly  north  to  Europe,  completing  a circular 
migration  pattern  (see  Curry-Lindahl  1981). 

S.  atricapilla  Blackcap.  Uncommon  but  numbers  varied  widely.  In  the  1995-6  winter 
388  were  caught  (half  on  a fruiting  fig  tree)  compared  with  an  average  of  50  in  other 
years.  Regularly  winters  in  W Africa,  with  considerable  variation  in  numbers  from 
year  to  year  (Cramp  1992).  Two  controls  of  British  ringed  immatures:  one  ringed  in  N 
Yorkshire  25  Sep  1994,  controlled  18  Mar  1995  (Appleton  et  al.  1997);  one  ringed  in 
Hertfordshire  6 Oct  1996,  controlled  19  Dec  1996  (Toms  & Clark  1998). 


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83 


S.  communis  Common  Whitethroat.  Common  passage  migrant  in  both  autumn  and 
spring  with  some  present  all  winter.  About  10%  of  those  trapped  were  recaptured  later 
during  the  same  winter.  Average  yearly  catch  was  182.  The  late  spring  passage 
usually  included  a few  of  the  eastern  subspecies  icterops,  of  which  many  were  in 
active  moult. 

S.  corruca  Lesser  Whitethroat.  Two  caught,  18  Jan  and  9 Feb  1996:  crown  brown 
with  grey  admixed.  Ear  coverts  darker  than  crown.  Chin  and  belly  white.  Flanks  and 
breast-band  buffish  white.  Tertials  brown.  Legs  and  bill  dark  grey.  First  records  for 
The  Gambia  (included  in  Barlow  & Wacher  1997).  Several  caught  at  Djoudj,  N 
Senegal  (Sauvage  & Rodwell  1998). 

S.  cantillans  Subalpine  Warbler.  Common  passage  migrant  in  both  directions;  also 
wintered  in  good  numbers.  About  10%  of  ringed  birds  were  recaptured  later  the  same 
winter.  Fed  high  in  acacias  from  Dec,  when  they  are  in  leaf,  where  highly  visible  but 
not  easily  caught.  Therefore  spring  catches  may  underestimate  numbers  present. 
Average  catch  over  all  years  was  221. 

S.  conspicillata  Spectacled  Warbler.  One  caught,  17  Jan  1996.  A few  caught  in  N 
Senegal  (Rodwell  et  al.  1996).  [Rare  winter  visitor  probably  under-recorded.] 

Muscicapidae 

Muscicapa  striata  Spotted  Flycatcher.  Only  two  caught,  on  autumn  migration. 

[Uncommon  passage  migrant.] 

Fidecula  hypoleuca  Pied  Flycatcher.  Only  recorded  on  autumn  passage.  This  tends  to 
be  early  and  few  were  caught  until  1998  when  trapping  started  earlier  than  usual,  on 
22  Sep:  18  were  caught  by  1 1 Oct  with  a further  12  by  22  Oct.  A nestling  ringed  in 
Cumbria,  U.K.,  29  Jun  1998,  was  caught  Ginak  25  Sep  1998  (J.A.  Clark  pers. 

comm.).  [Passage  migrant,  a few  overwintering.] 

Remizidae 

Remiz  parvulus  Yellow  Penduline  Tit.  Four  caught,  one  in  each  year  1997“2000,  so 
seems  to  be  regular  in  small  numbers.  [Uncommon  to  locally  frequent  resident,  not 
previously  recorded  in  North  Bank  Division.] 

Corvidae 

Ptilostomus  afer  Black  Magpie.  It  is  remarkable  that  none  was  seen,  considering  that 
cattle  are  present  at  all  times. 

Ploceidae 

Ploceus  heugiini  Heuglin’s  Masked  Weaver.  One  caught,  Oct  1995.  [Uncommon  to 
rare  locally,  in  coastal  areas.] 

Queiea  erythrops  Red-headed  Quelea.  16  caught,  Oct-Nov  1995,  including  6 immature, 
6 adult  (2  male , 4 female).  [Uncommon  wet  season  breeder,  most  records  Jul~Sep.] 

Q.  quelea  Red-billed  Quelea.  Singles  caught  Dec  1995,  Apr  1997  and  Feb  1998,  all  in 
eclipse  plumage.  No  others  seen.  [Uncommon  dry  season  visitor.] 

Estrildidae 

Lagonosticta  rufopicta  Bar-breasted  Fire-finch.  One  juvenile  trapped,  Dec  1996,  in 
primary  moult;  it  was  retrapped  Jan-Feb  1999,  by  then  adult,  and  Mar  2000.  It 


84 


M.B.  King 


Malimbus  22 


appears  that  Red-billed  Firefinch  L senegaia  juveniles  have  a complete  post-juvenile 
moult  (Goodwin  1982  quoting  M.-Y.  Morel),  and  possibly  all  Lagonosticta  do  this. 
No  other  adults  were  seen.  [Uncommon,  locally  frequent;  no  recent  records  from 
North  Bank  Division.] 

Ortigospiza  atricoUis  Quail-Finch.  Only  two  caught,  but  regularly  recorded  in  small 
numbers  in  suitable  habitat.  [Locally  common  resident.] 

Amadina  fasciata  Cut-throat  Weaver.  Regular  in  small  numbers.  In  Feb  1998  45  were 
caught  (cf  usual  annual  catch  c.  8),  all  close  by  an  old  Village  Weaver  Ploceus 
cucullatus  colony.  [Rare  at  the  coast;  commonly  utilises  old  weaver  nests.] 


Acknowledgments 

The  Ringing  Committee  of  The  British  Trust  for  Ornithology  authorized  the  use  of 
BTO  rings  for  this  project.  Stephen  Rumsey  of  The  Wetland  Trust  kindly  let  us  use 
their  rings,  made  the  returns  to  BTO  and  supplied  computer-checked  totals  of  all 
species.  In  The  Gambia,  The  Department  of  State  for  The  Presidency,  Fisheries  and 
Natural  Resources  authorized  these  activities,  and  the  Department  of  Parks  and 
Wildlife  Management,  in  the  person  of  the  Director  Dr  A.  Camara,  issued  permits  and 
helped  in  every  way  possible.  The  management  of  Madiyana  Safari  Lodge  was  most 
obliging.  The  comments  of  the  referees  and  editor  were  much  appreciated,  and 
improved  the  style  and  content  considerably.  Many  thanks  are  due  to  all  the  volunteer 
ringers  who  took  part  entirely  at  their  own  expense,  and  without  whom  the  project 
could  not  have  taken  place.  This  is  Publication  no.  2 of  The  Gambia  Ringing  Project. 


References 

Appleton,  G.F.,  Adams,  S.Y.,  Clark,  J.A.,  Simons,  J.R.  & Peach,  W.J.  (1997) 
Report  on  bird  ringing  in  Britain  and  Ireland  for  1995.  Ringing  Migration  18: 
113-158. 

Barlow,  C.  & Wacher,  T.  (1997)  A Field  Guide  to  Birds  of  The  Gambia  and 
Senegal.  Pica  Press,  Mountfield. 

Cramp,  S.  (ed)  (1992)  The  Birds  of  the  Western  Palaearctic,  vol.  6.  Oxford 
University  Press,  Oxford. 

Curry-Lindahl,  K.  (1981)  Bird  Migration  in  Africa.  Academic  Press,  London. 

Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.  & Urban,  E.K.  (eds)  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  3. 
Academic  Press,  London. 

Goodwin,  D.  (1982)  Estrildid  Finches  of  the  World.  Cornell  University  Press,  New  York. 
Morel,  G.J.  & Morel,  M.-Y.  (1990)  Les  Oiseaux  de  Sénégambie.  ORSTOM,  Paris. 


2000 


Birds  of  Ginak  Island 


85 


Rodwell,  S.P.,  Sauvage,  A.,  Rumsey,  S.J.R.  & Braünlich,  A.  (1996)  An  annotated 
check-list  of  birds  occurring  at  the  Parc  National  des  Oiseaux  du  Djoudj  in 
Senegal,  1984--1994.  Malimbus  18:  74-1 11. 

Sauvage,  A.  & Rodwell,  S.P.  (1998)  Notable  observations  of  birds  in  Senegal 
(excluding  Parc  National  des  Oiseaux  de  Djoudj),  1984-1994.  Malimbus  20:  75-122. 
SVENSSON,  L.  (1992)  Identification  Guide  to  European  Passerines,  4th  ed.  Svensson, 
Stockholm. 

Toms,  M.P.  & Clark,  J.A.  (1998)  Bird  ringing  in  Britain  and  Ireland  for  1996. 
Ringing  Migration  19:  95-168. 

Urban,  E.K.,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (eds)  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  voL  2. 
Academic  Press,  London. 

Urban,  E.K,,  Fry,  C.H.  & Keith,  S.  (eds)  (1997)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  5. 
Academic  Press,  London 


86 


Malimbus  22 


Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 


Olive-bellied  Sunbird  Neciarinia  chloropygia  host  to  Cassinis  Honeybird 
Prodotiscus  insignis 

On  3 November  1999,  at  Nguti,  Korup  Project  Area,  SW  Cameroon  (5®20'17.6"N, 
9°25'8.3"E),  we  heard  a short,  thin,  persistently  uttered  “seep”  in  a garden  at  a river’s 
edge.  After  having  tried  to  locate  the  source  of  the  sound  for  some  10  min.,  we  saw  a 
small  bird  with  conspicuous  white  outer  tail  feathers  flying  across  an  open  area.  It 
perched  at  a height  of  3 m in  a young  tree  (Trema  sp.)  at  the  edge  of  the  riverine 
vegetation.  We  watched  it  from  a distance  of  c.  10  m for  12  min.,  when  its  yellowish- 
green  upperparts,  olive-grey  underparts,  blackish  tail  with  white  outer  feathers,  and 
thin,  black  bill  with  pale  edges  to  the  gape  allowed  us  to  identify  it  as  a juvenile 
Cassin’s  Honeybird  Prodotiscus  insignis,  a species  with  which  both  of  us  were 
familiar.  It  called  constantly  and  fluttered  its  wings,  begging  for  food.  While  we 
watched,  a male  Olive-bellied  Sunbird  Neciarinia  chloropygia  came  and  fed  it  five 
times.  A female  Olive-bellied  Sunbird  appeared  twice  in  the  same  tree,  but  did  not 
feed  the  honeybird. 

Cassin’s  Honeybird  is  known  from  Nguti  (Rodewald  et  al.  1994),  while 
Wahiberg’s  Honeybird  P.  regulus  camerunensis,  with  which  it  could  be  confused  in 
Cameroon,  is  only  known  from  montane  areas  (Louette  1981,  Fry  et  al.  1988). 
Juveniles  of  the  latter  also  show  entirely  white  outer  tail  feathers,  but  are  brown,  not 
yellowish-olive  above  and  appear  slightly  larger  (Fry  et  al.  1988). 

This  is  apparently  the  first  definite  record  of  a sunbird  being  host  to  Cassin’s 
Honeybird.  Only  flycatchers,  warblers  and  white-eyes  were  hitherto  recorded  as  hosts 
of  the  species,  but  sunbirds  are  known  to  be  parasitized  by  its  congeners  Wahiberg’s 
Honeybird  and  Eastern  Green-backed  Honeybird  P.  zambesiae  (Fry  et  al.  1988). 

We  thank  Ron  Demey  for  his  comments  on  a first  draft  of  this  note. 

References 

Fry,  C.H.,  Keith,  S.  & Urban,  E.  (1988)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol  3.  Academic  Press, 
London. 

Louette,  M.  (1981)  The  birds  of  Cameroon.  An  annotated  check-list.  Verhandl.  Kon. 

Acad.  Wetensch.  Lett.  Schone  Kunst.  Belg.  43:  1-295. 

Rodewald,  P.G.,  Dejaifve,  P.-A.  & Green,  A.  (1994)  The  birds  of  Korup  National 
Park  and  Korup  Project  Area,  Southwest  Province,  Cameroon.  Bird  Conserv.  înt. 
4:  1-68. 

Received  23  December  1999  Matthias  Waltert*  & Koen  Faber^ 

^Centre  for  Nature  Conservation  (Dept.  I),  Universitat  Gottingen, 
Von-Siebold-StraBe  2,  37075  Gottingen,  Germany 
^Korup  Project,  P.O.Box  3,  Nguti,  B.P.  2417  Douala,  Cameroon 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


87 


Notes  complémentaires  sur  Favifaune  du  Niger 

Notre  note  apporte  des  compléments  sur  Favifaune  du  Niger,  en  ne  présentant  que  les 
observations  d'espèces  peu  communes.  La  notation  des  zones  est  conforme  à celle  de 
Giraudoux  et  al.  (1988).  Les  observations  ont  été  réalisées  de  juin  à juillet  1998  pour 
celles  qui  concernent  la  Zone  2 (région  de  Niamey:  ville  en  elle-même,  fleuve  et 
savane  aux  alentours);  les  observations  à Boubon  (village  le  long  du  fleuve  Niger) 
ayant  eu  lieu  le  26  juillet,  et  celles  de  Kouré  le  23  juillet.  Les  observations  de  la  Zone 
7 (massif  de  FAïr)  se  sont  déroulées  du  1 au  8 août.  La  Zone  2 est  une  zone  sud- 
sahélienne  avec  des  ensembles  dunaires  fixés,  et  dont  une  grande  partie  de  l’espace 
est  occupé  par  des  champs  de  mil,  de  sorgho  et  d’arachide.  Le  fleuve  Niger  et  ses 
affluents  offrent  de  l’eau  libre  en  toutes  saisons  pour  Favifaune.  La  Zone  7 est 
constitué  du  massif  montagneux  de  FAïr,  sorte  de  plateau  d’altitude  (700-800  m) 
entrecoupé  d’un  réseau  de  koris  (oueds)  orientés  vers  Fouest.  Le  paysage  est 
essentiellement  minéral,  mais  le  fond  des  koris  accueillent  de  nombreux  oasis.  Cette 
partie  du  désert  saharien  appartient  à la  zone  afrotropicale  (pluies  en  été)  (Giraudoux 
étal.  1988). 

Une  espèce  nouvelle  au  pays  est  rapportée  {Centropus  leucogaster),  ainsi  que 
deux  espèces  nouvelles  pour  FAïr  {Pterocles  quadricinctus,  Ploceus 
melanocephülus).  Les  autres  observations  concernent  des  dates  ou  des  lieux 
intéressants.  O ^ Occasionnel  (<  10  individus,  en  1-2  observations). 

Ciconia  ciconia  Cigogne  blanche.  Zone  7:  vol  de  60  individus  vers  le  sud,  au-dessus 

de  Gougaram,  6 août. 

Circus  macrourus  Busard  pâle.  Zone  2:  un  à Boubon,  26  juil  (mâle  très  clair,  fin,  avec 
le  bout  des  ailes  noirs,  chassant  très  bas). 

Milvus  migrans  parasitus  Milan  noir.  Zone  2:  O,  Niamey. 

Falco  cuvieri  Hobereau  africain.  Zone  2:  un  à Niamey,  24  juil. 

Tringa  ochropus  Chevalier  cul-blanc.  Zone  7:  un  dans  la  vallée  de  FÂnou  Mekkerene, 
3 août. 

Calidris  ferruginea  Bécasseau  cocorli.  Zone  2:  un  à Niamey,  28  juil. 

Cursorius  cursor  Courvite  isabelle.  Zone  7:  deux  au  niveau  d’Assodé,  4 août.  Cette 
espèce  est  surtout  un  hôte  d’hiver  dans  la  région  (Morel  & Morel,  1990).  Quelques 
observateurs  le  signalent  en  été,  mais  principalement  dans  la  zone  5,  grandes  plaines 
désertiques  à Fouest  de  FAïr,  parfois  inondées  en  été  (Giraudoux  et  al.  1990).  Cette 
observation  ajoute  donc  une  nouvelle  zone  de  stationnement  estival  pour  cette  espèce. 
Pterocles  quadricinctus  Ganga  de  Gambie.  Zone  7:  deux  dans  la  vallée  de  FÂnou 
Mekkerene,  3 août. 

C.  leucogaster  Coucal  à ventre  blanc.  Zone  2:  un  observé  dans  la  zone  boisée 
(cultures  abandonnées,  vergers  et  jardins  avec  de  grands  arbres)  qui  se  situe  sur  la  rive 
droite  du  Niger,  en  face  de  Niamey,  28  juil.  Malgré  le  fait  qu’aucun  individu  de  cette 
espèce  n’ait  été  signalé  aussi  loin  de  toute  grande  région  boisée  (Sauvage  1993),  notre 


88 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


détermination  est  d’autant  plus  certaine  qu’elle  a eu  lieu  juste  après  celle  d’un  C. 
senegalensis,  à l’aide  d’une  longue  vue  et  d’un  ouvrage  d’identification.  Les  critères 
utilisés  ont  été,  en  premier  lieu,  la  poitrine  et  les  joues  noires  (à  la  différence  de  C. 
senegalensis  qui  n’a  qu’une  calotte  noire),  puis  le  dessous  vraiment  blanc  (non  crème) 
ainsi  qu’un  bec  plus  fort  et  une  corpulence  générale  plus  imposante  (les  deux 
individus  des  deux  espèces  observés  à la  même  distance).  Les  données  à cette  latitude 
sont  très  rares,  puisqu’il  n’est  signalé  que  comme  erratique  possible  au  Mali  et  est 
déclaré  absent  du  Burkina-Faso  et  de  Gambie  (Dowsett  8l  Dowsett-Lemaire  1993). 
Seuls  Morel  & Morel  (1990)  le  signalent  à l’extrême  sud  du  Sénégal. 

T.  erythrorhynchus  Petit  Calao  à bec  rouge.  Zone  2:  un  à Kouré,  23  juif  Zone  7:  un,  le 
long  de  la  piste  Agadez-Timia,  3 août. 

Emberiza  tahapisi  Bruant  cannelle.  Zone  7:  O.  Cette  espèce  très  commune  dans  le  sud 
irrigué  du  Niger  n’a  jamais  été  signalée  aussi  au  nord  dans  la  zone  désertique 
(Giraudoux  et  al.,  1988).  Toutes  les  observations  se  sont  déroulées  dans  un  milieu 
favorable  (amas  rocheux),  et  que  l’été  1998  a été  assez  humide. 

P.  melanocephalus  Tisserin  à tête  noire.  Zone  7:  O,  dans  les  buissons  épineux,  au 
fond  des  oueds  asséchés,  le  long  de  la  piste  Agadez-lférouane  (2-5  août). 

Bibliographie 

Dowsett,  R. J.  & Dowsett-Lemaire,  F.  (1993)  A Contribution  to  the  Distribution 
and  Taxonomy  of  Afrotropical  and  Malagasy  Birds.  Res.  Rep.  5,  Tauraco  Press, 

Liège. 

Giraudoux,  P.,  Degauquier,  R.,  Jones,  P. J.,  Weigel,  J.,  Isenmann,  P.  (1988) 
Avifaune  du  Niger:  états  des  connaissances  en  1986.  Malimbus  10:  1-140. 

Morel,  G J.  & Morel,  M.-Y.  (1990)  Les  Oiseaux  de  Sénégambie.  ORSTOM,  Paris. 
Sauvage,  A.  (1993)  Notes  complémentaires  sur  l’avifaune  du  Niger.  Malimbus  14: 
44-47. 

Reçu  1 1 mars  1999  Gabriel  Debout^  Peter  Meister^  & Marjolaine  Ventelon^ 

Revu  23  novembre  1999  '6  place  Reine  Mathilde,  14000  Caen,  France 

^12,  rue  du  Lunain,  75014  Paris,  France 
^16,  rue  du  Berger,  34000  Montpellier,  France 


Observations  d’un  nid  du  Coucal  noire  Centropm  monachus  et  attitude 
de  l’homme  face  à ses  oisillons  à Irangi,  République  Démocratique  du 
Congo 

Très  peu  de  données  ont  été  publiées  sur  le  Coucal  noire  Centropus  monachus,  qui  se 

rencontre  dans  les  territoires  congolais  seulement  de  la  forme  occidentalis 
(Schouteden  1957).  Prigogine  (1971)  signale  qu’il  se  reproduit  dans  la  zone  d’Irangi 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


89 


pendant  les  mois  d’avril  et  septembre  dans  le  marécage  et  qu’il  construit  son  nid  à 1.6 
m du  soi.  Il  habite  les  forêts  claires,  les  buissons  épais  et  les  milieux  marécageux 
(Guggisberg  1988,  Dowsett  1990).  Son  nid  est  placé  dans  un  buisson  couvert  près  ou 
au  dessus  de  l’eau  (Williams  & Arlott  1988).  En  outre,  le  matériel  utilisé  pour  le  nid, 
sa  forme  et  dimensions,  l’importance  de  la  ponte  et  l’incubation,  la  croissance  et  le 
développement  des  oisillons  ainsi  que  l’attitude  de  l’homme  face  à ses  oisillons  n’ont 
jusqu’à  présent  fait  l’objet  d’aucune  étude.  Les  observations  décrites  dans  cette  note 
contribuent  à combler  ces  lacunes. 

Irangi  (1°54'S,  28°27'E;  ait.  750-1 150  m)  a des  pluies  suffisantes  pendant  toute 
l’année,  entrecoupées  par  une  baisse  en  jan-fév.  La  température  annuelle  moyenne  est 
de  25®C  avec  de  faible  amplitude  tant  journalière  qu’annuelle.  C’est  une  localité 
couverte  par  la  forêt  tropicale  humide  comprennent  de  forêts  primaires  et  secondaires. 
On  trouve  aussi  des  Palmiers  d’huile  Biais  guineensis  et  les  boutures  de  Manioc 
Manihot  escuienta  germées  dans  les  champs  abandonnés.  La  population  autochtone 
est  constituée  par  les  Lega  et  les  Tembo. 

A Irangi,  C monachus  est  abondant  dans  les  broussailles,  les  forêts  claires,  les 
jachères  et  dans  les  touffes  d’herbes  autour  des  étangs  piscicoles,  seul  ou  par  couple,  à 
mis  hauteur  et  en  bas  de  la  végétation  (Prigogine  1971,  Wilson  & Catsis  1992, 
Kizungu  1996,  OBICO-Zaïre  1996).  J’ai  découvert  un  nid  de  l’espèce  dans  un  champ 
de  Manioc  à l’abandon  à Irangi,  le  22  déc  1994  (cf  période  de  reproduction  signalé 
par  Prigogine  1971).  Le  nid  était  placé  dans  les  buissons,  c.  20  cm  de  la  terre  ferme. 
Les  touffes  d’herbe  dans  lesquelles  le  nid  était  construit  étaient  de  Panicum  sp.  et 
Seîaria  sp.  (Poaceae).  Les  feuilles  de  Setaria  étaient  enroulées  dans  celles  de  Panicum 
et  avaient  leurs  racines  enfoncées  dans  le  sol.  La  partie  supérieure  était  utilisée  pour  le 
contour  du  nid  et  l’intérieure  était  tapissée  par  les  feuilles  mortes  de  Ficus  sp. 
(Moraceae).  L’intérieure  était  de  forme  conique  avec  les  dimensions  suivantes  (cm): 
profondeur  30;  grand  diamètre  24;  petit  diamètre  18.  Le  nid  était  situé  à 50  cm  au- 
dessus  du  sol  lors  de  sa  construction  (26  déc),  mais  l’augmentation  en  poids  des 
oisillons  et  la  fréquentation  régulière  du  nid  par  la  femelle  diminuaient  la  distance 
entre  le  nid  et  le  sol  jusqu’à  15  cm.  Lors  des  premières  observations  du  nid,  quatre 
oeufs  étaient  déjà  pondus  (cf  trois  signalés  par  Prigogine  1971,  Guggisberg  1988). 
Trois  oeufs  étaient  déjà  éclos  le  23  jan  1995,  quand  aucune  coquille  ni  oeuf  restant  fut 
observé.  A cette  date  les  oisillons  avaient  déjà  les  rémiges,  les  rectrices  et  le  duvet 
développés  sur  tout  le  corps  exception  faite  de  la  partie  supérieure  de  la  tête  où  le 
plumage  était  représenté  par  les  tigelles  de  0.5  cm.  Au  nid,  les  oisillons  avaient  leurs 
becs  en  position  centripète.  L’odeur  perceptible  au  nid  d’animaux  en  putréfaction, 
suggérait  que  la  nourriture  des  oisillons  était  composée  de  petits  vertébrés  (cf 
Guggisberg  1988).  Pour  accéder  au  nid,  la  femelle  se  déplace  lentement  dans  la 
végétation  herbacée  puis,  comme  le  nid  était  situé  bas,  elle  sautait  et  accédait  aux 
oisillons  par  le  trou  d’entrée. 

Il  existe  d’après  la  coutume  Lega,  une  considération  spéciale  qu’on  accorde  à cet 
oiseau  (Prigogine  1971).  Les  femmes  ne  doivent  pas  le  manger  et  les  hommes  doivent 


90 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


le  considérer  comme  For.  Lorsqu’il  trouve  un  nid  contenant  des  oisillons,  cas 
d’ailleurs  assez  rare,  un  homme  Lega  attachera  les  tarses  des  oisillons  par  une  corde  à 
un  support  solide  à l’extérieure  du  nid.  Aussitôt  que  les  oisillons  seront  prêts  à voler, 
leur  mère  cherchera  à couper  la  corde  avec  son  bec.  Les  petits  s’envolent  avec  la  mère 
et  la  corde  sera  récupérée  par  l’homme.  Alors,  pour  toute  affaire  judiciaire,  il  se 
munira  de  cette  corde  afin  d’être  rapidement  libéré  de  tout  procès  et  d’être  acquitté 
même  s’il  est  coupable.  J’ai  vu  ces  pratiques  quand,  le  25  jan,  j’ai  repassé  pour  la 
visite.  Malheureusement,  la  femelle  avait  déjà  déplacé  ses  oisillons.  Le  pisteur  Basubi 
était  très  déçu  car  la  corde  n’était  pas  encore  attachée  sur  les  tarses  des  oisillons. 

Bibliographie 

Dowsett,  RJ.  (ed.)  (1990)  Enquête  Floristique  et  Faunistique  dans  le  Forêt  de 
Nyungwe,  Rwanda.  Res.  Rep.  3,  Tauraco  Press,  Liège. 

Guggisberg,  C.A.W.  (1988)  Birds  of  East  Africa.  Non-passerines.  Sapra  Safari, 
Nairobi. 

Kizungu,  b.  (1996)  Inventaire  des  oiseaux  nuisibles  à l’agronomie  au  Sud-Kivu, 
Zaïre.  Tropicultura  3:  110-114. 

OBICO-ZaÏRE  (1996)  Biodiversité  et  Conservation  dans  la  Zone  Occidentale  du  Lac 
Kivu  (Est  du  Zaïre).  Rapport  non-publié  au  RSPB,  Sandy. 

Prigogine,  a.  (1971)  Les  oiseaux  de  l’Itombwe  et  de  son  hinterland.  Ann.  Mus.  Roy. 

Afr.  Centr.,  sér.  Sci.  zool.  185:  1--63. 

SCHOUTEDEN,  H.  (1957)  Faune  du  Congo  Belge  et  du  Ruanda-Urundi,  IV:  Oiseaux 
Passereaux  (I).  Musée  Royal  d’Afrique  Centrale,  Tervuren. 

Williams,  J.R.  & Arlott,  N.  (1988)  A Field  Guide  to  the  Birds  of  East  Africa. 
Collins,  Londres. 

Wilson,  J.R.  & Catsis,  M.C.  (1990)  A Preliminary  Survey  of  the  Forests  of  the 
Itombwe  Mountains  and  the  Kahuzi  Biega  National  Park  Extension,  East  Zaïre, 
July-September  1989.  Rapport  non-publié  à WWF,  FFPS  et  Institut  Zaïrois  pour 
la  Conservation  de  la  Nature. 

Reçu  1 juillet  1999  Byamana  Kizungu 

Revu  10  mai  2000  Labo,  d ’Ornithologie,  Dép.  de  Biologie, 

Centre  de  Recherche  en  Sciences  Naturelles  de  Lwiro, 
D.S.  Bukavu,  Sud-Kivu,  République  Démocratique  du  Congo 


Breeding  of  Swallow-tailed  Kite  Chelictmia  riocourii  in  Senegal 

On  20  Jan  2000,  Effoléming  Manga  and  Valentin  Mansaly  of  Parcs  Nationaux  du 
Sénégal  found  a colony  of  five  nests  of  Swallow-tailed  Kite  Chelictinia  riocourii  in  a 
small  group  of  low  trees  in  an  open  area  c.  1 km  from  the  fishing  village  of  Bassine, 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


91 


on  an  islet  in  the  Saloum  Delta,  Région  de  Fatick,  N Senegal  (13°56'N,  16°35'W). 
Also  present  were  one  nest  of  Black-shouldered  Kite  Eianus  caeruieus  and  one  of 
African  Scops  Owl  Otus  senegalensis.  All  these  nests  had  young. 

They  and  I visited  the  site  on  12  February,  by  which  time  there  was  just  one  nest 
of  Swallow-tailed  Kite  with  an  adult  brooding  large  young,  and  one  Black-shouldered 
Kite  brooding.  The  Swallow-tailed  Kite  left  the  nest  as  we  approached,  but  soon 
returned  and  brooded  throughout  our  period  of  observation,  30-45  min.  The  Scops 
had  fledged,  and  an  adult  and  one  young  were  roosting  nearby.  The  nests  were  about  5 
m from  the  ground,  in  trees  not  more  than  7 m high;  the  trees  spread  in  a narrow  belt 
about  100  m long.  Five  Swallow-tailed  and  two  Black-shouldered  Kites  were  flying 
around  close  by,  all  adults. 

There  is  one  previous  Swallow-tailed  Kite  breeding  record  for  Sénégal,  at 
Patakour,  Région  de  Kaffrine,  in  Feb  1992  (Savage  & Rodwell  1998). 

Reference 

Sauvage,  A.  & Rodwell,  S.P.  1998  Notable  observations  of  birds  in  Senegal 
(excluding  Parc  National  des  Oiseaux  de  Djoudj)),  1984^1 994.  Malimbus  20:  75- 
122. 

Received  6 April  2000  Michael  King 

16  Marsh  Road,  Rode,  Bath  BA3  6PE,  U.K. 


First  records  of  Tufted  fuUgula  in  Cameroon 

On  22  May  1999  at  17h00,  we  observed  two  diving  ducks  on  Lake  Petponoun  near 
Nkouden,  Western  Province  of  Cameroon  (5°37'70"N,  10°38'22"E).  They  were 
easily  identified  as  male  Tufted  Ducks  Aythya  fuligula,  by  their  small  size  with  short 
neck,  yellow  eyes  and  bluish  grey  bills,  with  rounded  heads  and  loose  crests.  The 
birds  were  black  with  white  side  panels  and  kept  jump-diving  and  bobbing  to  the 
surface.  We  spent  close  to  an  hour  watching  them.  They  shared  the  pond  with  Pygmy 
Goose  Nettapus  auritus.  Moorhen  GalUnula  chloropus  and  Lesser  Jacana  Microparra 
capensis.  When  we  visited  the  area  again,  one  month  later,  the  Tufted  Ducks  were  not 
seen. 

Tufted  Duck  is  a Palaearctic  migrant  to  N,  NE  and  W Africa,  south  to  the  equator 
(Brown  et  al  1997,  Moreau  1972).  There  are  several  records  from  Nigeria  (Elgood  et 
al.  1994)  and  Moreau  (1972)  recorded  60  individuals  on  Lake  Chad  in  February  1963. 
This  is  the  first  published  record  for  Cameroon  and  the  species  is  not  mentioned  by 
Louette  (1981).  However,  a female  has  also  been  observed  at  the  lake  of  Ngaoundaba 
Ranch  (7®8'N,  13°4rE),  Adamaoua  Province,  2-4  Dec  1995  (CJ.R.  Bowden  pers. 
comm.). 


92 


Short  Notes 


Malimbus  22 


References 

Brown  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & Newman,  K.  (1982)  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1. 
Academie  Press,  London. 

Elgood,  J.H.,  Heigham,  J.B.,  Moore,  A.M.,  Nason,  A.M.,  Sharland,  R.E.  & 
Skinner,  N.  J.  1994.  The  Birds  of  Nigeria.  Checklist  4,  British  Ornithologists’ 
Union,  Tring. 

Louette,  M.  (1981)  The  birds  of  Cameroon.  An  annotated  check-list.  Verhandel. 

Koninkl  Acad.  Wetensch.  Lett.  Schone  Kunst.  Belg.,  KL  Wetensch.  43:  1-295. 
Moreau,  R.E.  (1972)  The  Palaearctic- African  Bird  Migration  System.  Academic 
Press,  London. 

Received  12  May  2000 

Bobo  Kadiri  Sergej  Dennis  Anye  Ndeh^,  Kevin  Yana  Djabo^  & Lesi  Nayuoh^ 
'c/o  Birdlife  International,  P.O.  Box  6776  Yaounde,  Cameroon 

email:  birdlife@camnet.cm 
^Cameroon  Ornithological  Club,  P.O.  Box  3055  Messa  Yaounde,  Cameroon 

email:  birdlife@camnet.cm 


Status  of  the  Black  Stork  Ciconia  nigra  in  Ivory  Coast 

The  Black  Stork  Ciconia  nigra  breeds  in  the  Palaearctic  from  the  Iberian  peninsula  to 
SE  China  and  the  Sakhalin  peninsula,  to  about  60°N  (Hoyo  et  al.  1992);  a smaller 
breeding  population  is  found  in  southern  Africa  (Brown  1982).  The  Palaearctic 
population  migrates  to  Africa  annually  where  it  winters  mainly  in  E and  NE  Africa 
but  scarcely  south  of  the  equator  or  in  W Africa  (Brown  1982). 

Thiollay  (1985)  did  not  record  the  species  for  Ivory  Coast.  The  first  records  for 
the  country  were  made  from  a helicopter  flying  along  the  Comoé  River  in  an  area 
where  it  forms  the  border  between  Burkina  Faso  and  Ivory  Coast:  three  groups,  of 
four,  one  and  three  Black  Storks,  were  recorded  on  8 Feb  1989  (Walsh  1991).  The 
coordinates  of  the  observations  reveal  that  one  location  was  in  Burkina  Faso  (9®4rN, 
4°5rW),  one  exactly  on  the  border  between  Burkina  Faso  and  Ivory  Coast  (9°5'N, 
4°48'W),  and  one  in  Ivory  Coast  (9°5rN,  4°50'W).  Consequently,  Black  Stork  was 
listed  as  a vagrant  for  the  country  by  Dowsett  & Forbes-Watson  (1993),  who  also 
report  it  in  W Africa  as  a vagrant  from  Senegal,  Gambia,  Ghana,  Togo  and  Benin,  and 
as  a Palaearctic  migrant  from  Nigeria. 

The  next  record  from  Ivory  Coast  and  the  first  for  Comoé  National  Park  was  a 
Stork  that  had  been  equipped  with  a satellite  transmitter  in  Jul  1995  in  the  Czech 
Republic  (Brdy  Highlands,  Central  Bohemia).  After  wintering  in  Senegal  for  several 
months  the  bird  flew  south-east  and  spent  some  days  in  the  north-east  of  Comoé  NP  in 
Feb  1996  (9®20'N,  3°54'W),  before  returning  to  Europe.  A third  record  for  the 


2000 


Notes  Courtes 


93 


country  was  also  made  in  Comoé  National  Park  in  Dec  1997,  when  one  individual 
was  observed  flying  with  Woolly-necked  Storks  (Demey  1998). 

These  observations,  especially  that  of  several  groups  of  Storks  along  the  Comoé 
River  (Walsh  1991)  might  indicate  that  the  Black  Stork  is  a rare  Palaearctic  migrant  in 
Ivory  Coast  rather  than  a vagrant.  The  same  might  be  true  of  Senegal,  where  recent 
wintering  of  Black  Storks  in  the  country  was  proved  for  several  individuals  equipped 
with  satellite  transmitters  (Bobek  et  al.  1999). 

References 

Bobek,  M.,  Pojer,  F.,  Peske,  L.,  Smek  J.  & Petru,  J.  (1999)  The  African  odyssey 
project:  radiotracking  of  Black  Stork  Ciconia  nigra  migration.  P.  24  in  Inst,  for 
Avian  Res.,  “Vogelwarte  Helgoland”  (ed.)  Bird  ringing  100  Years. 
Vogelwarte  Helgoland,  Wilhelmshaven. 

Brown,  L.H.  (1982)  Ciconia  nigra.  Pp.  178-179  in:  Brown,  L.H.,  Urban,  E.K.  & 
New'MAN,  K.  (eds),  The  Birds  of  Africa,  vol.  1.  Academic  Press,  London. 

Demey,  R.  (1998)  Recent  Reports.  Bull  Afr.  Bird  Club  5:  142-146. 

Hoyo,  J.D.,  Elliot,  A.  & Sargatal,  J.  (1992)  Handbook  of  the  Birds  of  the  World, 
vol.  1 . Lynx,  Barcelona. 

TfflOLLAY,  J.M.  (1985)  The  birds  of  Ivory  Coast:  status  and  distribution.  Malimbus  7: 

1-59. 

Walsh,  J.F.  (1991)  On  the  occurrence  of  the  Black  Stork  Ciconia  nigra  in  West 
Africa.  Bull.  Brit.  Orn.  Club  111:  209-214. 

Received  7 April  2000 

Volker  Salewski',  Miroslav  Bobek^,  Lubomir  PeSke^  & FrantiSek  Pcjer"* 

’institut  fiir  Vogelforschung  “Vogelwarte  Helgoland”, 
An  der  Vogelwarte  21,  26386  Wilhelmshaven,  Germany 
^Czech  Radio,  Vinohradska  12,  120  99  Praha  2,  Czech  Republic 
^Slezska  43,  130  00  Praha  3,  Czech  Republic 
VaNahonu  57,  266  01  Beroun  2,  Czech  Republic 


94 


Malimbus  22 


Reviews  — Revues 


Rails.  A guide  to  the  rails,  crakes,  gallinules  and  coots  of  the  world.  By  B.  Taylor 
& B.  van  Perlo,  1998.  600  pp.  inch  43  col.  plates,  many  maps  and  line  drawings.  Pica 
Press,  Mountfield.  ISBN  1-873403-59-3,  hardback,  £35. 

This  is  a true  monograph  in  Pica  Press  style,  with  exhaustive  treatment  of  all  aspects  of 
the  biology  of  each  species,  over  1800  references  and  much  unpublished  information 
included.  At  the  same  time  it  is  a good  identification  guide  and  source  of  information  for 
conservation  planning,  and  is  embellished  with  thoughtful  touches,  such  as  every  species 
listed  individually  in  the  Contents,  with  text  and  plate  numbers  side  by  side. 

The  author  admits  that  much  is  repeated  from  his  accounts  in  the  Handbook  to  the 
Birds  of  the  World  (vol.  3,  J.  del  Hoyo  et  ai  1996,  Lynx,  Barcelona)  and,  in  fact,  the 
introductory  sections  are  pretty  much  word-for-word  identical.  However,  the 
Handbook  species  accounts  have  less  complete  descriptions,  voice,  moult  and 
behaviour  sections,  and  the  Handbook  does  not  treat  surely  or  probably  extinct 
species.  The  Handbook  plates  are,  to  my  eye,  better  than  those  in  the  present  work 
(van  Perlo’s  distinctive  style  often  results  in  odd  shapes),  but  include  fewer  juveniles. 

That  said,  the  introductory  sections  of  the  present  book,  on  phylogeny,  habitat, 
food,  behaviour,  breeding,  and  especially  flightlessness,  voice,  movements, 
conservation  and  extinction  are  fascinating.  Rail  voices  are  famously  varied  and 
striking,  including  “screams,  squeals,  trills,  whistles,  whines,  hoots,  moans,  booms, 
rattles,  clicking  and  ticking  notes,  snoring  noises,  humming  and  buzzing  sounds, 
trumpets,  roars,  grunts,  barks,  frog-like  croaks  and  snake-like  hisses”;  the  Aramides 
wood-rails  perhaps  take  the  prize  for  extremes,  with  “crazed-sounding  rollicking, 
popping  and  clicking  notes”  and  “congregating  ...  to  set  up  a deafening  chorus  of 
screams,  shrieks  and  wheezes”. 

Some  10%  of  rail  species  have  gone  extinct  since  1600,  all  of  them  island  species 
and  most  flightless.  One  of  the  most  absorbing  features  of  the  book  is  the  inclusion  of 
all  such  species,  most  of  them  given  full  treatment.  If  one  includes  prehistoric  anthro- 
pogenic extinctions,  many  islands  have  lost  up  to  80%  of  their  land  birds,  including 
1000-3000  rail  species  in  Oceania  alone.  Human-caused  loss  of  bird  life  may  amount 
to  20%  of  the  global  avifauna,  which,  with  the  thousands  of  plant  and  other  animal 
species  lost,  vividly  illustrates  the  current  biological  catastrophe  caused  by  man. 

The  author’s  main  interest  is  the  African  flufftails  Sarothrura,  and  much  of  the 
recent  information  on  them  derives  from  his  own  studies.  His  love  of  the  family 
shines  through,  however,  in  the  treatment  of  all  species,  which  is  uniformly  excellent. 
The  book  is  a masterpiece. 


Alan  Tye 


2000 


Revues 


95 


Owls.  A guide  to  the  owls  of  the  world.  By  C.  Konig,  F.  Weick  and  J.-H.  Becking, 
1999.  462  pp.,  64  colour  plates.  Pica  Press,  Mountfield.  ISBN  1-873403-74-7. 
Hardback,  £35. 

This  substantial  work  from  Pica  Press  follows  a similar  format  to  its  other  recent 
volumes  (see  above).  An  introduction  to  owl  biology  is  followed  by  a guest  chapter 
by  M.  Wink  and  P.  Heidrich  on  molecular  evolution  and  systematics.  The  bulk  of  the 
book  is  devoted  to  species  accounts  and  colour  plates. 

Some  212  species  of  owls  are  described.  This  compares  with  205  in  the  recently 
published  Handbook  of  the  Birds  of  the  World  (HBW)  vol.  5 (J.  del  Hoyo  et  ai  1999, 
Lynx,  Barcelona)  and  151  species  in  Boyer  & Hume’s  1991  Owls  of  the  World 
(Dragon’s  World,  Surrey).  From  where  have  all  these  new  species  appeared?  Many 
are  scops  owls  Scops  or  screech  owls  Otus.  Some  are  newly  discovered  but  others 
represent  the  elevation  of  former  subspecies  to  species  level.  The  authors  state  that 
they  have  used  the  biological  species  concept,  with  new  splits  based  on  new 
knowledge  of  vocalisations  and  phylogenetic  studies  based  on  mitochondrial  DNA. 

The  64  colour  plates  are  an  important  feature  of  the  book,  depicting  all  species, 
distinct  subspecies,  colour  morphs  and,  for  some  species,  juvenile  plumage. 
Illustrations  of  owls  in  flight  are  also  given  for  some  species.  This  results  in  about 
twice  as  many  illustrations  as  on  the  20  larger  plates  in  HBW.  The  latter  however 
wins  out  in  its  much  greater  coverage  of  natural  history  and  stunning  colour 
photographs  in  its  introductory  sections.  The  plates  are  of  typical  field  guide  style  and 
although  most  are  excellent  they  are  not  so  artistically  satisfying  as  those  of  Boyer. 
One  discrepancy  I noticed  was  that  Vermiculated  Fishing  Owl  Scotopelia  bouvieri  is 
correctly  illustrated  with  brown  eyes  but  the  facing  text  describes  these  as  yellow. 

Each  species  account  presents  information  subdivided  under  the  headings 
identifi-cation,  vocalisations,  distribution,  movements,  habitat,  description, 
measurements  and  weight,  geographical  variation,  habits,  food,  breeding,  status  and 
conservation,  remarks  and  references  and  includes  a distribution  map.  Some 
corrections  to  these  maps  are  included  as  an  errata  slip  but,  as  in  The  Birds  of  Africa 
voL  3 (Fry  et  al.  1988,  Academic  Press,  London)  and  HBW,  Nigeria  is  omitted  from 
the  range  of  Vermiculated  Fishing  Owl  despite  four  published  records  (J.H.  Elgood 
1982,  The  Birds  of  Nigeria,  BOU,  London).  Recent  reports  (A.  Turk,  Bull.  Afr.  Bird 
Club  in  press)  suggest  that  a healthy  population  of  the  species  remains  near 
Agenbode,  Nigeria. 

The  authors  place  the  Itombwe  (CongoBay)  Owl  in  the  genus  Tyto,  considering 
this  species  to  be  more  similar  to  other  Tyto  than  to  Phodilus.  The  taxonomic 
treatment  for  other  African  owls  found  here  parallels  that  in  HBW  and  differs  from 
The  Birds  of  Africa,  in  that  specific  status  is  given  to  African  Scops  Owl  Otus 
senegalensis.  Pharaoh  Eagle  Owl  Bubo  ascalaphus,  Vermiculated  Eagle  Owl  B. 
cinerascens.  Red-chested  Owlet  Glaucidium  castaneum  and  Abyssinian  Long-eared 
Owl  Asio  abyssinicus.  White-faced  Scops  Owls  are  placed  in  Ptilopsis  with  leucotis 


96 


Reviews 


Malimbus  22 


and  granti  treated  as  separate  species  on  the  grounds  of  vocal  differences  and  DNA 
evidence.  These  taxa  are  morphologically  very  similar  to  each  other  and  it  is 
disappointing  that  the  basis  for  this  decision  is  not  fully  presented.  However  this  and 
similar,  sometimes  controversial,  taxonomic  decisions  should  prompt  further  research 
on  species  and  species  boundaries  in  owls. 

There  are  frequent  references  in  the  “remarks”  sections  of  the  species  accounts  to 
species  differences  being  deduced  from  differences  in  vocalisations  yet,  contra  HBW, 
the  Usambara  (Nduk)  Eagle  Owl  Bubo  poensis  vosseleri  which  is  larger,  darker  and 
elsewhere  noted  to  differ  vocally  from  other  populations,  is  cautiously  not  given 
specific  status.  I look  forward  to  the  accompanying  CD  of  owl  vocalisations,  which  is 
to  be  published  separately,  but  regret  the  lack  of  sonograms  that  in  many  instances 
would  have  greatly  enhanced  the  systematic  text. 

The  book  is  good  value  for  £35,  especially  so  because  of  the  wealth  of  colour 
illustrations.  Although  those  with  a general  interest  in  owls  may  already  have  been 
catered  for  by  HBW,  this  volume  will  prove  an  essential  additional  reference  for 
many  owl  enthusiasts. 


Roger  Wilkinson 


Instructions  aux  Auteurs 


44j 

ir 

Malimbus  publie  des  Articles,  des  Notes  Courtes,  des  Revues  de  Livres,  des  Informations,  des 
Nouvelles  & Lettres  et  des  illustrations  traitant  de  l’ornithologie  ouest-africaine.  Les  Articles  et  les 
Notes  Courtes  doivent  être  des  apports  originaux;  ceux  déjà  publiés  ailleurs,  en  partie  ou  en  totalité, 
seront  normalement  refusés.  Les  Notes  Courtes  sont  des  articles  de  moins  de  1500  mots  (références 
comprises)  ou  de  trois  pages  imprimées.  Autant  que  possible,  les  manuscrits  auront  été  auparavant 
soumis  au  moins  à un  ornithologue  ou  biologiste  pour  un  examen  minutieux.  Les  manuscrits  seront 
envoyés  pour  critique  à au  moins  un  jécteur  compétent.  Les  textes  des  Nouvelles  & Lettres  ne 
devraient  dépasser  1000  mots. 

Les  textes  sont  acceptés  en  anglais  et  en  français;  la  Rédaction  pourra  aider  les  auteurs  dont 
la  langue  maternelle  n’est  pas  l'une  de  celles-ci.  Les  textes  soumis  seront  tapés  en  deux 
exemplaires,  d’un  seul  côté  de  la  page,  avec  double  interligne  et  larges  marges.  Les  auteurs  ne 
doivent  pas  envoyer  une  disquette  en  même  temps  que  l’article  quMls  soumettent,  mais  sont  priés 
d’indiquer  s’ils  peuvent  adresser  une  disquette  ou  une  copie  e-mail  au  cas  où  leur  article  serait 
accepté.  Les  disquettes  seront  retournées  aux  auteurs.  Consultez  l’Éditeur  pour  tout  détail 
supplémentaire,  p.  exiles  logiciels  compatibles. 

Les  conventions  concernant  les  tableaux,  les  chiffres,  le  système  métrique,  les  références,^rc. 
peuvent  être  trouvées  dans  ce  numéro  et  doivent  être  soigneusement  suivies.  Notez  en  particulier 
que  les  dates  s’abrègeront  comme  2 fév  1990  mais  dans  un  texte  pourront  s’écrire  en  entier;  que  les 
heures  s’écriront  comme  6h45, 17h00;  que  les  coordonnées  s’écriront  comme  7°46'N,  16®4'W;  que 
les  nombres  jusqu’à  dix  s’écriront  en  entier,  excepté  devant  une  unité  de  mesure  (p.  ex.  6 m),  que 
les  nombres  à partir  de  11  s’écriront  en  chiffres  sauf  au  début  d’une  phrase.  Toute  référence  citée 
dans  l’article,  et  aucune  autre,  doit  figurer  dans  la  bibliographie. 

Les  articles  d’avifaune  doivent  comprendre  une  carte  ou  une  liste  des  localités  citées.  Ils 
devraient  donner  quelques  détails  sur  le  climat,  la  topographie,  la  végétation  et  l’envîronnement  (y 
compris  les  événements  inhabituels)  avant  ou  durant  l’étude  (p.  ex.  pluies  tardives,  etc).  Les  listes 
d’espèces  ne  devraient  contenir  que  des  données  importantes:  les  listes  complètes  ne  sont  justifiées 
que  pour  les  régions  encore  non  étudiées  ou  délaissées  pendant  longtemps.  Autrement,  ne  citer  que 
les  espèces  sur  lesquelles  l’étude  fournit  de  nouveaux  faits  sur  la  répartition,  la  période  de  séjour,  la 
reproduction,  etc.  Pour  chaque  espèce,  indiquer  le  statut  migratoire,  la  période  de  séjour  (telle 
qu’elle  ressort  de  l’étude),  l’extension  de  l’aire,  une  estimation  d’abondance  {Malimbus  17;  38)  et 
les  données  datées  sur  la  reproduction.  Eventuellement,  replacez  les  faits  dans  le  contexte  en  les 
comparant  brièvement  avec  une  liste  régionale  de  référence.  Les  longues  listes  d’espèces  devraient 
être  sous  forme  de  tableaux  (p.  qx.  Malimbus  12:  39-51,  1:  22-28,  ou  1: 49-54)  ou  sous  forme  de 
texte  des  derniers  numéros  (p.  ex.  Maîimbus  12:  19-24,  12:  61-86,  13:  49-66,  16:  10-29).  La 
séquence  taxonomique  et  les  noms  scientifiques  (et  de  préférence  aussi  les  noms  vernaculaires) 
devraient  suivre  Dowsett  & Fôrbes-Watson  (1993,  Checklist  of  Birds  of  the  Afrotropical  and 
Malagasy  Regions,  Tauraco  Press,  Liège)  ou  The  Birds  of  Africa  (Brown  et  al.  1982,  Urban  et 
a/.1986,  1997,  Fry  et  al  1988,  Keith  et  al.  1992,  Academic  Press,  London),  à moins  de  donner  les 
raisons  de  s’écarter  de  ces  auteurs.  Un  guide  plus  complet  aux  auteurs  d’articles  sur  l’avifaune, 
comprenant  une  notation  d’abondance  des  espèces  la  plus  conseillée,  est  publié  dans  Malimbus  17: 
35-39.  On  peut  en  obtenir  une  copie  de  la  Rédaction,  qui  se  fera  aussi  un  plaisir  d’offrir  ses  conseils 
sur  la  présentation  de  ce  genre  d’études. 

Les  figures  doivent  être  préparées  pour  une  reproduction  directe,  permettant  une  réduction  de 
20-50%;  on  se  servira  d’encre  de  chine  sur  papier  blanc  de  bonne  qualité  ou  calque  épais  et  de 
caractères  Letraset  (ou  équivalent)  selon  le  cas.  Les  diagrammes  obtenus  par  programmes 
informatisés  autres  que  logiciels  graphiques  et  sur  imprimantes  autres  que  laser  sont  rarement  de 
qualité  acceptable.  Pour  le  dessin  des  Figures,  tenir  compte  du  format  de  Malimbus. 

Tous  les  Articles  (mais  non  les  Notes  Courtes)  comporteront  un  Résumé,  n’excédant  pas  5% 
de  la  longeur  totale.  Le  Résumé  mentionnera  brièvement  les  principaux  résultats  et  conclusions  de 
l’Article  et  ne  sera  pas  un  simple  compte  rendu  du  travail.  Les  résumés  seront  publiés  à la  fois  en 
anglais  et  en  français  et  seront  traduits  au  mieux  par  la  Rédaction. 

Dix  tirés-à-part  des  Articles  (mais  non  des  Notes  courtes)  seront  envoyés  gratis  à l’auteur  ou  à 
l’auteur  principaJ.  Les  tirés-à-part  ne  seront  ni  agrafés,  ni  reliés  ou  recouverts;  ce  sont  de  simples 
extraits  de  la  revue. 


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Malimbus  22(2)  September  2000 
Contents  — Table  des  Matières 


Kordofan  Bush  Lark  Mirafra  cordofanica  and  Desert  Lark 

Ammomanes  deserti,  additions  to  the  avifauna  of  Burkina  Faso^ 

L.  Fishpool)  G.  Oueda  & P.  Compaoré 
The  birds  of  Comoé  National  Park,  Ivory  Coast. 

V.  Salewski 

Noteworthy  records  from  Ginak  Island,  The  Gambia. 

M.  King 


Short  Notes  — Notes  Courtes 

Olive-bellied  Sunbird  Nectarinia  chloropygia  host  to  Cassin’s 
Honeybird  Prodotiscus  insignis.  M.  Waltert  & K.  Faber 
Notes  complémentaires  sur  Pavifaune  du  Niger. 

G.  Debout,  P.  Meister  & M.  Ventelon 
Observations  d’un  nid  du  Coucal  noire  Centropus  monachus  et 
attitude  de  Phomme  face  à ses  oisillons  à Irangi,  République 
Démocratique  du  Congo.  B.  Kizungu 
. Breeding  of  Swallow-tailed  Kite  Chelictinia  riocourii 

in  Senegal.  M.  King  O 

First  records  of  Tufted  Duck  Aythya  fuligula  in  Cameroon. 

B.K.  Serge,  D.A.  Ndeh,  K.Y.  Djabo  & L.  Nayuoh 
Status  of  the  Black  Stork  Ciconia  nigra  in  Ivory  Coast. 

V.  Salewski,  M.  Bobek,  L.  Pe§ke  & F.  Pojer 

Reviews  — Revues 


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